BIO CH. 7

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How many bones does the human skeleton have?

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1

How many bones does the human skeleton have?

206 bones

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Axial skeleton

  • 80 bones

  • skull bones, auditory ossicles, hyoid bone, ribs, sternum, vertebrae, sacrum

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Appendicular skeleton

  • 126 bones

  • bones of the upper and lower limbs

  • bones forming the pectoral and pelvic girdles

  • connect the limbs to the axial skeleton

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what are the 6 types of bones

  1. long bone

  2. short bone

  3. flat bone

  4. Irregular

  5. Sesamoid

  6. sutural

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long bone

  • greater length than width, slightly curved for strength

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short bone

  • nearly equal in length and width (cube-shaped)

  • spongy bone except surface (which is compact bone)

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flat bone

  • parallel plates of compact bone enclosing spongy bone

  • extensive areas for muscle attachment

  • cranial bones, sternum, ribs, scapulae (shoulder blades)

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Irregular bone

  • complex shapes (basically everything not one of these categories Ex. Calcaneus, hip bones

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Sesamoid bone

  • "sesame seed" shape

  • only a few mm (patella is larger)

  • develop in tendons or ligaments due to friction

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sutural bone

  • small, plate bones located within sutures of cranial bones

  • found between cranial bone

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In which type of adult bones can you find RBM?

Flat bones: ribs, sternum, skull Irregular bones: vertebrae, hip bones Long bones: proximal epiphysis of femur and humerus

<p>Flat bones: ribs, sternum, skull Irregular bones: vertebrae, hip bones Long bones: proximal epiphysis of femur and humerus</p>
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what are surface markings?

  • structural features adapted for specific functions

  • many develop over time in response to tension or compression

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what are the 2 major types of surface markings?

  1. depression and opening

  2. processes

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Depression and openings

  • passageway for soft tissues, like blood vessels and nerves

  • help form joints

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Processes

  • outgrowths that help form joints

  • attachments for tendons or ligaments

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Fissure

narrow slit between bones for passage of blood vessels or nerves

<p>narrow slit between bones for passage of blood vessels or nerves</p>
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Foramen

hole for passage of blood vessels, nerves or ligaments

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Fossa

shallow depression

<p>shallow depression</p>
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sulcus

furrow on a bone for passage of blood vessel, nerve

<p>furrow on a bone for passage of blood vessel, nerve</p>
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meatus

tube-like opening

<p>tube-like opening</p>
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condyle

rounded projection with a smooth articular surface

<p>rounded projection with a smooth articular surface</p>
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Facet

smooth, flat, slightly concave articular surface

<p>smooth, flat, slightly concave articular surface</p>
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Head

usually rounded articular process supported on a neck

<p>usually rounded articular process supported on a neck</p>
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Crest

prominent ridge or elongated process

<p>prominent ridge or elongated process</p>
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Epicondyle

  • projection on a condyle

  • usually roughened

<ul><li><p>projection on a condyle</p></li><li><p>usually roughened</p></li></ul>
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line

long, narrow ridge or border (less prominent than a crest)

<p>long, narrow ridge or border (less prominent than a crest)</p>
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Spinous process

sharp, slender projection

<p>sharp, slender projection</p>
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trochanter

very large projection found ONLY on the femur

<p>very large projection found ONLY on the femur</p>
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tubercle

variably sized rounded projection

<p>variably sized rounded projection</p>
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tuberosity

variably sized projection with rough, bumpy surface

<p>variably sized projection with rough, bumpy surface</p>
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How many cranial and facial bones does the skull have?

  • 8 cranial bones

  • 14 facial bones

= total of 22 bones

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what are the 8 cranial bones?

