Pre-AP Midterm

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Major World Regions

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Major World Regions

  • Middle East, South Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Africa, Latin America; North America, Europe (be able to identify on a map)

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History

  • The study of past events based on historical writings

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Historian

  • A person who analyzes historical sources, formulates theses, and writes about past events

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Economist

  • A person who studies resources, money, and labor practices and how they impact society

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Archaologist

  • A person who analyzes past societies through a study of artifacts

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Artifact

Items left behind by past societies

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Anthropologist

  • A person who studies the origin, development, and behavior of humans.

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Geographer

  • A person who studies landforms, regions, climate, and the environment.  Often, geographers assist historians in piecing together past events

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Archipelago

  • A chain of islands

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Isthmus

  • A narrow strip of land connecting to larger areas of land

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Steppe

  • A high, cold, flat plain

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Primary Source

  • A source of learning about the past that is from the past

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Secondary Source

  • A source of learning about the past that is not from the period being studied

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Oral History

  • Spoken traditions about past events

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Comparison

  • Historical thinking skill relating to noting similarities and differences between at least two societies

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Cause and Effect

  • Historical thinking skill -  a cause is a source or producer of effects. An effect is the result or consequence of a cause

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Continuity and Change Over Time

  • Historical thinking skill - over a period of time, some political, social or economic developments occur producing a new thing or change.  Over that period of time, many things remain the same, or continuous

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Historical Context

  • The big picture or background surrounding a historical development

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Geographic Context

  • How the terrain, climate, or environment directly influenced the historical development in question

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Longitude and Latitude

  • Grid-like pattern of intersecting lines superimposed on world maps to indicate location.

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Australopithecus

  • Early human ancestor discovered in the Great Rift region of Eastern Africa.  Demonstrated bi-pedal development of hominids

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Lucy

  • Name given to the Australopithecus skeleton discovered in East Africa

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The Leakeys

Family of scientists who discovered Australopithecus

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Great Rift Valley

  • East African location that is believed to be the starting point of human migration across the world and the location of the discovery of Lucy

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Paleolithic Period

  • Stone Age - pre-Neolithic period

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Migration

  • Movement of people from one geographic region to another

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Neolithic Revolution

  • 10,000 BCE beginning of agriculture, domestication, pastoralism, and the rise of civilization

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Agriculture

  • Farming - allows for stable settled communities that stay in one location

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Domestication

  • The use of plants and animals for human needs

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Irrigation

  • Channeling water to locations where needed for farming

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Terrace Farming

  • Cutting steps in the sides of mountains to increase the surface area under cultivation

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Chinampas

  • Floating gardens resulting from felled trees covered in soil to increase the surface area under cultivation

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Civilization

  • Complex societies with government, laws, religious beliefs, and advanced economies

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Urbanization

  • The growth of cities

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Pastoralism

  • People who follow a herd as an economic source - important agents of cultural diffusion

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Cultural Diffusion

  • The spreading of ways of life from one group of people to another

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Core and Foundational Civilizations

  • Egypt, Mesopotamia, Indus River, Yellow, Olmec, and Chavin

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Mesopotamia

  • The land between the rivers (Tigris-Euphrates) located in the Middle East

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Tigris-Euphrates Rivers and the Geography of Mesopotamia

  • A Fertile Crescent of arable land allowed for the growth of early cities.

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Geography of Mesopotamia

  • Relatively low-lying flat plains that were prone to invasions

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Cuneiform

  • The earliest form of pictographic writing - shapes pressed into wet clay tablets to keep track of surplus agriculture

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Sumer, Ur, Uruk, Eridu

  • City-states that represent the earliest known sites of human civilization located in Mesopotamia

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Assyrians

  • A warlike Mesopotamian society that established an empire throughout the region.  Known for iron weapons, use of chariots in the military, and a library in the city of Nineveh.  Very intolerant

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Babylonians

  • The group that established a large Mesopotamian empire - generally tolerant toward conquered groups

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Hammurabi

  • King of the Babylonians known for his system of 282 laws

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Code of Hammurabi

  • System of 282 laws; one of the earliest known systems of law

  • Different punishments for different classes of people

  • Reinforced the idea that government is responsible for what happens in society

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Ziggurat

  • Pyramid-like temple of the Mesopotamians

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Nile River

  • “The Gift of the Nile” - river was the giver of life and civilization for the Egyptians

  • Predictable flooding every 365 days - led to innovations such as irrigation, the calendar, and a powerful government

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Geography of Egypt

  • Egyptian geography isolated by the desert so the society developed uninterrupted for a long period of time

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Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms

  • Divisions of Ancient Egyptian history

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Pharaoh

  • Powerful king of the Egyptians - believed to be a living god

  • Buried in ornate sarcophagi in the pyramids

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Pyramid

  • Huge Egyptian burial tombs meant to symbolize the awesome power of the Pharaoh

  • Demonstrates advanced building methods and ways of organization

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Hieroglyphics

  • Pictographic writing systems of the Ancient Egyptians

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Rosetta Stone

  • Artifact uncovered in the early 1800s containing a text written in Egyptian, Greek, and Aramaic

  • Allowed for the translation of hieroglyphics

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Polytheism

  • Belief in many gods

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Indus River Valley and the Geography of South Asia

  • Isolated beneath the Hindu Kush and Himalayan mountain reigns

  • Very little (but some) diffusion of ideas and products to and from other regions

  • Indus River flooded unpredictably yet the society developed sophisticated urban planning methods

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Urban Planning Citadel

  • Streets in city-states such as Harappa and Mohenjo - Daro laid out in grid like patterns with highly developed plumbing systems beneath

  • Citadels were fortified areas in the cities that were probably centers of government administration

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Himalaya Mountain Range

  • Large central Asian mountain range that isolated South and East Asia from one another and other regions

