AP Gov Unit 2 Test

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Institutions of Government

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149 Terms

1

Institutions of Government

Formal policymakers within the government, including the executive, legislature, judiciary and bureaucracy

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2

Article I

Legislative Branch - Organizations, powers, and restraints

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3

Bicameral

A legislature divided into two houses. (ex. Congress)

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4

Constituency

The people and interests that an elected official represents/the voters in a state or district.

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5

Coalition-Building

The process by which different groups or individuals come together for a particular cause or legislation.

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6

Revenue

The financial resources of the government (2 major sources: individual income tax and Social Security tax).

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7

Congressional Committee

A legislative sub-organization in the United States Congress that handles a specific duty.

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8

Standing Committee

Committees in each house of Congress that handles bills in different policy areas.

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9

Select Committee

Congressional committees that may be temporary or permanent and usually have a specific focus.

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10

Conference Committe

Congressional committees formed when the Senate and the House pass a particular bill in different forms. Party leadership appoints members from each house to iron out the differences and bring back a single bill.

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11

Joint Committee

A committee of the House and the Senate that usually acts as a study group and reports its findings back to the House and the Senate (focuses on things such as taxation and the economy).

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12

Speaker of the House

An office mandated by the Constitution. They are chosen in practice by the majority party, has both formal and informal powers, and is second in line (after the VP) to succeed to the presidency should that office become vacant.

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13

President of the Senate

The Vice President

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14

President Pro Tempore

Officer of the Senate selected by the majority party to act as chair in the absence of the vice president

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15

Majority Leader

The legislative leader selected by the majority party who helps is responsible for scheduling bills, influencing committee assignments, and round up votes on behalf of the party's legislative positions.

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16

Minority Leader

The principal leader of the minority party in the House of Representatives or in the Senate.

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17

Majority Whip

A go-between with the majority leadership and party members in the House of Representatives.

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18

Minority Whip

A go-between with the minority leadership whose job mirrors that of the majority whip but without the power that comes from holding a majority in the House of Representatives.

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19

Committee Chairperson

Leader of a congressional committee. Usually the longest serving member of the majority party on that committee (seniority rule). A very powerful position - Controls the committee calendar, agenda, and hearings. Can pigeonhole (table) a bill by refusing to schedule debate on it.

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20

Filibuster

A strategy unique to the Senate whereby opponents of a piece of legislation use their right to unlimited debate to prevent the Senate from ever voting on a bill. Sixty members present and voting can halt a filibuster on legislation.

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21

Cloture

A procedure for terminating debate, especially filibusters, in the Senate.

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22

Quorum

The minimum number of members who must be present for business to be conducted in Congress (218 for house, 51 for senate).

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23

Hold

Senator holds a bill by saying that he/she needs to obtain more information about it before voting.

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24

Unanimous Consent

An agreement by every senator to the terms of debate on a given piece of legislation.

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25

Rules Committee

A standing committee of the House of Representatives that provides special rules under which specific bills can be debated, amended, and considered by the house.

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26

Committee of the Whole

A House committee where all revenue and most other bills are discussed.

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27

Discharge Petition

A device by which any member of the House, after a committee has had the bill for 30 days, may petition to have it brought to the floor.

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28

Treaty Ratification

The power of the U.S. Senate to approve or disapprove formal treaties negotiated by the president on behalf of the nation.

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29

Discretionary Spending

Areas of the budget that the congress can change year to year and includes the 13 appropriation bills that fund the various agencies of the federal government.

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30

Mandatory Spending

Areas of the federal budget that must be enacted each year by law and are not dependent on annual review by committees of congress.

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31

Entitlements

The programs that make up the major component of mandatory spending in the federal budget. They include Social Security, Medicare, Medicaid, defense spending, Net Interest, other tested programs.

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32

Social Security

Social insurance that provides economic assistance to persons faced with unemployment, disability, or old age. It is financed by taxes on employers and employees.

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33

Medicare

A federal program of health insurance for persons 65 years of age and older.

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34

Medicaid

A federal and state assistance program that pays for health care services for people who cannot afford them.

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35

Budget Deficit

A situation in which the government spends more than it takes in.

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36

Pork Barrel Legislation

Legislation that gives tangible benefits to constituents in several districts or states in the hope of winning their votes in return.

