psych 1000 - chapter 9 & 11

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developmental psychology

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Psychology

101 Terms

1

developmental psychology

study how people change over the lifespan

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2

maturation

changes that appear to be learned but are part of cognitive physical development

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3

example of maturation

sitting up and rolling over

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4

cognitive development

how do we think

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5

socioemotional development

social interactions + emotional control relationships and feelings

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6

critical period

maximally sensitive to environmental influence

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7

example of critical period

being exposed to people speaking as a baby

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8

continuity

change gradually

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9

stages

change abruptly

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10

behavioral genetics

address how much is inherited vs. learned

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11

biopsychosocial perspective

combines all perspectives

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12

cross-sectional

measures groups of people of different ages at a single point in time

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13

longitudinal

measures a single group at different points in time

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14

cross-sequential

measures groups of people of different ages following them across different points in time

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15

chromosome

thread-like coiled chain of DNA (one molecule)

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16

gene

small segments of DNA; code for proteins

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17

germinal period

0-2 wks; rapid cell division

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18

embryonic period

3-8 wks; start to look humanist

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19

sensitive period

are influenced by environment but changes can sometimes be reversed

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20

teratogens

irreversible changes on structure

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21

fetal period

9 wks to birth; teratogens affect function at this stage

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22

Brain vs. body

Brain develops much faster than body

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23

pruning

trimming brain branches not needed

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24

infantile amnesia

hippocampus isn't developed until age 3 or 4

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25

Piaget

stages of cognitive development

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26

sensorimotor (birth-2 yrs)

sensing and manipulating schemas-assimilation, accommodation; cognitive equilibrium; object permanence; theory of mind; stranger anxiety

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27

theory of mind

allows us to infer that other people have intentions, feelings, and thoughts

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28

pre operational (2-7 yrs)

symbolic pre logical thought; egocentrism; conservation

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29

example of conservation

little boy picking which glass has more

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30

egocentrism

unable to see the world through someone else's mind

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31

concrete operational (7-11 yrs)

logical thought limited through concrete reality; can't think hypothetically or abstractly

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32

example of concrete operational

finding out Santa Claus ins't real

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33

formal operational (11+yrs)

abstract and hypothetical thinking; moral reasoning; may be limited to areas of expertise or special interest

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34

temperament

inborn emotional excitability

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35

attachment

emotional bond between infant and caregiver

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36

harry harlow

discovered the role of contact comfort and food in attachment through monkeys

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37

mary ainsworth

created the strange situation test for child and mother

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38

secure attachment

explore and use mom as base mildly upset when mom leaves

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39

avoidant attachment

explore but avoid mom+stranger no response when mom leaves

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40

ambivalent attachment

not decided one way or another baby clings to mom and doesn't explore severe distress when mom leaves and hard to comfort when she comes back

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41

erik erickson

psychosocial stages of development

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42
  1. infant (birth to 1 year old)

trust vs. mistrust

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43
  1. toddler (1 to 3 years old)

autonomy vs. shame and doubt

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44
  1. preschool age (3 to 5 years old)

initiative vs. guilt

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45
  1. elementary school age (5-12 years old

industry vs. inferiority

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46
  1. adolescence (13 to early 20s)

identity vs. role confusion

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47
  1. early adulthood (20s and 30s)

intimacy vs. isolation

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48
  1. middle adulthood (40s and 50s)

generatively vs. stagnation

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49
  1. late adulthood (60s and beyond)

ego integrity vs. despair

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50

lawrence kolberg

three levels of morality

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51

preconventional morality (up to 9 yrs)

external consequences based on punishers and rewards rules not yet internalized

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52

conventional morality

conformity to social influence seek social approval have now internalized these rules

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post conventional morality

determined by experiences and judgment may not be in agreement with the law guided by internalized ideals

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54

authoritarian

high in control; low in responsiveness results in fearful child with low self esteem and bad school performance

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55

permissive neglectful

low in control; low in responsiveness results in aggressive, impulsive and insecurely attached child with low school motivation and disturbed relationships

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permissive indulgent

low in control; responsive to child warm and accepting but no rules results in an immature, self-centered child

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authoritative

high in control; high in responsiveness results in cheerful, socially competent child with higher self esteem, self control, and better school outcomes best style

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58

crystalized intelligence

facts/general knowledge

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59

fluid intelligence

practice/experience/problem solving/abstract thinking declines with age

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60

personality

unique and relatively stable of how you think, feel, and behave

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61

character

value judgement about morality

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62

temperament

inborn excitability

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63

psychodynamic perspective

personality develops early in life

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64

sigmund freud

sex and aggression

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65

free association

try to get "patient" to talk

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66

catharsis

reduction of tension

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67

id

irrational, illogical, impulsive dimension of personality

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68

ego

rational, playful, mediating dimension of personality

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69

superego

moralistic, judgmental, perfectionist dimension of personality

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70

repression

pushes anxiety arousing impulses into unconscious ex: sexual abuse

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71

displacement

impulses redirected toward a safer substitute ex: kicking the dog after being angry at your boss

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sublimation

impulses released in a socially acceptable behavior ex: DaVinci's "Madonnas" reflecting desire for mother

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rationalization

justifying actions with a false buy plausible explanation ex: cheating on wife because she doesn't understand you

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74

projection

attributes one's own unacceptable impulses onto others' behavior ex: female accuses coworker of flirting

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75

denial

refusal to acknowledge anxiety-provoking info ex: having a terminal illness

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76

identification

modeling feelings and behaviors based on another person ex: during the phallic stage

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77

reaction formation

exaggerated expression of the opposite behavior ex: young boys teasing girls

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78

regression

retreating to an earlier, more infantile stage ex: sucking thumb

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79

compensation

substitute superiority in one are to make up for a perceived deficit ex: man drives expensive sports car

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80

freud's psychosexual stages

older adults probably lack genitals

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81

oral stage

pleasure through mouth

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82

anal stage

potty training

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83

phallic stage

fully developed personality sexual urges

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84

latency period

dormant sexual urges

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85

genital stage

adulthood begins

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86

erik erikson

crisis rather than conflict psychosocial stages

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87

alfred adler

Childs struggle to overcome feelings of inferiority

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88

carl jung

common reservoir of images from universal experience

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89

karen horney

balance masculine view

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90

validity

accuracy

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91

reliability

consistency

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92

interrater

consistency among different testers

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93

humanistic perspective

reaching true human potential

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94

abraham maslow

hierarchy of needs

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95

carl rogers

person-centered perspective genuine, accepting, empathetic

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96

social-cognitive perspective

social influences and mental processes affect personality

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97

locus of control

where control emanates from internal vs. external

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98

halo effect

interpret future behavior through assumptions from first meeting

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trait perspective

current traits predict behaviors

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100

psychoticism

cold and hostile

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