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167 Terms
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atom

smallest unit of matter

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element

a substance that cannot be broken down

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molecule

a group of atoms bonded together, can be different atoms

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compound

2 or more different elements

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6 main elements

Carbon-4

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covalent bonds

bonds that share electrons and form molecules

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polar molecule

uncharged molecule and an uneven distribution of charge which leads to one side slightly more positive and one side slightly more negative

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polar covalent bond

bond where electrons are not shared equally (water)

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nonpolar covalent bonds

bond where electrons are shared equally and are either found between same atoms or between atoms of similar electronegativity

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ionic bonds

bonds that give away and take away electrons and it results in ions

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cation

postively charged ion

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anion

negatively charged ion

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hydrogen bonds

attration of the the hydrogen atom of one molecule (postively charged) to the oxygen/nitrogen of another molecule (negatively charged)

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van der wall interactions

interactions between postive and negative "hot spots" (formed because electrons are in constant motion)

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electronegativity

how strongly an atom pulls the electrons in a covalent bond

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0.5 or less apart in electronegativity

share electrons evenly and make a non polar covalent bond

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0.5 or more apart in electronegativity

share electrons evenly and make a polar covalent bond

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water facts

-60% of your body

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water properties

-polar- meaning the oxygen side has a slight negative charge and the hydrogen sides have a slight positive charge

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cohesion

water sticking to water, due to hydrogen bonds and helps water to move up through the roots in plants

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adhesion

water sticking to another substance

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surface tension

the force needed to break the surface of a liquid (water has very high)

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why does water expand upon freezing

the hydrogen bonds in liquid water are constantly breaking down and reforming so the molecules can be packed more tightly together therefore more dense than ice whereas in ice the hydrogen bonds are stable so the molecules are more spread out meaning they are less dense

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solvent

does the dissolving

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solute

what is being dissolved

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hydrolysis

adding water to a chemical reaction

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dehydration synthesis

removing water from a chemical reaction

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aqueous solution

solution where water is the solvent

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hydrophobic

water fearing, non-ionic, and non-polar, does not mix with water

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hydrophilic

water loving, ionic, and polar, will dissolve in water

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water potential

tendency of the water to move from one are to another (in or out of cells)

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water potential of pure water

0

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press lure potential of an open container

0

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turgor pressure

pressure exerted by the water in the large central vacuole of a plant, plants want high turgor pressure

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functional groups

clusters of specific atoms bonded to the carbon skeleton with characteristic structure and functions, will determine a molecules shape and reactivity, help organic substance become more soluble, and found in living organisms

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all functional groups...

...are hydrophobic and increase the solubility of organic compounds in water

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hydroxyl group

OH

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phosphate group

PO4

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sulfhydral group

SH

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amino group

NH2

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carboxyl group

COOH

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carbonyl group

makes adelhydes

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aldehyde group

COH

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ketone group

CO

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4 bio/macro molecules

1.Carbs- chemically similar monosaccharides linking together to form polysaccharides

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2.Proteins- form from 20 different combinations of amino acids

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3.Lipids- large fatty structures linked together from smaller molecules

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4.Nucleic Acids- long chains of nucleotides linking together

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isomers

same formula but different structures

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Carbohydrates (sugars)

-gives us short term energy

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monomer

monosaccharide- 1 sugar

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dimer

disaccharide- 2 sugars

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polymer

polysaccharide- many sugars

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glucose

-our brains and RBC's can only use stored energy from glucose

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fructose

  • helps transport proteins in our body

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galactose

  • helps with our immune system

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cis isomer

same side

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trans isomer

different sides

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enantiomers

molecules that are mirror images of each other

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starch

used for plant storage

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glycogen

used for animal storage

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cellulose

forms cell wall of plants

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chitin

makes exoskeleton and fungi walls

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lipids (fats/oils)

  • non-polar

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triglycerides

normal fat with long term energy storage

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saturated fat

molecules are packed right, no double bonds, bad

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unsaturated fat

double bonds from links keeping them from packing tightly, good

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phospholipid

glycerol + 2 fatty acid chains + phosphate

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amphipathic molecules

partly hydrophobic and partly hydrophilic, phosphate gives phospholipid this

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phospholipid bilayer

phospholipid molecules lining up in a way to form a double membrane around living cells

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steroids

form a ring structure

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  • anabolic- enhance muscles (bad)

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  • corticosteroids- relieve pain and swelling

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trans fats

even worse that saturated fats, raise LDL and lower HDL

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LDL cholesterol

too many saturated fats wills raise this and that is bad

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nucleus acids

  • informational macromolecules

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phosphodiester bond

covalent bonds between sugar and phosphate in DNA

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hydrogen bonds (DNA)

bonds that connect nitrogen bases

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enzymes

special proteins that speed up reactions and are catalyzing

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foods high in nucleic acids

  • seafood

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proteins

  • structure

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amino acids

building blocks

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peptide bonds

connect amino acids

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polypeptides

much longer polymers like insulin and titin

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