"A" AP Lang (copy)

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Assumption

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Tags and Description

English

11th

180 Terms

1

Assumption

a belief or principle that is taken for granted

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2

adverb

a word that modifies a verb, adjective, another adverb, or an entire sentence

Ex: "Nina ran___" - Quickly - Pretty fast - Really quickly

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3

Anecdote

a short story

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4

Anagram

when letters of a word or phrase are rearranged to make a new word or phrase

Ex: "United Tastes of America"

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5

Adjective

words that modify nouns

Ex: "hot" "Cold" "Sweet" "Salty"

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6

Appositive

a modifier that is built from a noun which modifies another noun or pronoun

Ex: "Mr Smith, the teacher, stood."

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7

Allusion

a reference to a person, place, or thing drawn from history, literature, etc.

Ex: "Mr jones' lecture was shakespearean."

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8

Apostrophe

an abstract idea, dead person, thing, or place is addressed directly despite it being unable to respond

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9

Active voice

a sentence where teh subject is the doer not the receiver

Ex: "Jack hit Ricardo in the mouth"

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10

Adjective Clause

a group of words containing a noun-verb pair that describes a noun and functions

Ex: "Im stnading in the room that changed my life forever."

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11

Alliteration

the repetition of consonant sounds

Ex: "The cool cucumbers calmed my crazy cousin

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12

Acronym

a word formed from the initial letters or syllables of a sequence of words

Ex: letter - "MADD" mothers against drunk driving

Syllable - rom-com (romantic comedy)

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13

Antagonist

character who opposes the main character

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14

Archetype

a recognizable theme, symbol, or character that holds a familiar place's consciousness

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15

Audience

intended recipient for a piece of writing or speech

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16

Anacoluthon

when a sentence begins one way, pauses, and ends in another

Ex: "Alright kids, today we are going to learn--ah, lets go play dodgeball"

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17

Archaism

outdated form of writing

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18

Assonance

vowel sounds that are repeated

Ex: "The table was hiding a baby with rabies."

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19

Abstract

ideas concepts or qualities

Ex: liquid, gas, sadness

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20

Amblysia

modified language used in preparation for tragic or alarming news

Ex: "I am afraid I have some bad news..."

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21

Allegory

interconnected symbols that represent ideas or concepts

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22

Ambiguity

the use of language when multiple meaning are possible

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23

Apocope

deliberate removal of a letter from the end of a word

Ex: trig(onometry)

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24

Anaphora

repetition of the same word or phrase at the beginning of phrases or clauses to emphasize

Ex: "we will face them in the... we will face them at..."

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25

Ab Ovo

a narrative structure that proceeds in a chronological order

Ex: "Once upon a time..."

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26

Anachronism

a historically inaccurate detail in a text typically used to synthesize ideas and perspectives from different times into a unified reference

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27

Antithesis

an opposition expressed in phrases or clauses

Ex: "Nepolean was loved, but will be remembered for his brutality"

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28

Asyndeton

When conjunctions that normally connect sentences/phrases are removed

Ex: "Sammy was brave, fearless, afraid of nothing."

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29

Atmosphere

a compound term encompassing the tone

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30

Analogy

comparison between two things that share an abstract

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31

Antecedent

the word a pronoun replaces in a sentence

Ex: "Bob went shopping. He bought clothes."

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32

Anastrophe

the inversion of normal word order in a sentence

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33

Aposiopesis

a breaking off speech meant to indicate rising emotion

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34

Aphorism

concise statement illustrating a deep truth

Ex: "simplify, simplify."

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35

Anadiplosis

repetition of the final word of a clause at the beginning of the following clause for emphasis

Ex: "fear is...fear leads to anger. Anger..."

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36

Bombast

inflated or pretentious language that does not match the context of its use

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37

Cacophony

am author's choice of words, usually alliterative, that create harsh, discordant and granting sounds when read aloud

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38

Caricature

when an author exaggerates or distorts certain traits/characteristics of an individual for a ludicrous effect Ex: if a character has big ears and the author focuses on their size, the author may reference the character hearing sounds repeatedly

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39

Chiasmus

the reversal of grammatical structures in successive phrases or clauses Ex: "Fair is foul, and foul is fair."

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40

Circumlocution

unnecessary wordiness, or the use of many words when a few would express an idea with greater clarity.

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41

Claim

the proposition put forth in an argument Ex: "Ants are a nuisance"

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42

Clause

a statement that contains a noun and a verb

Ex:

Dependent: "Odysseus being very cunning and able to get out of any scrape."

Independent: "Odysseus was cunning and could get out of any scrape."

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43

Cliché

an expression that becomes ineffective through overuse Ex: "As easy as pie"

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44

Colloquialism

an informal expression that is conversational in nature and reflects the culture or an area or group; vernacular Ex: "a sandwich" vs. "a sub" vs. "a grinder"

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45

Colon

a form of punctuation typically used to introduce lists in a sentence Ex: "Today we did my favorite things: hiking, camping, and reading."

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46

Complex Sentence

a sentence composed of one independent clause and one dependent clause Ex: "Because you dropped that fly ball, you are benched."

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47

Compound Sentence

a sentence composed of two or more independent clauses Ex: "commas do not link independent clauses; semicolons do, or commas followed by conjunctions perform this function too."

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48

Concrete

concrete words refer to specific, particular, or material details

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49

Ex: "He grinned as he pocketed the coin."

