Intercultural Communication Final Review

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Why do we need to study intercultural communication?

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Why do we need to study intercultural communication?

  1. because we internalize and create culture - it is part of who we are and affects every aspect of our communication

  2. it is crucial to our personal growth

  3. because it is a social responsibility

  4. the economic motive (global trade)

  5. cross-cultural travel motive

  6. media motive

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Challenges of studying intercultural communication

  1. danger of oversimplifying

  2. danger of overgeneralizing

  3. tendency to exaggerate differences

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3

Culture

shared values, assumptions, and norms, that create a common identity; passed on through communication

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Culture includes ___

symbols, values, behaviors, and artifacts

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What is both internal and external as well as both material and non-material?

culture

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___ is mediated by culture

communication

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Types of cultural differences

ethnicity, nationality, religion, gender, sexuality, dialect, politics, disability, age, class

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Intercultural Communication

when culture impacts the communication between two or more people enough to make a difference

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Chronemics

the role of time in communication

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Morality

the notion of the rightness or wrongness of behavior in general

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Ethics

an aspect of morality that relates to the rightness or wrongness of our interactions with others

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Utilitarianism

determining the greatest benefit for the greatest number of people

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Categorical Imperative

"what if everyone did this"

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Golden Mean

avoiding extremes in decision-making

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Ethical Egoism

making choices based simply on what seems good or beneficial to us without regard to others

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Meta-ethic

an overarching guideline of behavior toward other people that either can or should be applied to people in all cultures

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Dialogic Ethic

we should talk with others to determine which guidelines should apply in our communication with them

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Cultural Relativism

the idea that people in each culture create their own accepted norms about what is right or wrong

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Types of Ethical Dilemmas

Adjustment, Right vs Wrong, Encouragement

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Altruism

the notion of doing good to someone, even a stranger

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Voluntarism

the idea of giving one's own time for no apparent benefit to oneself

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Civic Engagement

involvement in the community regardless of politics

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Ontology

assumptions about the nature of reality

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Epistemology

assumptions about knowledge

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Axiology

assumptions regarding the role of our values as we do research on culture and communication

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Etic

researchers develop some framework of terms or dimensions and apply these theories to compare culture in their behaviors

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Emic

don't want to impose their understandings of meanings or behaviors on a culture and seek to set aside their own understandings

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Postmodernism

several constructions of aspects of culture

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Postcolonialism

looks worldwide at problems created by colonization; seeking to bring awareness to these problems

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Agency

the choices one feels one has

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Cultural Communication

the study or practice of communication in a single culture

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Cross-cultural Communication

never describes interaction, only research

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Co-cultural Communication

communication between people of different groups within a larger culture

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High Culture

activities and expressions that represent was people believed to be moral and intellectual refinement

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Low/Popular Culture

everyday activities and expressions of people

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Symbolic Communication

communicators use words, images, sounds, and nonverbal behaviors that represent something else

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Reality

the actual object in our environment

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Symbol

a sound or visual representation of the reality

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References

thought images in our mind; the one that links to the symbol

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Intrapersonal Communication

when someone creates messages for oneself within the mind

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The Communication Process is ___

transactional and symbolic

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Scientific Approach

making predictions about people based on culture; culture is dynamic and changes how we communicate

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Critical Approach

cultural change is a process of intergroup striving to make a particular cultural view dominant and culture is affected by power interests

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Humanistic View/Constitutive Approach

the act of communicating itself is an act of creating/establishing culture

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Values

ideals or priorities a culture holds to be important

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Rules, Norms, and Mores

expectations for how one should act in certain situations

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Communication System

the set of signs and symbols one uses to transfer ideas, emotions, or impressions to others

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Economic, educational, family, legal, political, and leisure are examples of ___

social systems

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Enculturation

the process of learning one's own culture

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Acculturation

the process of learning another culture

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Deculturation

the unlearning of one's own culture

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Diffusion

the spread of artifacts, behaviors, and ideas across or between groups or cultures

