Unit 5 MASS PSYCH VOCAB

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Behavior genetics

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108 Terms

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Behavior genetics

The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior

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Heredity

The genetic transfer of characteristics from parents to offspring

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Environment

Every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us

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Chromosomes

Threadlike structures made of DNA molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes

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DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes

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Genes

The biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; segments of DNA capable of synthesizing proteins

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Genome

The complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes

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Identical (monozygotic) twins

Develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms

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Fraternal (dizygotic) twins

Develop from separate fertilized eggs. They are genetically no closer than ordinary brothers and sisters, but they share a prenatal environment

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Heritability

The proportion of variation among individuals in a group that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.

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Interaction

The interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor (such environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity)

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Molecular genetics

The subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes

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Molecular behavior genetics

The study of how the structure and function of genes interact with our environment to influence behavior

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Epigenetics

"Above" or "in addition to" (epi) genetics; the study of environmental influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change

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Evolutionary psychology

The study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection

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Natural selection

The principle that inherited traits that better enable an organism to survive and reproduce in a particular environment will (in competition with other trait variations) most likely be passed on to succeeding generations

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Mutation

A random error in gene replication that leads to a change

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Social Script

A culturally modeled guide for how to act in various situations

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Developmental Psychology

A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span

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Zygote

The fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into a embryo

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Embryo

The developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month

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Fetus

The developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth

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Teratogens

(literally, "monster makers") agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm

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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, signs include a small, out-of-proportion head and abnormal facial features

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Habituation

Decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner

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Maturation

Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience

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Proximodistal

Babies form from center out.

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Principle of motor primacy

Neuromuscular structures of the body must reach certain levels of maturation before they can respond to stimulation.

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Cognition

All the mental activities associated with thinking; knowing, remembering, and communicating

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Schema

A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information

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Assimilation

Interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas

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Accommodation

Adapting our current understandings (Schemas) to incorporate new information

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Sensorimotor stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage ( from birth to nearly 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities

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Object permanence

The awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived

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Preoperational stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 5 or 7 years old) during which a child learns to use language but doesn't yet comprehend that mental operations of concrete logic

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Conservation

The principle (which Piaget believed to be apart of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects

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Egocentrism

In Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view

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Theory of mind

People's ideas about their own and other's mental states- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict

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Concrete operational stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events

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Formal operational stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts

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Scaffold

A framework that offers children temporary support as they develop higher levels of thinking

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Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

A disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by significant deficiencies in communication and social interaction, and by rigidly fixated interests and repetitive behaviors

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Jean Piaget

Was a developmental psychologist who studied children's cognition. His studies led him to believe that a child's mind develops through a series of stages , in a upward march from the newborn's simple reflexes to the adults abstract reasoning.

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Lee Vyptsky

Was a psychologist who was studying how children think and learn. He emphazied how the child's mind grows through interaction with the physical environment, he emphasized how the child's mind grows through interaction with the social environment.

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45

Stranger Anxiety

The fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age

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Attachment

An emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to their caregiver and showing distress on separation

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Critical Peroid

An optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development

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48

Imprinting

The process by which certain animals form attachments during early life

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Strange situation

A procedure for studying child-caregiver attachment; a child is placed in an unfamiliar environment while their caregiver leaves and then returns, and the child's reactions are observed

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secure attachment

Demonstrated by infants who comfortably explore environments in the presence of their caregiver. Show only temporary distress when the caregiver leaves and finds comfort in the caregiver's return

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Insecure attachment

Demonstrated by infants who display either a clinging, anxious attachment or an avoidant attachment that resists closeness

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Temperament

A person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity

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Basic trust

according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers

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Self-concept

All our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"

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55

Harry and Maraget Harlow

Bred monkeys for their learning studies. They rasied them with two artifical mothers (cloth and wire). The infants much preferred contact with the comfortable cloth mother even while feeding from the wire nourishing mother.

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Konrad Lorenz

He explored this rigid attachment process, called imprinting in ducklings. He found out that everywhere he went, the ducks were sure to go.

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Mary Ainsworth

designed the strange situation experiment and found out about secure and insecure attachment.

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Erik Erikson

believed that securely attached children approach life with a sense of basic trust.

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Diana Baumrind

She came up with her theory of parenting styles, that consisted of four parenting types.

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Authoritarian parents

They are coercive. They impose rules and expect obedience.

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Permissive parents

They are unrestraining. They make few demands, set few limits and use little punishment.

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Negligent parents

They are uninvolved. They are neither demanding nor responsive. They are careless, inattentive and do not seek to have a close relationship with their children.

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Authoritative parents

They are confrontive. They are both demanding and responsive. They exert control by setting rules, but, especially with olden children, they encourage open discussion and allow exceptions.

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Sex

In psychology, the biologically influenced characteristics by which people define male and female

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Gender

In psychology, the socially influenced characteristics by which people define boy, girl, man, and woman

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Aggression

Any physical or verbal behavior intended to harm someone physically or emotionally

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Relational Aggression

An act of aggression (physical or verbal) intended to harm a person's relationship or social standing

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Role

A set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave

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Gender role

A set of expected behaviors, attitudes, and traits for males or for females

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Gender identity

Our sense of being male, female, or some combination of two

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Social learning theory

The theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished

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Gender typing

The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role

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Androgyny

Displaying both traditional masculine and feminine psychological characteristics

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Trasngender

An umbrella term describing people whose gender identity or expression differs from that associated with their birth designated sex

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Adolescence

The transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence

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Puberty

The period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing

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Lawerence Kohlberg

Proposed that moral reasoning guides moral actions.

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Preconventional morality

Self interest; obey rules to avoid punishment or gain concrete rewards

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Conventional morality

Uphold laws and rules to gain social approval or maintain social order

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Postconventional morality

Actions relfect belief in basic rights and self defined ethical principles

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Identity

Our sense of self; according to Erickson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles

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Social identity

The "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "Who am I?" that comes from our group membership

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Intimacy

In Erikson's' theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in young adulthood

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Emerging adulthood

A period from about age 18 to the mid-twenties, when many in Western cultures are no longer adolescents but have not yet achieved full independence as adults

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Trust vs mistrust

If needs are dependably met the infant develops a sense of basic trust

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Autonomy vs shame and doubt

Toddlers learn to excerise their will and do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities

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Initiative vs guilt

Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about their efforts to be independent

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Competence vs Inferiority

Children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks or they feel inferior

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Identity vs role confusion

Teenagers work at refining a sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity or they become confused about who they are

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Intimacy vs Isolation

Young adults struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love or they feel socially isolated

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Generativity vs stagnation

Middle aged people discover a sense of contributing to the world, usually through family and work, or they may feel a lack of purpose

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Integrity vs despair

Reflecting on their lives, older adults may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure

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X chromosome

The sex chromosome found in both males and females. Females typically have two X chromosomes; males typically have one. An X chromosome from each parent produces a female child

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Y chromosome

The sex chormosomes typically found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child

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Testosterone

The most important male sex hormone. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex orans during the fetal periods, and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty

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Primary sex characteristics

The body structures (ovaries, testes, and the external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible

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Secondary sex characteristics

Nonreproductive sexual traits, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair

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Spermarche

The first ejaculation

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Menarche

The first menstrual period

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Intersex

A condition present at birth due to unusual combinations of male and female chromosomes, hormones, and anatomy; possesssing biological sexual characteristics of both sexes

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