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50

Connotation

the implied of suggested meaning of a word Ex: connotations of the word "fox" may be: slick, sneaky, etc.

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51

Coordinating Conjunction

words that provide a loose link among items that are equal in rank Ex: "Joe and I...", "We fished and relaxed."

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52

Deduction

the process of reasoning from a general claim to the specific cases

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53

Denotation

the direct relationship between a term and the object, idea, or action it signifies. Ex: "the denotation of "fox" is "a small woodland creature."

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54

Dependent Clause

A clause that cannot stand alone as a sentence; it requires an independent clause to give it meaning. "Because I could not stop for death, he kindly stopped for me."

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55

Description

one of the four primary modes of writing in composition courses

Objective: reports evidence factually

Subjective: reports evidence using figurative language

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56

Dialougue

spoken words

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57

Diction

the choice of words, closely linked with tone

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58

Didactic

writing that attempts to teach a moral or lesson

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59

Digression

movement away from the main focus in speech or writing

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60

Direct Object

a person or thing affected by the action Ex: "James fought his nemesis."

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61

Dysphemism

a disparaging expression used to describe someone or something Ex: "I hate your stupid, ugly, monster face." Instead of "I think you're unattractive."

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62

Ellipses

three successive periods (. . .) that indicate the intentional omission of words in a thought or quotation.

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63

Elliptical Construction

the deliberate omission of words from a sentence Ex: "Junior year was tough and senior year the same."

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64

Epistle

a work of poetry or prose that is presented as a series of letters

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65

Epistrophe

a figure of speech where successive phrases or clauses all end with the same word. Ex: "When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child."

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66

Epithet

a word or phrase which is attached to a character

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67

Eponymous

a person in a work of fiction whose name is derived from the title Ex: "Romeo and Juliet"

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68

Ethos

the characteristic spirit or idea that informs a work

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69

Euphemism

a milf or pleasant-sounding expression that substitutes for a harsh, indelicate idea Ex: "We put Fido to sleep" is a euphemism for "We Euthanized the dog."

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70

Evidence

the grounds upon which a judgement or argument is based

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71

Figurative Language

a categorical term for all uses of language that imply an imaginative comparison (appeals to senses) Ex: "I felt the sunshine on my skin, hearing the buzzing of the bees while gazing at the gentle babble of the brook in the distance"

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72

Gobbledygook

a mode of speech where the language is completely unintelligible Ex: "It's time to realize our strategic growth mindset and use operational mindfulness to make our presence known in the industry with quality implementation methodologies." This quote says a lot but also nothing at all as its wordiness makes no true sense to listeners

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73

Hypostatization

a form of personification in which an abstract concept takes on living qualities Ex: "Guilt forced me to confess" or "Justice is the leader of this country"

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74

Foreshaddowing

a purposeful hint placed in a work of literature to suggest what may occur later in the narrative

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75

Harangue

an emotionally based speech meant to spur an audience into action

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76

Hyphaersis

the omission of a letter from a word to condense the number of syllables Ex: "O'er" instead of "over"

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77

Hyperbole

exaggeration used for emphasis, typically for comical effect Ex: "The lunch line is a thousand people long!"

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78

Colloquialism

an informal expression that is conversational in nature and reflects the culture or an area or group; vernacular Ex: "a sandwich" vs. "a sub" vs. "a grinder"

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79

Colon

a form of punctuation typically used to introduce lists in a sentence Ex: "Today we did my favorite things: hiking, camping, and reading."

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80

Complex Sentence

a sentence composed of one independent clause and one dependent clause Ex: "Because you dropped that fly ball, you are benched."

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81

Compound Sentence

a sentence composed of two or more independent clauses Ex: "commas do not link independent clauses; semicolons do, or commas followed by conjunctions perform this function too."

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82

Concrete

concrete words refer to specific, particular, or material details

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83

Ex: "He grinned as he pocketed the coin."

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84

Connotation

the implied of suggested meaning of a word Ex: connotations of the word "fox" may be: slick, sneaky, etc.

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85

Coordinating Conjunction

words that provide a loose link among items that are equal in rank Ex: "Joe and I...", "We fished and relaxed."

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86

Deduction

the process of reasoning from a general claim to the specific cases

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87

Denotation

the direct relationship between a term and the object, idea, or action it signifies. Ex: "the denotation of "fox" is "a small woodland creature."

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88

Dependent Clause

A clause that cannot stand alone as a sentence; it requires an independent clause to give it meaning. "Because I could not stop for death, he kindly stopped for me."

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89

Description

one of the four primary modes of writing in composition courses Objective: reports evidence factually

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90

Subjective: reports evidence using figurative language

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91

Dialougue

spoken words

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92

Diction

the choice of words, closely linked with tone

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93

Didactic

writing that attempts to teach a moral or lesson

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94

Digression

movement away from the main focus in speech or writing

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95

Direct Object

a person or thing affected by the action Ex: "James fought his nemesis."

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96

Dysphemism

a disparaging expression used to describe someone or something Ex: "I hate your stupid, ugly, monster face." Instead of "I think you're unattractive."

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97

Ellipses

three successive periods (. . .) that indicate the intentional omission of words in a thought or quotation.

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98

Elliptical Construction

the deliberate omission of words from a sentence Ex: "Junior year was tough and senior year the same."

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99

Epistle

a work of poetry or prose that is presented as a series of letters

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100

Epistrophe

a figure of speech where successive phrases or clauses all end with the same word. Ex: "When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child."

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