ANS 001 Midterm 2

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What is the top dairy state in the U.S.?

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263 Terms

1

What is the top dairy state in the U.S.?

California has the highest overall annual milk production

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2

What is the number one agricultural commodity in California?

Milk

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3

Do dairy cattle tend to be crossbred?

Generally purebreds

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4

What kind of operation is the dairy industry?

Intensive, or more confined, operation

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5

What is the most common method for breeding dairy cattle?

Artificial Insemination

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6

What are the breeds of dairy cattle?

Holstein, Jersey, Guernsey, Brown Swiss, Ayrshire, Milking Shorthorn

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Holstein Cattle (Dairy)

  • The majority of dairy cattle in the US

  • Black and white (but can also be red and white)

<ul><li><p>The majority of dairy cattle in the US</p></li><li><p>Black and white (but can also be red and white)</p></li></ul>
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Jersey Cattle (Dairy)

  • Very light gray or mouse color to very dark fawn or darker

<ul><li><p>Very light gray or mouse color to very dark fawn or darker</p></li></ul>
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Guernsey Cattle (Dairy)

  • Light red or fawn-colored with white

<ul><li><p>Light red or fawn-colored with white</p></li></ul>
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Brown Swiss Cattle (Dairy)

  • Originally developed in the Swiss Alps

  • Triple purpose breed (milk, meat, draft

<ul><li><p>Originally developed in the Swiss Alps</p></li><li><p>Triple purpose breed (milk, meat, draft</p></li></ul>
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Ayrshire Cattle (Dairy)

  • Solid gray or brown with light-colored band around muzzle

<ul><li><p>Solid gray or brown with light-colored band around muzzle</p></li></ul>
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Milking Shorthorn Cattle (Dairy)

  • Dual-purpose breed

  • Red and white, or roan

<ul><li><p>Dual-purpose breed</p></li><li><p>Red and white, or roan</p></li></ul>
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13

Dairy Cattle Production Cycle

knowt flashcard image
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14

Dairy Cattle Lactation Period

305 days

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15

Dairy Cattle Dry Period

45-60 days

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16

How many times do dairy cows calf a year?

Preferabll

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17

Dry Cow

A cow that is not producing milk

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Fresh Cow

A cow that has recently given birth to a calf

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19

Springer

  • A heifer within 2-3 months of calving

  • Her belly and udder are “springing” into shape

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20

California Mastitis Test (CMT)

To check for clinical mastitis, milk from each t will be put into a paddle with different sections. A small amount of the test reagant is added to the milk. If the milk is positive, it’ll become become a jelly-like substance, if not the consistency will remain the same.

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21

What does gel formation mean in the California Mastitis Test?

The degree of gel formation is an indication of the leucocyte count of the milk

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22

Scours

Diarrhea in calves

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23

Anatomy of Dairy Cattle

knowt flashcard image
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Udder Anatomy

The udder consists of four “quarters. The udder is suspected by a medial suspensory ligament. Milk is removed from teats. Epithelial cells lining the alveoli (grape-like structures) secrete milk into the hollow lumen of each alveolus. Groups of alveoli are referred as lobules. Groups of lobules are called lobes. Milk travels from the lumen of the alveoli to the gland cistern, then can be removed from the teat cistern.

<p>The udder consists of four “quarters. The udder is suspected by a medial suspensory ligament. Milk is removed from teats. Epithelial cells lining the alveoli (grape-like structures) secrete milk into the hollow lumen of each alveolus. Groups of alveoli are referred as lobules. Groups of lobules are called lobes. Milk travels from the lumen of the alveoli to the gland cistern, then can be removed from the teat cistern.</p>
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25

Breeding Cycle of Dairy Cattle

  1. Puberty: Heifers 9-14 months; Bulls 10-12 months

  2. Estrous Cycle: 21 days (19-23)

  3. Estrus: Lasts 2.5-28 hours

  4. Signs of Heat: Stands to be mounted, may mount other cows, highly vocal, nervousness, mucus discharge from vulva

  5. Gestation: 281 days average

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26

What do dairy cattle rations consist of?

