Chapter 8-14

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leadership

influencing individual and group activities towards goal setting and goal achievement

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what are the three factors that have a major impact on choice of leadership style

  1. Theory X or theory Y management philosophy

  2. The follower’s readiness level

  3. The situation faced by the supervisor

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what are the four factors that influence a supervisor’s philosophy

personality characteristics, family and early school environment, experience and training the in the area of leadership, and present work environment including the type of work and general management system

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who created the Theory X and Theory Y philosophy

Douglas McGregor

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theory X assumptions

leadership style based on the assumption that the average person dislikes work, have little ambition, need to be threatened to work and wishes to avoid responsibility.

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theory Y assumptions

leadership style based on the assumption that people are self-motivated, use imagination + ingenuity to solve company problems, and enjoy the challenges of work (even seek challenges).

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readiness level

the state of a person’s drive or need for achievement, to see if a person is ready or not for their job based on experience, education, attitude, and willingness/ability to accept responsibility

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what are the two leadership models

leadership grid and situational leadership

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who created the leadership grid

Robert Blake and Anne Adams McCanse

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who created the situational leadership

Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard

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what is the leadership grid

a grid that categorizes leadership styles according to concern for people and concern for production results using numbers like

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what is a 9,1 leader on the leadership grid

mainly concerned with production and little concern for people, supervisors is the one who structures work, delegates as little as possible, and is an autocrat in getting work done, a authority compliance leadership style

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authority compliance

leader who has a high concern for production results and use a directive approach

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what is a 1,9 leader on the leadership grid

mainly concerned with people and little concern for production, supervisor is supportive and somewhat permissive, a country club management style

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country club management

high concern for people

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what is a 5,5 leader on the leadership grid

have emphasis on both production and people, a middle-of-the-road management style, reasonable

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middle-of-the-road management style

a leader with equal emphasis on people and production

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what is a 1,1 leader on the leadership grid

a poor leadership with no care to production or people, and work done is because of initiative from employee, called impoverished management

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impoverished management

management with little concern for people or production

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what is a 9,9 leader on the leadership grid

high concern for both people and production, believes that the heart of directing work is mutual understanding and agreement, called team management

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team management

high concern for both people and production

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life-cycle theory of leadership

a situational approach where leadership behaviors should be based on the readiness level of employee

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what are the two categories for leadership behaviors

task behaviors and relationship behaviors

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task behaviors

clarifying a job, telling people what to do and how and when to do it, providing follow-up, and taking corrective action

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relationship behaviors

providing people with support, providing positive feedback and asking for their opinions

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what is the situational leadership model

model that shows the relationship between the readiness of followers and the leadership style

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what is structuring and telling style

S1 in situational leadership model (high task and low relationship) where it works best with new or less-ready employees and individuals or groups whose performance is slipping, basically when the individual or group is low in readiness with the task given

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what is coaching and selling style

S2 in situational leadership model (high task and high relationship) where it works best with people who have potential but has not completely mastered their assignments

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what is the participating and supporting style

S3 in the situational leadership model (high relationship and low task) where it is best used with ready individuals or groups, supervisors use participative management when getting ideas and involve people in setting objectives and solving problem

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what is the delegating and empowering style

S4 in the situational leadership model (low relationship and law task) where it is best used with exceptionally ready and capable individuals and groups,

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what is continuum of leadership behavior

created by Robert Tannenbaum and Warren Schmidt, it is the full range of leadership behaviors in terms of the relationship between a supervisor’s use of authority and employee’s freedom

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what is the appropriate style for most situations

coaching and selling or participating and supporting

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developmental leadership

an approach that helps groups evolve effectively and achieve highly supportive, open, creative, committed, high-performing membership

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heroic managers

managers who have a great need for control or influence and who want to run things. Leaders identify desired performance standards and recognize what types of rewards employees want from their work

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what are the characteristics of heroic managers

managers should know what is going on at all times, should have enough technical expertise to supervise subordinates, the manager should be able to solve problems that arises or before the subordinate does, the manager should be the primary or the only person responsible for how to department is working

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what is the goal of developmental leaders

building heroes with three components: building a shared responsibility team, continuously developing individual skills, and determine and building a common department vision

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transformational leadership

a relationship of mutual stimulation and elevation that converts followers into leaders and may convert leaders into moral agents

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transactional leadership

more traditioal leadership approach where leaders identify desired performance standards and recognize what types of rewards employees want from their work

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difference between transformational leadership and transactional leadership

transformational leadership is more about vision, inspirational communication, supportive leadership, intellectual stimulation, and personal recognition (inspiring people through pride, respect, and esprit de corps) to strive for the goals and maybe beyond and transactional leadership is more about using rewards for their jobs

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adaptive leadership

organizational members take a hard look at the past to identify what to hold on to, while deciding what needs to go, employee participation in the change process is the key. If employees take part in the changes, they are more motivated to implement changes. downside is that people like familiarity and no changes

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savant leadership

a form of leadership where it defines success as giving and measures achievement by devotion to serving and leading, winning becomes the creation of community through collaboration and team building (when the leader focus on the needs of others before their own, prioritize serving the greater good instead of themselves)

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characteristics of servant leadership

  1. listening

  2. empathy

  3. healing

  4. persuasion

  5. awareness

  6. foresight

  7. conceptualization

  8. commitment to the growth of people

  9. stewardship

  10. building community

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what are the core leadership functions