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Harappa and Mohenjo Daro

  • South Asian city-states that were centers of political, social, and economic development

  • Located along the banks of the Indus River

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Aryans

  • South Asian population group whose invasions did much to shape the demographic makeup of the area

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Yellow River

  • “China’s Sorrow” unpredictable flooding

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Geography of East Asia

  • Isolated from other regions due to the Pacific Ocean, Himalayan Mountains, Gobi, and Taklamakan Deserts

  • Led to cultural isolation

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Desert

  • Isolating geographic factor in the north of China

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Shang Dynasty

  • The first confirmed Chinese dynasty established circa 1900 BCE

  • Known for pictographic writing, ancestor worship, and oracle study

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Zhou Dynasty

  • The dynasty that followed the Shang established circa 1000 BCE

  • known for the concepts of the Mandate of Heaven, filial piety, and the dynastic cycle

  • The dynasty that Confucius lived during

  • A very influential dynasty

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Mandate of Heaven

  • Chinese concept where the emperor gets his power to rule from God

  • Natural signs determine how long a dynasty may maintain the Mandate

  • If it is a time of prosperity, it is believed the ruler has the mandate of heaven;  if not, the ruler's citizens will question his rule and want him to leave

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Silk

  • Cloth-making commodity produced in East Asia - primary product exchanged via the Silk Road which connected East Asia to the outside world

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Olmecs

  • An Early Mesoamerican society known for the “Giant Head” sculptures

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Big Head Sculptures

  • Massive Olmec art forms that probably indicate a high level of power of their government

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Chavin

  • Early South American “Andean” society known for the magnificent capital city of Chavin de Huantar

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Chavin de Huantar

  • The Chavin capital city located in the Andes Mountains

  • Was located at the intersection of American trade networks

  • A high level of organization

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Trade Networks

  • Mediterranean

  • Silk Road

    • East Asia to the Middle East

  • Trans-Saharan

  • Indian Ocean

  • Royal Road

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Monsoons

  • Seasonal winds impacted trade in the Indian Ocean trade network

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Caravans

  • Merchants who traveled in large groups for safety across land-based trade networks such as the Trans-Saharan and Silk Roads

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Caravanserai

  • “Rest stops” along land-based trade networks that facilitated exchange and cultural diffusion

  • Makes traveling easier

  • “Safe-havens”

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Han Dynasty

  • A Chinese dynasty lasting from approximately 200 BCE - 200 CE

  • Was known for the use of Confucian concepts of society and government

  • Had civil service exams, the development of paper, and the expansion of the empire into new areas

  • Existed concurrently with the Romans

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Dynastic Cycle

  • The Chinese concept of the natural rise, reign, and decline of dynasties over time

  • Has to do with the Mandate of Heaven and the right to rule

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Confucianism

  • A belief system based on the ideas of Kung Fu Zi (Confucius)

  • Meritocracy and filial piety

  • 5 relationships

    • Young inferior to old

    • Women inferior to men

    • Subject inferior to a king

    • Child inferior to parent

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Filial Piety

  • Veneration of the family

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Paper

  • Was developed during the Han period and diffused along the Silk Road westward over a period of hundreds of years

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Achaemenid Empire

  • A Persian Empire that unified a large area of what is today the Middle East and Iran

  • Known for Zoroastrianism and government innovations

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Cyrus

  • Founder of the Achaemenid Persian Empire - tolerant toward conquered peoples

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Darius

  • Son of Cyrus

  • Innovated the idea of empire being broken down into provinces with provincial leaders that reported to the central government

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Satraps

  • Persian governors

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Satrapies

  • Persian provinces

  • Darius divided it

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Zoroastrianism

  • Persian monotheistic religion that contributed to ideas about the afterlife, heaven, and hell

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Mauryan Empire

  • South Asian empire founded circa 300 BCE

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Hinduism

  • South Asian polytheistic faith-based partly on the ideas of the Aryans

  • Belief activity in life determines position in the next life

  • Reincarnation

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Caste System

  • Social hierarchy of the Hindu religion (Brahmans, Kshatyras, Vaiyes, Sudra, Pariah), influenced South Asian political, social, economic, and demographic development

  • Birth determines what your dharma is.  Based on how you fulfill your duty, it will decide your caste in the next life

  • Caste could not be changed

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Karma

  • Hindu idea that activity during this life influences the next one

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Dharma

  • The specific duty associated with each caste in the Hindu religion

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Buddhism

  • Belief system founded by Siddhartha Gautama as a reaction to the caste system of Hinduism

  • Belief in the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path

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Four Noble Truths

  • Buddhist notion that;

    • life is pain

    • pain is caused by desire

    • the way to eliminate pain is to eliminate desire

    • the way to eliminate desire is to follow the eightfold path

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Eightfold Path

  • The Buddhist prescription for how to live life

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Gupta Empire

  • South Asian dynasty known as a period of Golden Age that lasted from approximately 300 CE - 460 CE

  • Mathematicians developed the idea of zero and some used algebra

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Concept of Zero

  • Developed by Ancient Indians

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Aryabhata

  • Mathematician known for the use of algebra

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Ancient Greek Geography

  • Aegean Sea

  • Mountains and islands had the effect of isolation of individual city-states

  • Hot, dry summers with little arable land for agriculture led to a seafaring way of life and the establishment of colonies in other areas

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City States

  • The principle political format of the Ancient Greek civilization (Sparta, Athens, Corinth would be examples)

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Athens/Sparta

  • Two city-states in Ancient Greece that represent vastly different ideas of political, social, and economic organization

  • Athens: Attica; democracy, trade, philosophy, drama, patriarchy and history

  • Sparta: militarism, self-sufficiency, patriarchy, and oligarchy

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