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Kinetic energy

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108 Terms

1

Kinetic energy

energy of motion

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Potential energy

stored energy

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3

Chemical energy

potential energy stored in chemical bonds (C-H)

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4

Metabolism

all the chemical reactions in our body

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5

Reactants

substrates (substances present at the start of a chemical reaction)

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Products

substances formed by chemical reaction

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7

Oxidation

losing an electron

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8

Reduction

gaining an electron (molecule's charge is reduced)

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9

Exergonic

produces/releases energy

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10

Endergonic

requires/consumes energy

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11

Reaction rate

how quickly a chemical reaction takes place

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12

Activation energy (Ea)

amount of energy required to break chemical bonds

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13

Cytology

study of cells

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14

Plasma membrane

barrier between inside of cell and outside environment (phospholipid bilayer)

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15

Interstitial fluid

fluid in the spaces between cells

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16

Nucleus

largest organalle that contains DNA

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17

Cytoplasm

all of the contents besides the nucleus

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18

Cytosol

fluid inside cell

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19

Organelles

complex organized structures with unique functions

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20

Functions of Cells

  1. Maintain cellular integrity and structure/shape, 2. Obtain nutrients and form chemical building blocks, 3. Dispose of waste products

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21

Phospholipids

Form phospholipid bilayer (Hydrophilic head & Hydrophobic tails)

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22

Cholesterol

Scattered in hydrophobic region, Increases strength of bilayer, & Provides stability during temperature extremes

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23

Glycolipids

Lipids + carbohydrate, Outer surface of bilayer, Form glycocalyx

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Glycocalyx

identity markers and cell adhesion

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25

3 Lipid Components

phospholipids, cholesterol, glycolipids

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26

2 Protein Components

Integral: embedded within and extend across plasma membrane(Includes glycoproteins) & Peripheral: loosely attached to internal or external surface

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Glycoproteins

help compose glycocalyx

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28

6 Categories of Membrane Proteins

Transport proteins: regulate motion of substance across membrane(Channels, carriers, pumps), Cell surface receptors: bind ligands(Molecules released from one cell that bind to receptors of another cell), Identify markers: identify cell as belonging to body(glycoproteins), Enzymes: catalyze reactions, Anchoring sites: secure cytoskeleton to plasma membrane, Cell-adhesion proteins: allow cell-to-cell attachments and connections

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29

Passive processes

No required energy from cell & rely on chemical gradients, Substances use their own kinetic energy, Substances move DOWN their concentration gradient

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Active Processes

Require energy from cell, Substances moved AGAINST their concentration gradient, Release/formation of vesicles

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31

Diffusion

net movement of substance from area of high à low concentration; Passive Process

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32

equilibrium

even distribution of substance

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33

Diffusion rate varies on ...

Steepness of gradient: how extreme the difference is(More extreme = faster rate) & Temperature: higher temperature = faster movement(More heat = more kinetic energy)

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Simple diffusion

Doesn't require transport proteins, Only works for small nonpolar substances, & Follow concentration gradient through membrane

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35

Facilitated diffusion

Requires specialized transport proteins, Required for small charged or polar substances, Broken into two categories(Channel-mediated/Carrier-mediated)

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36

Channel-mediated diffusion

The movement of ions through highly specific channels(Leak channels: always open & Gated channels: usually closed and open only in response to a set stimulus)

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37

Carrier-mediated diffusion

The movement of substances is assisted by specialized carrier proteins(Small polar substances binded to carrier)

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38

Uniporter

Carrier with only one substance binded to it

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39

Osmosis

passive movement of water through a selectively permeable (semipermeable) membrane

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40

Permeable

can pass through membrane(In cells: small nonpolar substances)

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41

Nonpermeable

cannot pass through membrane(Charged, polar, or large substances)

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42

Aquaporins

channel proteins that facilitate the passage of water

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43

Vesicles

small membrane sacs that specialize in moving products into, out of, and within a cell

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44

Tonicity

the ability of a solution to change the volume/pressure of a cell(Isotonic, hypotonic, hypertonic)

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45

Isotonic solution

cell cytosol and surrounding solution have the SAME relative concentration of solutes (No net movement of water into or out of cell)

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46

Hypotonic Solution

Solution has lower concentration of solutes, Within cell: more solutes & less water, Outside of cell: less solutes & more water, Result: water ENTERS cell (Cell may swell or lyse)

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47

Hypertonic solution

Solution has higher concentration of solutes, Within cell: less solutes & more water, Outside of cell: more solutes & less water, Result: water EXITS cell (Cell may crenate:shrivel)

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48

Phosphorylation

The metabolic process of introducing a phosphate group into an organic molecule changing the protein shape

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49

Ion Pump

used to move substances against concentration gradient

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50

Symport

both substances are moving in the same direction

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51

Antiport

substances moving in opposite directions

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52

Exocytosis

movement of substance out of the cell

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53

invagination

the folding in of a membrane or layer of tissue so that an outer surface becomes an inner surface