  • Roughages (hay, silages, pasture)

  • Concentrates (corn, whole cottonseed)

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27

What are dry cows fed?

Hay or allowed to graze on fresh pasture

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28

Bloat

  • Not an actual disease but can cause widespread discomfort and death

  • Sign: swelling to abnormal proportions of the left side of the animal

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29

What feeds produce bloat in ruminant animals?

  • Legume pastures

  • Alfalfa hay

  • High-concentrate feeds

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30

Solutions for Bloat

  • Encouraging the animal to work

  • Passing a tube down the esophagus

  • Last Resort: puncture the rumen using a tocar

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Milk Fever

Occurs shortly after calving due to a deficiency of calcium brought on by the rapid demand for milk production

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32

What is California leading in?

The most for dairy goats

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33

What is Texas leading in?

The most for meat and mohair goats

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34

List the dairy goat breeds.

Alpine, Nubian, Saanen, Toggenburg, La Mancha, Oberhasli

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35

List the meat goat breeds.

Boer

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36

List the hair goat breeds.

Angora

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37

Alpine Goat (Dairy)

  • Erect ears

  • White, gray, brown, and black coat mixtures

<ul><li><p>Erect ears</p></li><li><p>White, gray, brown, and black coat mixtures</p></li></ul>
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38

Nubian Goat (Dairy)

  • Long, droopy ears

  • Roman nose

  • Black and tan mix coat color

<ul><li><p>Long, droopy ears</p></li><li><p>Roman nose</p></li><li><p>Black and tan mix coat color</p></li></ul>
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39

Saanen Goat (Dairy)

  • Erect ears

  • Usually white

<ul><li><p>Erect ears</p></li><li><p>Usually white</p></li></ul>
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40

Toggenburg Goat (Dairy)

  • Erect ears

  • Body smaller in size than other breeds

  • Shade of brown with white stripes down face

  • May have beard

<ul><li><p>Erect ears</p></li><li><p>Body smaller in size than other breeds</p></li><li><p>Shade of brown with white stripes down face</p></li><li><p>May have beard</p></li></ul>
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41

La Mancha Goat (Dairy)

  • Short or no ear flaps

  • Any color of combination of colors

<ul><li><p>Short or no ear flaps </p></li><li><p>Any color of combination of colors</p></li></ul>
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42

Oberhasli Goat (Dairy)

  • Erect ears

  • Color ranging from a light sandy tone to deep, reddish brown

  • Black stripes on face and from base of each ear connecting to a dorsal stripe

<ul><li><p>Erect ears</p></li><li><p>Color ranging from a light sandy tone to deep, reddish brown</p></li><li><p>Black stripes on face and from base of each ear connecting to a dorsal stripe</p></li></ul>
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43

Boer Goat (Meat)

  • Lop ears

  • White with a red/brown head

<ul><li><p>Lop ears</p></li><li><p>White with a red/brown head</p></li></ul>
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44

Angora Goat (Hair)

  • Raised for mohair

  • Dual purpose breed (hair and meat)

<ul><li><p>Raised for mohair</p></li><li><p>Dual purpose breed (hair and meat)</p></li></ul>
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45

What are dairy goats’ lactation period?

Can range from about 230 days to 20 months

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46

Buck

Mature, intact male goat

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47

Doe

Mature female goat

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Kid

Young goat

  • Female - doeling

  • Male - buckling/buck kid

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49

Wether

Castrated male goat

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50

Anatomy of Dairy Goat

knowt flashcard image
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51

Dairy Goat Breeding Cycle

  • Puberty: 120 days - 1 year

  • Estrous Cycle: 21 days (19-23)

  • Seasonally Polyestrous: Late Summer to early Fall or late Fall to early Winter

    • Starting 60 days after the longest day of the year

  • Signs of Heat

    • Standing to be mounted

    • Swollen, red vulva and mucus discharge

    • Bleating

    • Shaking of tail

  • Gestation: 150 days

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52

How are dairy goats bred?

  • Hand-Mating: bringing the doe to the buck for a single service only (typical method)

  • A.I. is also used

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53

What does a lactating doe’s nutrition consist of?

