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What does the word biology mean?

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What does the word biology mean?

The study of life

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The study of life

  1. organized

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2.need material

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3.maintain control (homeostasis)

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  1. respond

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5.reproduce and grow

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6.all living things adapt

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viruses

made up proteins inside DNA or RNA

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not made up from the cell theory

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cant go by themself have to have another living cell

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Scientific Method

observation

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hypothesis

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experimental/test

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conclusion

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Define scientific method

series of steps used to gain knowledge in science

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Define systematics

study of biodiversity (all different kinds of bio)

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Define taxonomy

identify, name, and classification

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"Founder" of taxonomy?

Carolus Linnaeus

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classification hierarchy.

Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

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binomial nomenclature

two names

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italicized

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genus- capitalized

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species- lowercase

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descriptive

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Define phylogeny

grouping of organisms based on evolutionary history

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phylogenetic tree

bacteria, archaea, eukaryota

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what types of information are used to construct a phylogenetic tree

morphology

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fossils

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molecular traits (classification)

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behavior

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three doamins

eukarya

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bacteria

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archaea

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Basic characteristics of bacteria

-no membrane

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-prokaryotes- no well defined nucleus

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a sexual reproduction- binary fission (one parent cell)

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-single celled and microscopic

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  • diverse in energy and nutrition requirements

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Basic characteristics of eukaarya

eukatyatoes have a true nucleus

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it has 4 kingdoms in eukaryoyes domain

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Basic characteristics of archaea

  • no membrane

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  • similar to bacteria: prokaryotes, sexual reproduction, single cell, microscopic

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  • different from bacteria: cell wall, cell membrane, DNA, ribosomes

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Four Kingdoms of Eukarya

Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia

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Protista

  • protozoa ( animal like )

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-slime molds (fungus like)

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  • eukaryotic algae (plant like)

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  • diverse nutrition

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-diverse in size

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-mostly single cell

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Fungi

mushroom

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molds

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yeast

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mostly multi cells

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release digestive enzymes

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absorb nutrients reproduction involves spores

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plantae

Mosses

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Ferns

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Flowering plants

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conifers

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photosynthesis

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multicellular

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adapted to land

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Animalia

multicellular

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ability to move

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ingest food

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ways that protists are diverse

highly varied cell structures, several types of reproductive strategies, virtually every possible type of nutrition, and varied habitats. Most single-celled protists are motile, but these organisms use diverse structures for transportation.

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elements found most commonly in living organisms

life, matter, elements

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  • the basic substance of matter

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-cannot be broken down into a simpler form without losing its properties

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-CHNOPS (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur)

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Name the three main subatomic particles, the electrical charge associated with them

protons (+)

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neutrons (=)

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electrons (-)

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Protons

positive charge, found in nucleus

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Neutrons

no charge, found in nucleus

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Electrons

negative charge, outside nucleus (outer shell)

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atomic number

the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

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atomic mass

Number of protons and neutrons

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mass number

the total number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus.

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Octect Rule (Rule of 8)

atom is stable when outer electron shell is full

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valence shell= outer shell

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valence shell

outermost electron shell

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Define isotope

atoms of same element that have different numbers of neutrons

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radioactive isotope

unstable isotopes

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releases energy as it changes to a more stable form

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covalent bond

chemical bond that occurs when atoms share electrons

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  • structural formula H-H or O=O

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  • molecular formula H2 or O2

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nonpolar bond

atoms in a nonpolar covalent bond share the electrons equally

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polar

shared electrons are attracted more to one atom than the other

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ionic bond

chemical bonds between negative and positive ions

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example : salt=NaCl (sodium chloride)

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hydrogen bonding

  • partial positive hydrogen of one molecule attracted to partial negative atom of another molecule

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-not strong bond

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gives water its many unique properties

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Which bond is the strongest?

covalent bond

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Which bond is the weakest?

Hydrogen

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which bond is found between two water molecules ?

hydrogen bonds

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Define electronegativity

Atom's ability to attract and hold electrons.

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