  • frontal

  • parietal (x2)

  • temporal (x2)

  • occipital

  • sphenoid

  • Ethmoid

<ul><li><p>frontal</p></li><li><p>parietal (x2)</p></li><li><p>temporal (x2)</p></li><li><p>occipital</p></li><li><p>sphenoid</p></li><li><p>Ethmoid</p></li></ul>
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Cranial bones

  • forms cranial cavity

  • protects brain and ear ossicles

  • muscle attachment for jaw, neck and facial muscles

<ul><li><p>forms cranial cavity</p></li><li><p>protects brain and ear ossicles</p></li><li><p>muscle attachment for jaw, neck and facial muscles</p></li></ul>
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Facial bones

  • protect delicate sense organs; smell, taste, vision

  • support entrances to digestive and respiratory systems

<ul><li><p>protect delicate sense organs; smell, taste, vision</p></li><li><p>support entrances to digestive and respiratory systems</p></li></ul>
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what bone forms the supraorbital margin?

  • frontal bone

<ul><li><p>frontal bone</p></li></ul>
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what bone forms the frontal sinus?

  • frontal bone

<ul><li><p>frontal bone</p></li></ul>
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what bone forms the supraorbital foramen?

  • frontal bone

<ul><li><p>frontal bone</p></li></ul>
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frontal bone

  • forms the forehead (frontal squama), roof of orbits, and anterior cranial floor

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how can a black eye result from?

  • accumulation of fluid and blood in the upper eyelid following a blow to the relatively sharp supraorbital margin (brow line)

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parietal bones

  • forms the sides and roof of cranial cavity

  • inner surfaces have markings of dura mater blood vessels

<ul><li><p>forms the sides and roof of cranial cavity</p></li><li><p>inner surfaces have markings of dura mater blood vessels</p></li></ul>
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what are the 7 bones in the temporal bones

  • temporal squama

  • zygomatic process

  • external auditory meatus

  • mastoid process

  • styloid process

  • mandibular fossa

  • articular tubercle

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temporal squama

  • forms the temple

<ul><li><p>forms the temple</p></li></ul>
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zygomatic process

  • forms part of the zygomatic arch

<ul><li><p>forms part of the zygomatic arch</p></li></ul>
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external auditory meatus

  • ear canal

<ul><li><p>ear canal</p></li></ul>
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mastoid process

  • attachment point for neck muscles

<ul><li><p>attachment point for neck muscles</p></li></ul>
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styloid process

  • attachment point for muscles and ligaments of the tongue

<ul><li><p>attachment point for muscles and ligaments of the tongue</p></li></ul>
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mandibular fossa an articular tubercle

  • forms parts of the temporomandibular joint

<ul><li><p>forms parts of the temporomandibular joint</p></li></ul>
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what are found at the occipital bone (5)

  • foramen magnum

  • occipital condyles

  • external occipital protuberance

  • superior and inferior nuchal lines

<ul><li><p>foramen magnum</p></li><li><p>occipital condyles</p></li><li><p>external occipital protuberance</p></li><li><p>superior and inferior nuchal lines</p></li></ul>
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foramen magnum

  • "large hole" for nervous tissue

  • medulla oblongata connects with spinal cord

<ul><li><p>&quot;large hole&quot; for nervous tissue</p></li><li><p>medulla oblongata connects with spinal cord</p></li></ul>
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occipital condyles

articulates with the atlas (C1) forming the atlanto-occipital joint

<p>articulates with the atlas (C1) forming the atlanto-occipital joint</p>
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External occipital protuberance

  • attachment for ligamentum nuchae, which helps support the head (attaches to large spinous process on C7)

<ul><li><p>attachment for ligamentum nuchae, which helps support the head (attaches to large spinous process on C7)</p></li></ul>
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Superior and inferior nuchal lines

  • sites for muscle attachment

<ul><li><p>sites for muscle attachment</p></li></ul>
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sphenoid bone

  • articulates with all other cranial bones, holding them together (acts as a keystone)