  • High-quality roughage: high-quality alfalfa hay (or pasture)

  • Concentrate feed: corn, oats, barley, wheat bran, soybean meal, cottonseed meal

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54

What does a dry doe’s nutrition consist of?

  • Good-quality roughage alone

  • Or Mixed with concentrates if poorer quality

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55

Diseases Goats are Prone To

  • Pneumonia

    • Cause: Viral and bacterial agents that infect the lungs due to stressors (weaning, transport, or poor quality)

    • Symptoms: fever along with coughing

  • Coccidiosis

    • Cause: Species specific protozoa called “coccidia” that are present in every animal and in the environment

    • Symptoms: diarrhea, poor growth, rough coat, loss of appetite

    • Solutions: Coccidiostats (additives in feed, not antibiotics)

  • Clostridial Disease

    • Type C (bloody scours), Type D (pulpy kidney or overeating disease), and Type D (tetanus) are deadly in goats

    • Solutions: Can be vaccinated and immunity can be passed down from a doe to her kid for up to 8 weeks after kidding

    • Symptoms: C - diarrhea; D - uncoordinated movements; T - rigidness

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56

Who are the largest producers of beef?

China and Brazil

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57

What is the dental formula for cattle?

0/4, 0/0, 3/3, 3/3

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58

What animal has the same dental formula as cattle?

Sheep

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59

What is the dental retention in cattle?

  1. Incisor pair 1, erupts at 1.5-2 years

  2. Incisor pair 2, erupts at 2.5-3 years

  3. Incisor pair 3, erupts at 3.5-5 years

  4. Incisor pair 4, erupts at 4.5-5 years

  5. By 5 years, everything is in tact

  6. After 6 years, cattle progressively lose their teeth

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Colostrum

First milk coming from cow to calf that has a high concentration of antibodies (ie. Passive Transfer → Passive Immunity)

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How are antibodies created?

Immune cells create antibodies from contracting illnesses or fighting the pathogens in vaccines

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62

What happens during the first 12-24 hours of a calf’s life?

  1. “Leaky System” - digestive system readily absorbs anything the calf consumes

  2. Reticular Groove - milk by passes the rumen via the R. groove

  3. Abomasum - milk quickly passes through

  4. Small Intestine - antibodies get absorbed into the bloodstream

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63

What happens around the time the calf gets weaned?

  1. The calf progressively starts to eat more and more roughage

  2. Microbes start accumulating in the rumen

  3. The rumen gradually becomes an active intestine in the calf’s digestive system

    1. The length and size of the papillae increases

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64

What is the purpose of feedlots?

To increase production of beef cattle by making their tissue develop faster

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65

How do feedlots make beef cattle develop faster?

  • Access to high quality feedstuffs

    • Corn → Starch → Carbs → ↑ Energy

  • Typically closer to processing plants

  • Ad libitum: “As much as you can eat”

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66

What is the ADG of beef cattle in feedlots?

1.5-2.0 kg/day

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67

Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR)

Amount Gained/Amount Fed = FRC x

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68

How do cattle release methane into the atmosphere?

Consume Forages → Rumen → Anaerobic → Microbes → Methane → Burped Out

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69

How is the production of methane being reduced in cattle?

  • Fed monensins

    • Decrease the amount of protozoa (microbes) in the rumen

    • Exs: Seaweed & other chemicals

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70

What blood categories are horses categorized into?

Hotbloods, Warmbloods, Coldbloods

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71

What are the colors of horses?

  • Bay: brown body with black mane, tail, and lower legs

  • Black: no brown areas, including on the muzzle/flanks

  • Chestnut: a red horse with a mane and tail close to the same shade as the body

  • White: born white and stays white throughout life, has pink skin

  • Gray: born any color, gradually graying until completely white, has black skin

  • Buckskin: yellow body with black mane, tail, and legs.

  • Palomino: golden color body with light mane and tail

  • Overo: a color pattern. White will not cross the back between the withers and tail, white spots are irregular or splashy, tail is generally one color

  • Tobiano: a color pattern. Head markings are like those of a solid-colored horse, spots are often rounded, tail is frequently two colors

  • Roan: white hairs intermingled with one or more basic coat colors

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72

What are some of the major gaits (the ways they walk) of horses?

