research methods in psych exam 1

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172 Terms
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hypothesis

prediction of specific outcome the researcher will observe in a study

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research design

a detailed plan or method for obtaining data scientifically

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data

facts, figures, and other evidence gathered through observations

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preregistered hypothesis

the hypothesis you create before conducting any experiments/doing any research

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replication

test is conducted again to see if results are consistent

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weight of evidence

the collection of studies, including replications, of the same theory

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falsifiability

possible to collect data that will indicate the theory is wrong

can generate hypotheses that can be proved wrong

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applied research

find a solution to a real world problem

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basic research

enhance general body of knowledge

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translational research

uses knowledge derived from basic research and test solutions to real world problems

>helping others

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mertons scientific norms

universalism, communality, disinterestedness, organized skepticism

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universalism

Scientific claims are evaluated according to their merit, independent of the researcher's credentials or reputation

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communality

Scientific knowledge is created by a community and its findings belong to the community

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disinterestedness

scientists strive to discover the truth, whatever it is; they are not swayed by conviction, idealism, politics, or profit

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organized skepticism

scientists question everything, including their own theories, widely accepted ideas, and "ancient wisdom."

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research producer

students need skills as producers of research

> they develop the ability to work in research laboratories and make new discoveries

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what are psychologists?

empiricists

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research consumer

students need skills as consumers of research

> they need to be able to find, read, and evaluate the research behind important policies, therapies, and workplace decisions

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Being swayed by a good story

accepting a conclusion just because it makes sense or feels natural

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availabilty heuristic

things that pop up easily in our minds tend to guide our thinking

- exposure influences thoughts

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present bias

only focusing on the times that something did happen

- failing to think about things we cannot see

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confirmation bias

only searching or accepting information that proves your point/opinion

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bias blind spot

the belief that we are unlikely to fall prey to the other biases

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research vs experience

-experience has no comparison group and is confounded

-research is better than experience and is probabilistic

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Confounding Variables (CV)

a variable that gives an alternative result to a research finding

- threat to internal validity

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probabilistic results

stating that science is intended to explain a certain proportion

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research vs intuition

~ intuition is biased by faulty thinking

~ intuition is biased by motivation

^^the biases

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trusting authorities

you should treat authorities with the same skepticism as intuition and experience

- only base things off RESEARCH

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consulting scientific sources

-empirical journal articles

-review journal articles

-books or edited books

-psychINFO

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empirical journal articles

a scholarly article that reports (for the first time!) the results of a research study

- peer-reviewed

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review journal articles

summarize and integrate all the published studies that have been done in one research area

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books and edited books

-edited chapter of a book

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finding information

- look for proper information and sources and avoid disinformation

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peer reviewed articles

most selective scholarly journals (refereed)

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scholarly journals

type of periodical designed by scholars for a scholarly audience

- contains research articles and/or disseminates current info on research & development in a particular subject field

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periodicals

publications appearing indefinitely at regular or stated intervals

- more frequently than yearly

ex: magazines

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variables

something that varies

- can change an experiment

- at least two values

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constant

something that could potentially vary but that has only one level in the study in question

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measured variable (dependent)

one whose levels are simply observed and recorded

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manipulated variable (independent)

variable a researcher controls/creates

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constructs/conceptual variables

name of concept being studied

- theory

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operationalize

- operational definitions/variables

how the construct is measured or manipulated in an actual study

- turning abstract concepts or ideas into observable and measurable observation

- the statement of procedures the researcher is going to use in order to measure a specific variable

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conceptual definition

a careful, theoretical definition of the construct

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3 claims

frequency, association, causal

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frequency claim

describe a particular rate or degree of a single variable

- the frequency of something happening

- focuses on ONE variable

- always measured, never manipulated

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association claim

something "linked" to something else

- as x changes, so does y

- always 2 variables measured (NOT manipulated)

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causal claims

arguing that one of the variables is responsible for changing the other

- casual relationship between 2 variables

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3 rules for causation:

1. covariance

2. temporal precedence

3. internal validity

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which claim is most related to a representative sample?

frequency claim

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construct validity

the extent to which variables measure what they are supposed to measure

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representative

the extent to which the subjects in a study represent the populations they are intended to represent

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generalization

applying the results from an experiment to a different or broader population

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external validity

how well the results of a study generalize to, or represent, people or contexts OUTSIDE of those in the original study *biased sampling techniques useful*