  • lies posterior and superior to nasal cavity

  • forms parts of the floor and walls of orbits

  • divided into body (contains sphenoidal sinuses) and greater and lesser wings

<ul><li><p>articulates with all other cranial bones, holding them together (acts as a keystone)</p></li><li><p>lies posterior and superior to nasal cavity</p></li><li><p>forms parts of the floor and walls of orbits</p></li><li><p>divided into body (contains sphenoidal sinuses) and greater and lesser wings</p></li></ul>
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parts of the sphenoid bone (7)

  • greater wings

  • lesser wings

  • pterygoid processes

  • optic foramen

  • optic canal

  • hypophyseal fossa

  • Sella turcica

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greater wings

  • form part of the cranial floor

  • lateral portion visible externally on skull

<ul><li><p>form part of the cranial floor</p></li><li><p>lateral portion visible externally on skull</p></li></ul>
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lesser wings (smaller)

  • form part of cranial floor and posterior part of orbit

<ul><li><p>form part of cranial floor and posterior part of orbit</p></li></ul>
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pterygoid process

  • inferior and lateral to the body

  • form posterior part of nasal cavity

  • provide attachment points for some muscles that move the mandible

<ul><li><p>inferior and lateral to the body</p></li><li><p>form posterior part of nasal cavity</p></li><li><p>provide attachment points for some muscles that move the mandible</p></li></ul>
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optic foramen

  • opening to the optic canal (x2)

  • located on the same place as optic canal

<ul><li><p>opening to the optic canal (x2)</p></li><li><p>located on the same place as optic canal</p></li></ul>
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optic canal

  • located inferior to the lesser wings and lateral to the body

  • small foramen

  • opening through which the optic nerve passes (coming from the orbit into the cranium)

<ul><li><p>located inferior to the lesser wings and lateral to the body</p></li><li><p>small foramen</p></li><li><p>opening through which the optic nerve passes (coming from the orbit into the cranium)</p></li></ul>
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hypophyseal fossa

  • pituitary gland sits in the hypophyseal

  • superior surface of the body of the sphenoid bone

<ul><li><p>pituitary gland sits in the hypophyseal</p></li><li><p>superior surface of the body of the sphenoid bone</p></li></ul>
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stella turcica

  • hypophyseal fossa is located in the stella turcica

  • superior surface of the body of the sphenoid bone

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ethmoid bone

  • delicate bone; sponge-like in appearance

  • lateral masses contain air spaces = ethmoidal sinuses

  • major support and component of nasal cavity

  • also forms part of the anterior cranial floor and medial wall of orbits

<ul><li><p>delicate bone; sponge-like in appearance</p></li><li><p>lateral masses contain air spaces = ethmoidal sinuses</p></li><li><p>major support and component of nasal cavity</p></li><li><p>also forms part of the anterior cranial floor and medial wall of orbits</p></li></ul>
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parts of the ethmoid bone (4)

  • cribriform plate

  • crista galli

  • perpendicular plate

  • nasal conchae

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cribriform plate

  • anterior cranial floor

  • rood of nasal cavity

  • perforated by olfactory foramina = passageway for olfactory nerves

<ul><li><p>anterior cranial floor</p></li><li><p>rood of nasal cavity</p></li><li><p>perforated by olfactory foramina = passageway for olfactory nerves</p></li></ul>
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crista galli

  • superiorly projecting triangular process

  • attachment point for membranes that separate the 2 sides of the brain

<ul><li><p>superiorly projecting triangular process</p></li><li><p>attachment point for membranes that separate the 2 sides of the brain</p></li></ul>
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perpendicular plate

  • inferior projection

  • forms superior portion of nasal septum

<ul><li><p>inferior projection</p></li><li><p>forms superior portion of nasal septum</p></li></ul>
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Nasal conchae

  • scroll-like processes lateral to nasal septum

  • superior and middle nasal conchae

  • increases vascular and mucous membrane surface area = warms and moistens air, causes air to swirl

<ul><li><p>scroll-like processes lateral to nasal septum</p></li><li><p>superior and middle nasal conchae</p></li><li><p>increases vascular and mucous membrane surface area = warms and moistens air, causes air to swirl</p></li></ul>
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lacrimal bones