  • Walk: a four-beat gait; all four feet strike the ground independently of one another. The sequence of the hoof beats is 1) left hind, 2) left fore, 3) right hind), 4) right fore

  • Trot: a two-beat gait; each pair of diagonal feet hit and leave the ground in unison. All four feat are suspended off the ground between beats.

  • Gallop: a four-beat gait; if the lead is the left,

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73

List the light horse breeds.

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74

What are the purpose of light horse breeds?

Generally used for riding, racing, or driving

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75

Thoroughbred Horse

  • Excel at racing, polo, hunter-jumper, etc…

  • Known for their fineness of conformation, high withers, and straight, long, well-muscled legs, and slight slope of croup

<ul><li><p>Excel at racing, polo, hunter-jumper, etc…</p></li><li><p>Known for their fineness of conformation, high withers, and straight, long, well-muscled legs, and slight slope of croup</p></li></ul>
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76

Quarter Horse

  • Most popular breed in the U.S.

  • Used as a stock horse, for racing, and pleasure riding

  • Can sprint short distances faster than any other breed

  • Well-muscled, with small ears, wide-set eyes and sloping shoulder, with a broad chest and hindquarters

<ul><li><p>Most popular breed in the U.S.</p></li><li><p>Used as a stock horse, for racing, and pleasure riding</p></li><li><p>Can sprint short distances faster than any other breed</p></li><li><p>Well-muscled, with small ears, wide-set eyes and sloping shoulder, with a broad chest and hindquarters</p></li></ul>
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77

Arabian Horse

  • Used as show horses, for endurance, racing, and pleasure riding

  • Has a pronounced dished face, prominent forehead, large eyes, and short-flat croup

<ul><li><p>Used as show horses, for endurance, racing, and pleasure riding</p></li><li><p>Has a pronounced dished face, prominent forehead, large eyes, and short-flat croup</p></li></ul>
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Morgan House

  • Known for their endurance, manageability, and versatility

  • Generally a smaller breed of light horse

<ul><li><p>Known for their endurance, manageability, and versatility</p></li><li><p>Generally a smaller breed of light horse</p></li></ul>
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79

Appaloosa Horse

  • 4 Breed Characteristics: 1) coat color pattern, 2) mottled skin, 3) white sclera of the eye, and 4) vertical black and white striped hooves

<ul><li><p>4 Breed Characteristics: 1) coat color pattern, 2) mottled skin, 3) white sclera of the eye, and 4) vertical black and white striped hooves</p></li></ul>
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80

List the Heavy Horse Breeds.

Clydesdale, Percheron, Belgian

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81

What are the characteristics of Heavy Horse Breeds?

  • Draft Horses

  • Coldbloods

  • Wide, strong, and heavy

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82

Clydesdale Horse Breed

  • Coldblood

  • A Scottish breed made famous in the U.S. by Budweiser

  • Bay is the most common color, usually with white leg and face markings, and feathered legs

  • Traditionally used for farm work

  • Now used for show, driving, or pleasure riding

<ul><li><p>Coldblood</p></li><li><p>A Scottish breed made famous in the U.S. by Budweiser</p></li><li><p>Bay is the most common color, usually with white leg and face markings, and feathered legs</p></li><li><p>Traditionally used for farm work</p></li><li><p>Now used for show, driving, or pleasure riding</p></li></ul>
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Percheron Horse

  • Coldblood

  • Mainly black or gray in color

<ul><li><p>Coldblood</p></li><li><p>Mainly black or gray in color</p></li></ul>
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84

Belgian Horse

  • Coldblood

  • Bay, chestnut, ad roan are the most common colors

  • Most Belgians have a flaxen mane and tail with a white blaze on the face

<ul><li><p>Coldblood</p></li><li><p>Bay, chestnut, ad roan are the most common colors</p></li><li><p>Most Belgians have a flaxen mane and tail with a white blaze on the face</p></li></ul>
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85

List the feral horse breeds.

Australian Brumby, American Mustang

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86

What are the characteristics of feral horse breeds?