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37

Earmarks

"Hidden" congressional provisions that direct the federal government to fund specific projects or that exempt specific persons or groups from paying specific federal taxes or fees.

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38

Riders

Unpopular provision added to an important bill certain to pass so that it will "ride" through the legislative process.

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39

Omnibus Bill

A proposed law that covers a number of diverse or unrelated topics.

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40

Logrolling

The trading of votes between legislators so that each gets what here she most wants.

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41

Franking Privilege

The ability or members of Congress to mail letters to their constituents free of charge by substituents free of charge by substituting their facsimile signature (frank) for postage.

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42

Partisanship

Strong allegiance to one's own political party, often leading to unwillingness to compromise with members of the opposing party.

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43

Divided Government

Governance divided between the parties, as when one holds the presidency and the other controls one or both houses of Congress.

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44

Ideological Division

...often leads to gridlock

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45

Gridlock

The inability of the government to act because rival parties control different parts of the government.

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46

Gerrymandering

Process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power.

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47

Packing

Redistricting that packs all seats into one area/ your party loses seats in that area, but you dominate the surrounding area.

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48

Cracking

Spreading voters of one type over many districts where they will comprise minorities that are unable to influence elections.

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49

Reapportionment

The process by which congressional districts are redrawn and seats are redistributed among states in the House.

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50

Census

A count of the American population conducted every ten years.

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51

Redistricting

The redrawing of congressional and other legislative district lines following the census, to accommodate population shifts and keep districts as equal as possible in population.

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52

Safe Seat

An elected office that is predictably won by one party or the other, so the success of that party's candidate is almost taken for granted.

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53

Marginal Seat

A seat in the House of Representatives that is not considered to be safe for the incumbent in the next election (swing seat).

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54

Baker v. Carr (1961)

Issue: Charles Baker brought to light apportionment laws being ignored by the state of Tennessee. Does the Supreme Court hold the power to rule on legislative apportionment?Decision: The Warren Court reached a 6-2 verdict in favor of Baker. A lack of political question, previous court intervention in apportionment affairs and equal protection under the 14th amendment gave the court enough reason to rule on legislative apportionment.

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55

"One person, one vote"

The principle that each legislative district within a state should have the same number of eligible voters so that representation is equitably based on population

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56

Racial Gerrymandering

The drawing of election districts so as to ensure that members of a certain race are a minority in the district.

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57

Shaw v. Reno (1993)

NO racial gerrymandering; race cannot be the sole or predominant factor in redrawing legislative boundaries; majority-minority districts.

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58

Article II

Executive Branch - Powers, duties, restraints, and election of the President

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59

"Lame-Duck" President

Time after a new president is elected, but has not been inaugurated yet. (Today it would be from Nov. - Jan. 20)

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60

"Trustee" Role

-

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61

"Delegate" Role

-

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62

"Partisan" Role

-

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63

"Politico" Role

-

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64

Policy Agenda

-

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65

Formal Presidential Powers

-

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66

Informal Presidential Powers

-

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67

Veto

-

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68

Congressional Override

-

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69

Pocket Veto

-

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70

Commander-in-Chef

-

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71

Executive Agreement

-

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72

Executive Order

-

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73

Executive Privilege

-

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74

Signing Statements

-

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75

The Cabinet

-

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76

Ambassadors

-

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77

White House Staff

-

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78

"Advice and Consent" Power

-

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79

"Good Behavior" Clause

-

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80

Article III

-

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81

Federalist #70

-

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82

"Lame Duck" Period

-

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83

Twentieth Amendment

-

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84

Twenty-Second Amendment

-

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85

Twenty-Fifth Amendment

-

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86

State of the Union Address

-

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87

Honeymoon Period

-

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88

Bully Pulpit

-

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89

Judicial Review

-

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90

Federalist #78

-

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91

Marbury v. Madison (1803)

-

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92

Precedent

-

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93

Stare Decisis

-

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94

Judicial Activim

-

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95

Judicial Restraint

-

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96

Strict Constructionism

-

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97

Loose Constructionism

-

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98

Jurisdiction

-

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99

Original Jurisdiction

-

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100

Appellate Jurisdiction

-

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