  • paired bones form part of medial wall of orbit

  • smallest facial bones; about the size and shape of a fingernail

  • each contain a lacrimal fossa = houses lacrimal sac

<ul><li><p>paired bones form part of medial wall of orbit</p></li><li><p>smallest facial bones; about the size and shape of a fingernail</p></li><li><p>each contain a lacrimal fossa = houses lacrimal sac</p></li></ul>
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palatine

  • 2 L-shaped bones

  • horizontal plate forms posterior part of hard palate

  • also form part of floor and lateral wall of nasal cavity and a small part of the orbit

<ul><li><p>2 L-shaped bones</p></li><li><p>horizontal plate forms posterior part of hard palate</p></li><li><p>also form part of floor and lateral wall of nasal cavity and a small part of the orbit</p></li></ul>
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inferior nasal concha

  • only one of the 3 nasal concha that is a separate bone

  • largest and most important for directing air flow

<ul><li><p>only one of the 3 nasal concha that is a separate bone</p></li><li><p>largest and most important for directing air flow</p></li></ul>
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vomer

  • single bone

  • forms the inferior/posterior part of the nasal septum

<ul><li><p>single bone</p></li><li><p>forms the inferior/posterior part of the nasal septum</p></li></ul>
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maxillary bones

  • paired maxillae (one maxilla; 2 maxillae or can call them maxillary bones)

  • together forms upper jaw bone

  • form the floor of orbit, floor of nasal cavity, and most of hard palate (palatine processes)

  • each bone contains a large maxillary sinus

  • alveolar process hold upper teeth

  • articulate with every facial bone except the mandible (lower jawbone)

  • DO NOT articulate with every cranial bone

<ul><li><p>paired maxillae (one maxilla; 2 maxillae or can call them maxillary bones)</p></li><li><p>together forms upper jaw bone</p></li><li><p>form the floor of orbit, floor of nasal cavity, and most of hard palate (palatine processes)</p></li><li><p>each bone contains a large maxillary sinus</p></li><li><p>alveolar process hold upper teeth</p></li><li><p>articulate with every facial bone except the mandible (lower jawbone)</p></li><li><p>DO NOT articulate with every cranial bone</p></li></ul>
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zygomatic bones

  • paired; forms part of cheekbones

  • also form lateral wall and floor of each orbit

  • temporal process articulates with zygomatic process of temporal bone = together forms zygomatic arch

<ul><li><p>paired; forms part of cheekbones</p></li><li><p>also form lateral wall and floor of each orbit</p></li><li><p>temporal process articulates with zygomatic process of temporal bone = together forms zygomatic arch</p></li></ul>
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mandible

  • largest, strongest facial bone

  • only movable skull bone

<ul><li><p>largest, strongest facial bone</p></li><li><p>only movable skull bone</p></li></ul>
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parts of the mandible (5)

  • condylar process

  • coronoid process

  • alveolar process

  • mandibular foramina

  • mental foramina

<ul><li><p>condylar process</p></li><li><p>coronoid process</p></li><li><p>alveolar process</p></li><li><p>mandibular foramina</p></li><li><p>mental foramina</p></li></ul>
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condylar process

  • located on the mandible bone

  • articulates with mandibular fossa and articulate tubercle of temporal bone = temporomandibular joint

<ul><li><p>located on the mandible bone</p></li><li><p>articulates with mandibular fossa and articulate tubercle of temporal bone = temporomandibular joint</p></li></ul>
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coronoid process

site for muscle attachment

<p>site for muscle attachment</p>
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alveolar process

contains lower teeth

<p>contains lower teeth</p>
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mandibular and mental foramina

openings for nerves and blood vessels supplying the lower jaw

<p>openings for nerves and blood vessels supplying the lower jaw</p>
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The nasal septum consists of which 3 structures?