  1. valuing, have good grasp of organization values and able to translate values into practice and elevate them to high levels

  2. visioning, have a clear mental pic of desired future for organization or group

  3. coaching, help others develop knowledge and skills needed to achieve vision

  4. empowering, enabling others to move towards vision

  5. team building, develop a relationship where ppl will commit themselves to achieve the vision

  6. promoting quality, achieving a reputation for always meeting or exceeding customer expectations

  7. listening with empathy, clear where ppl are coming from and accept flaws

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emotional intelligence

ability to know and manage our emotions, motivate ourselves, understand others’ emotions, and manage relationships

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difference between heroic supervisors and developmental supervisors

heroic supervision often leaders to over-control and lack of group development, developmental supervision is the opposite as it uses three interrelated components of using building a shared responsibility team, continuously developing individual skills, and determining a department vision in the form of an overarching goal

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external change forces

forces outside the organization that have a great impact on an organizational change, Management has little control over these numerous externals forces

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what are the external environment

resources, profits, and customers for products and services

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what causes external change forces

technological advancements and consumers’ changing requirements

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internal change forces

pressures for change within the organization such as cultures and objectives

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what causes internal change forces

different organization goals, new challenges, new quality initiatives, changing technologies, or employee attitudes

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organizational effectiveness

the result of activities that improve the organization’s structure, technology, and people

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what happens in planned change

management must decide on the desired outcomes and the types of change need in the programs/system

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synergy

when two or more groups work together to produce something of value

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groups

two or more people who communicate and work together regularly in pursuit of one or more common objectives

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what happens when a group becomes too large

interaction among all members is difficult and is unproductive

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what are the different types of groups

formal groups, network groups, virtuoso groups, virtual groups or teams, self-managing work groups, informal groups

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informal groups

evolve out of the formal organization but are not formed by management (friendship group talking about sports during lunch)

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formal groups

groups created by the organization (like groups formed by a manager and his or her immediate team members)

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network groups

dispersed and require collaboration and coordination across different projects and sometimes from groups outside of the organization, the members’ roles and responsibilities are based on connections, collaboration, and a targeted expertise

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virtuoso groups

composed of top performers who excel in their respective specialties and are usually focused on important performance issues

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virtual groups or teams

dislocated group that mostly, if not exclusively meet online and can face the added challenges of different time zones, less frequent verbal communications, the lack of physical presence, and any informal interactions that lead to social ties among more co-located groups

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self-managing work groups

groups that tend to operate by member consensus rather than management direction

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what are the stages of group development

forming, storming, norming, and performing (in order)

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what is stage 1 of group development and what happens

stage 1 is forming, where members first meet and determine the task/their role in this group. Members rely on leader to provide structure and establish an agenda/guidelines since the group is unsure of what is to be expected of them

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what is stage 2 of group development and what happens

stage 2 is storming, a period of conflict and hopefully organization, conflicts arise over goals, task behaviors (the who is responsible for what part) and leadership roles. if group gets through this stage, it will be organized and start to develop norms, rules, and standards

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what is stage 3 of group development and what happens

stage 3 is norming, group is developing teamwork and group cohesion and creating openness of communications w/ information sharing, have a level of trust where cooperation is high and gives positive feedback. If problems from stage 2 is not resolved then the group can regress

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what is stage 4 of group development and what happens

stage 4 performing, where group shows how they can operate and achieve goals efficiently and effectively

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what are the advantages of groups

provide members w opportunities for need satisfaction and may function more effectively than individuals

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what are the limitations of a group

encourage social loafing (where a person gets carried by others), diffuse responsibility, and less effective than individuals

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what are the key factors to determine the effectiveness of groups

group size, member composition and roles, norms, and group cohesiveness

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how can group size affect the effectiveness of groups

communication will be harder, and not everyone will be one the same page if there is too much members to contact

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how can member composition and roles affect the effectiveness of groups

it affects the ability for members to carry out their task, some require homogeneous groups and some task require groups with members that have widely different backgrounds

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how can norms affect the effectiveness of groups

if groups are not well led, they will develop rules that goes against the company’s goals

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norms

rules of behavior developed by group members to provide guidance for group activities

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how can group cohesiveness affect the effectiveness of groups

if there is no group cohesiveness there will be problems like power struggles, failure to achieve goals, and dysfunctional conflicts

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group cohesiveness

the mutual liking and team feeling in a group

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contributors

task-oriented and dependable team members who do their part and help keep the group or team focused on the task

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collaborators

goal-directed, big-picture team members who see the ultimate goal but flexible to new ideas, they keep the members focused on the team’s actual goals or purpose

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communicators

process oriented, positive team members who are effective listeners and facilitators of any conflict among team members

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challengers

team members questioning, playing the role of devil’s advocate when necessary and pushing the team to move out of its comfort zone

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team

a collection of people who must rely on group cooperation

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what are the characteristics of an effective team

clear purpose, informality, participation, listening, civilized disagreement, consensus decisions, open communication, clear roles and work, assignments, shared leadership, external relations, style diversity, self-assessment

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teams and organizations may not be successful because they fail at one or more of the following concepts:

effective leadership at the top of the team and/or organization, effective recruitment of good and talented people, and the creation of an environment so good and talented people grow and develop

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productivity

measure of efficiency, a measure that compares outputs to inputs and tells you how efficiently a system is performing

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