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statistical validity

extent to which a study's statistical conclusions are precise, reasonable and replicable

- type I and II error

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type II - miss

null hypothesis is not rejected when it should have been

ex: guilty person is not convicted

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point estimate

single estimate of some population value

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type I - false alarm

concluding that there is no effect when there is one

- mistaken rejection of a null hypothesis that is actually true

- false positive

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confidence interval/margin of error of the estimate

given range indicated by upper and lower value that is designed to capture the population

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internal validity

the extent to which A, rather than some other variable (C), is responsible for changes in B

- one of three criteria for establishing causal claim

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observed effect:

caused only by the experimental condition

- freedom from confounds

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Covariance

as A changes, B changes

- one of three criteria for establishing causal claim

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temporal precedence

A comes first before b

- one of three criteria for establishing causal claim

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independent variable

variable that is manipulated

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dependent variable

variable that is measured

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To interrogate a frequency claim:

ask questions about the study's construct validity, external validity, and statistical validity

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To interrogate an association claim:

ask about its construct, external, and statistical validity. Statistical validity

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to interrogate a causal claim:

was study conducted as experiment?

- only way to establish internal validity and temporal precedence

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correctional study

two things that are related to eachother

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Belmont Report (1979)

respect for persons, beneficence and justice

- basic ethical principles and guidelines

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Tuskegee Syphilis Study

poor black men with syphilis were studied and (1) not told they had syphilis (2) not told there was a drug to cure it

^this situation caused the belmont report

ex: men were not treated respectfully, men in study were harmed, researchers targeted a socially disadvantaged group

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Milgram Obedience Studies

teacher (you) gives a shock to student (someone in on the experiment) when they get a question wrong and you can heard the student scream and ask to stop but instructors tell you to keep going

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respect for persons

participants should be treated as autonomos agents that deserve special protection

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informed consent

the right for participants to know what is occurring in the study and what will happen to them

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beneficence

researchers must take precautions to protect participants from harm and to ensure their well-being

- informed consent, protect vulnerable populations, freedom fromcoercion

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justice

fair balance between the kinds of people who participate in research and the kinds of people who benefit from it

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apa ethical principles for benefience

a. beneficence and nonmaleficence

b. fidelity and responsibility

c. integrity

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apa ethical principles for justice

justice

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apa ethical principles for respect for persons

respect for peoples rights and dignity

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Institutional Review Board (IRB)

considers costs and benefits of research

- protects peoples data

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IBR deception

withhold some details of the study from participants—deception through *omission*

researchers actively lied to participants—deception through *commission*

- for the sake of the study coming out the way they want it

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research misconduct

occurs when a researcher fabricates or falsifies data, or plagiarizes information or ideas within a research report

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data fabrication

researchers invent data that fit their hypotheses

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data falsification

researchers influence a study's results

- deleting observations from a data set

- influencing their research subjects to act in the hypothesized way

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Animal Care Guidelines and the Three Rs.

replacement - find other test subjects if possible

refinement - make sure study is the least invasive it can be/eliminate animal distress

reduction - adopt experimental designs and procedures that require the fewest animal subjects possible

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conceptual definition (or construct)

researcher's definition of the variable in question at a theoretical level

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self report measures

participants report on their own thoughts, feelings, and actions

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observational measure

a method of measuring a variable by recording observable behaviors or physical traces of behaviors

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psychological measure

recording biological data

- such as brain activity, hormone levels, or heart rate

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categorical variables

variable whose level are categories

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quantitative variables

meaningful numbers

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ordinal scale

quantitative variable in which numerals represent a rank order.

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interval scale

quantitative variable in which subsequent numerals represent equal distances, but there is no true zero.

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ratio scale

quantitative variable in which numerals represent equal distances and zero represents "none" of the variable being measured.

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3 types of reliability

test-retest, interrater, internal

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test-retest reliability

no matter how many times a test is conducted, study participant will get pretty much the same score each time they are measured with it

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interrater reliability

if two or more researchers are observing the same thing, they should get relatively the same results

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interal reliability

study participant gives a consistent pattern of answers, no matter how the researchers phrase the question

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correlation coefficient (r)

indicate how close the dots, or points, on a scatterplot are to a line drawn through them

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average inter-item correlation (AIC)

mean of all possible correlations computed between each item and the other

- internal reliability

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Cronbach's alpha (coefficient alpha)

mathematically combines the AIC and the number of items in the scale

- internal reliability

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