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54

Phagocytosis

cells form pseudopods to capture material

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55

Pinocytosis

cell engulfs droplets of interstitial fluid

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56

Receptor-mediated endocytosis

substances bind to receptors inside vesicle

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57

Direct contact

two cells physically touch (Important in immune system (glycocalx) & tissue repair)

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Ligand-receptor signaling

molecules released from one cell bind to a receptor on another(3 forms: Channel-linked, Enzymatic, G Protein-Coupled)

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Channel-linked receptors

chemically gated channel that allow ion passage

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Enzymatic receptors

serve as protein kinase enzymes (Phosphorylate other enzymes, Turns them on or off, & Alters activity of cell)

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G protein-coupled receptors

Receptor activates G protein, G protein activates another enzyme or ion channel and produces second messenger substance, Second messenger activates protein kinase enzyme, Alters activity of cell

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62

membrane-bound organelles

possess their own membrane(Similar to plasma membrane)

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63

Endomembrane system

A network of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles.

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64

Non-membrane-bound organelles

lack a membrane, exposed to cytosol, composed of proteins with or without RNA

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65

Rough ER

ribosomes attached; Modifies, transports, and stores proteins produced by the ribosomes; Produces peroxisomes

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Smooth ER

no ribosomes; Synthesizes, transports, and stores lipids; Metabolizes carbohydrates; Detoxifies drugs, alcohol, and poisons

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Functional groups

the components of organic molecules that are most commonly involved in chemical reactions

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68

Golgi apparatus

A system of membranes 4-5 sets of cisternae that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell via transport/secretory vesicles; produce lysosomes

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69

Peroxisomes

Small sacs lined with membrane that contain oxidative enzymes

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70

Cis-face

closer to the ER, larger diameter

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71

Trans-face

further from ER, smaller diameter

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72

Lysosomes

Small sacs lined with membrane that contain digestive enzymes; Autophagy: self-eating, break down damaged organelles & Autolysis: upon extreme cell damage or death, the digestive enzymes are released into the entire cell, destroying it

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73

Detoxification

remove hydrogen atoms from molecules and produces hydrogen peroxide as a byproduct

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74

Beta oxidation

breaks down fatty acid molecules and forms Acetyl CoA

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75

Mitochondria

Possess a double membrane(divided into outer compartment and matrix & Inner folds called cristae), Produce ATP for cell

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76

Translation

RNA to protein

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77

Bound ribosomes

attached to rough ER (Proteins that leave cell, become enzymes, join plasma membrane)

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78

Free ribosomes

suspended in cytosol (proteins that function within cell)

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79

Cytoskeleton

Structural support and organization(provides cell framework), Cell division(pulls the chromosomes apart in mitosis), Movement(move structures around the cell and aids in muscle contraction); 3 Types(Microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and Microtubules)

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80

Microfilaments

Composed of actin protein(2 intertwined thin strands); Line the inner side of the plasma membrane; Maintain cell shape & Support microvilli & Separate cells during mitosis/meiosis & Move cytoplasm & Muscle contraction

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81

Intermediate Filaments

Structural support for cells & Stabilize junctions between cells

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82

Microtubules

Hollow and composed of tubulin protein; Maintain cell shape & Organize/move organelles & Contribute to structure of cilia/flagella & Contribute to vesicle transport & Separate chromosomes during mitosis/meiosis

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83

Centrioles

Located near the nucleus and help to organize cell division

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84

Ubiquitin

Proteasomes tag unwanted proteins with this protein

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85

Cilia

numerous/small; Allow cells to interact with/move surrounding substances

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86

Flagella

singular/long; Allow entire cell to propel itself

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87

Tight Junctions

Tightly join plasma membranes of neighboring epithelial cells & Prevent substances from moving between cells(leaking)

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88

Desmosomes

Hold cells together at a single point, Helps tissue resist mechanical stress, Protein plaque with protein filaments running through

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89

Hemidesmosomes

anchors basal portion of cell to underlying components

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90

Gap junctions

allow substances to pass between cells and contains transmembrane connexon proteins (Ions, glucose, amino acids, small solutes)

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91

nuclear envelope

outer double membrane of nucleus continuous with ER

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92

Nuclear pores

holes in membrane that allow passage of large substances(Protein, RNA, ions)

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93

Nucleoplasm

fluid inside nucleus

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94

Nucleolus

produce ribosomes subunits and composed of protein and RNA; Darker staining round body that is Non-membrane-bound

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95

DNA

molecule of genetic information; Stored wrapped around histone proteins (DNA + histone = nucleosome)

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96

Chromatin

DNA/proteins in Interphase that spread out in fine thin threads

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Transcription

DNA to RNA

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98

Somatic cells

majority of cells in the body, everything other than sex cells (Somatic cells divide by mitosis)

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99

Sex cells

sperm, eggs, and secondary oocytes (Sex cells divide by meiosis)

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100

Mitosis

cell division that results in two identical daughter cells; Resting Phase: interphase & 4 Division Phases: Mitotic/M phase

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