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Hybridity

describes cultural blending between two cultures in contact

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Co-cultural Groups

groups that share a space together, sharing some aspects of a dominant culture, and mixing or blending their cultures to a greater or lesser degree

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Race

biological differences between groups

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Ethnicity

sense of shared history and geographical ancestry

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Symbolic Ethnicity

people assimilate to the dominant culture but still use symbols to represent their identity or ancestry

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Ethnocentrism

the belief that our culture or group is better than others

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Intergroup Communication

we always perceive others on some continuum from interpersonal to intergroup; we see people as parts of the groups they belong to

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Subjective Culture

the aspect and meaning of thought that distinguishes culture; intangible

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Objective Culture

the artifacts that a culture produces; tangible

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Beliefs

assumptions about the nature of something; a thought about the connection between two or more concepts

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Belief Systems

beliefs interwoven with other beliefs

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World View

beliefs about the connections between humans and the larger elements of the universe

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Value

a type of belief that a thing, idea, or activity is important and should serve as a guide for behavior

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Attitudes

describe the way we relate to things, actions, or people

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Taboo

a cultural more so strong, people do not normally even mention it

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What are some examples of Shalom Schwartz's Universal Values?

achievement, power, benevolence, security, self-direction

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What are some examples of Milton Rokeach's Terminal Values?

comfortable life, salvation, freedom, pleasure, mature love

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What are some examples of Milton Rokeach's Instrumental Values?

being polite, cheerful, and honest

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High-Context Cultures

according to Edward Hall, a culture in which meaning tends to be implied in conversation

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Low-Context Cultures

according to Edward Hall, a culture in which meaning is placed in the explicit code

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Who created the Cultural Dimensions?

Hofstede

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Power Distance

whether people in a culture tend to value status difference and see it as appropriate

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Masculinity/Femininity

is the country more oriented towards masculine or feminine values

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Uncertainty Avoidance

the overall desire for structure and predictability in a culture

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Individualism/Collectivism

the links between the person and their social network

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Long term/Short term Orientation

focus on future development or preserving tradition

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Indulgence/Restraint

attitude towards indulgence and restraint

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Confucian Work Dynamism

respect for tradition, thrift, persistence, and personal steadiness

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Self-construal

psychological notion of how strongly one sees oneself independent from others or connected to others

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Social Capital

the sense of involvement in one's community, including social organization, trust, and networks

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Ethnography

a research method that involves observation and other methods to describe the life or reality of a group in its context

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Speech Code Theory

a set of statements describing how meaning and behavior is specific to each culture

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Speech Code

the system of symbols, meanings, assumptions, and norms for communication adopted by a speech community

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Guilt Cultures

people are motivated by a sense of remorse when they engage in bad behaviors based on a sense of personal responsibility more common in individualistic cultures

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Shame Cultures

people are motivated by a sense of social obligation and are more likely to act in a way to protect the honor or face of their group out of personal responsibility

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Importance of Identities

we cannot think of ourselves apart from the groups to which we belong; our identities inform us of how we should communicate in different situations

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Classification

how we are understood by some social category such as white, male, or gay

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Stereotype

oversimplified, often unvarying attribute assigned to a group

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Personal Identities

our concepts of ourselves as unique individuals

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Group Identities

formed around material or economic conditions that we share with others

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Social Identities

our concept of ourselves in a relation to others

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Categorization

a mental process of grouping things, attributes, behaviors, and people into clusters

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In-groups

groups in which we see ourselves belonging

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Out-groups

groups in which we do not associate or cooperate with

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Reference Groups

groups we value and look to for guidance

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Social Construction

identities created through nature, environment, and communication

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99

Social Identity Theory

how we see ourselves is closely tied to the groups to which we belong

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Identity Politics

the practice of laying claim to an identity in order to help ourselves integrate into our communities and fit into parts of our social world

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