Descendants of domesticated horses that now exist as free-roaming horses and are often managed as wildlife

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87

Australian Brumby Horse

  • Descendants of escaped or lost horses belonging to early European settlers

  • Now mostly found in Northern Territory

  • A group of brumbies is known as a “mob”

<ul><li><p>Descendants of escaped or lost horses belonging to early European settlers</p></li><li><p>Now mostly found in Northern Territory</p></li><li><p>A group of brumbies is known as a “mob”</p></li></ul>
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88

American Mustang Horse

  • Descendants of horses brought to America by Columbus in 1493 (on his second voyage)

  • The “Wild Horse Annie Act” of 1971 resulted in the protection of mustangs by the U.S. Federal Government

  • A group of mustangs is known as a “band”

<ul><li><p>Descendants of horses brought to America by Columbus in 1493 (on his second voyage)</p></li><li><p>The “Wild Horse Annie Act” of 1971 resulted in the protection of mustangs by the U.S. Federal Government</p></li><li><p>A group of mustangs is known as a “band”</p></li></ul>
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89

Lis the Gaited Horse Breeds.

Tennessee Walking Horse, Icelandic Horse

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What are the characteristics of Gaited Horse Breeds?

  • Selectively bred for ambling gait tendencies

  • Sought after due to their smooth, easy ride and intermediate speed

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91

Tennessee Walking Horse

  • Exhibits a unique, four-beat running walk

  • Calm disposition, surefooted with flashy movement3

<ul><li><p>Exhibits a unique, four-beat running walk</p></li><li><p>Calm disposition, surefooted with flashy movement3</p></li></ul>
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92

Icelandic Horse

  • Often highlighted in Norse myths

  • Very small, hardy horses

  • Exhibit two unique gaits: the tolt and the flying pace

<ul><li><p>Often highlighted in Norse myths</p></li><li><p>Very small, hardy horses</p></li><li><p>Exhibit two unique gaits: the tolt and the flying pace</p></li></ul>
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93

List the Pony Breeds.

Shetland, Welsh, Pony of the Americas (POA)

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94

What are the Pony Breeds’ characteristics?

  • Stand under 14.2 hands high

  • Largely weighing between 225 to 400 kg

  • Not just a small/young horse

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95

Shetland Pony

  • Used for riding by children or as harness horses

  • 4 Types: foundation, classic, modern, and modern pleasure

<ul><li><p>Used for riding by children or as harness horses</p></li><li><p>4 Types: foundation, classic, modern, and modern pleasure</p></li></ul>
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96

Welsh Pony

  • Rugged and self-reliant, designed to withstand the harsh winters of their native Wales

  • 4 Types: Welsh Mountain Pony, the Welsh Pony, the Welsh Pony of Cob Type, the Welsh Cob

<ul><li><p>Rugged and self-reliant, designed to withstand the harsh winters of their native Wales</p></li><li><p>4 Types: Welsh Mountain Pony, the Welsh Pony, the Welsh Pony of Cob Type, the Welsh Cob</p></li></ul>
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97

Pony of the Americas (POA)

  • A versatile, popular breed

  • A small horse with Appaloosa coloring and features

<ul><li><p>A versatile, popular breed</p></li><li><p>A small horse with Appaloosa coloring and features</p></li></ul>
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98

What do donkeys, asses, and mules share with horses?

Horse family Equidae

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99

Donkeys

  • Used as a beast of burden for more than 5,000 years

  • In the U.S., donkeys are grouped by type

    • Standard, Large Standard, Mammoth, and Miniature

<ul><li><p>Used as a beast of burden for more than 5,000 years</p></li><li><p>In the U.S., donkeys are grouped by type</p><ul><li><p>Standard, Large Standard, Mammoth, and Miniature</p></li></ul></li></ul>
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100

Onagers (Asiatic Wild Ass)

  • Unique equids in that they have never been domesticated

  • Social animals

  • Can thrive in large groups called “harems”

  • Fertile, although becoming more endangered

<ul><li><p>Unique equids in that they have never been domesticated</p></li><li><p>Social animals</p></li><li><p>Can thrive in large groups called “harems”</p></li><li><p>Fertile, although becoming more endangered </p></li></ul>
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