  • vomer

  • perpendicular plate of ethmoid

  • septal cartilage

<ul><li><p>vomer</p></li><li><p>perpendicular plate of ethmoid</p></li><li><p>septal cartilage</p></li></ul>
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sutures

  • immobile joint that holds skull (flat) bones together

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what are the 4 main types of sutures?

  1. coronal suture

  2. squamous suture

  3. sagittal suture

  4. lambdoid suture

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coronal suture

  • unites frontal with he parietal bones

<ul><li><p>unites frontal with he parietal bones</p></li></ul>
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squamous suture

  • unites parietal and temporal bones

<ul><li><p>unites parietal and temporal bones</p></li></ul>
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sagittal suture

  • unites the 2 parietal bones

<ul><li><p>unites the 2 parietal bones</p></li></ul>
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lambdoid suture

  • unites parietal and occipital bones

<ul><li><p>unites parietal and occipital bones</p></li></ul>
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paranasal sinuses

  • bones containing the sinuses are the frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, maxillae

  • are cavities in bones of the skull near the nasal cavity

  • lined by mucous membranes that are continuous with the lining of the nasal cavity

<ul><li><p>bones containing the sinuses are the frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, maxillae</p></li><li><p>are cavities in bones of the skull near the nasal cavity</p></li><li><p>lined by mucous membranes that are continuous with the lining of the nasal cavity</p></li></ul>
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functions of paranasal sinuses (3)

  1. decrease the weight of the skull

  2. serve as resonating chambers for voice

  3. increase surface area of nasal mucosa

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fontanels

  • areas where unossified mesenchyme develops into dense irregular connective tissue

  • close through intramembranous ossification by 2 years old

<ul><li><p>areas where unossified mesenchyme develops into dense irregular connective tissue</p></li><li><p>close through intramembranous ossification by 2 years old</p></li></ul>
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4 major fontanels

  1. anterior fontanel

  2. posterior fontanel

  3. anterolateral fontanel

  4. posterolateral fontanel

<ol><li><p>anterior fontanel</p></li><li><p>posterior fontanel</p></li><li><p>anterolateral fontanel</p></li><li><p>posterolateral fontanel</p></li></ol>
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vertebral column

  • aka spine, backbone, spinal column

  • strong, flexible rod

  • protects the spinal cord

  • supports head

  • attachment for ribs, pelvic girdle, muscles

  • composed of 26 vertebrae divided into 5 regions

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what are the 5 regions of vertebral

  • 7 cervical vertebrae

  • 12 thoracic vertebrae

  • 5 lumbar vertebrae

  • 1 sacrum vertebrae (5 fused)

  • 1 coccyx vertebrae (4 fused)

<ul><li><p>7 cervical vertebrae</p></li><li><p>12 thoracic vertebrae</p></li><li><p>5 lumbar vertebrae</p></li><li><p>1 sacrum vertebrae (5 fused)</p></li><li><p>1 coccyx vertebrae (4 fused)</p></li></ul>
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Normal curves of vertebral column

  • increase strength

  • maintain balance

  • absorb shocks

<ul><li><p>increase strength</p></li><li><p>maintain balance</p></li><li><p>absorb shocks</p></li></ul>
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Primary curves

  • concave (cupping in)

  • thoracic and sacral curves are formed during fetal development

<ul><li><p>concave (cupping in)</p></li><li><p>thoracic and sacral curves are formed during fetal development</p></li></ul>
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Secondary curves

  • convex (bulging out)

  • cervical curve formed when infant raises head at 4 months

  • lumbar curve forms when infant sits up and begins to walk at 1 year

<ul><li><p>convex (bulging out)</p></li><li><p>cervical curve formed when infant raises head at 4 months</p></li><li><p>lumbar curve forms when infant sits up and begins to walk at 1 year</p></li></ul>
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What are 4 parts of a typical vertebra?

  1. Vertebral body

  2. Vertebral Arch

  3. Vertebral foramen

  4. spinal canal

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Vertebral body

  • located anteriorly

  • weight-bearing

  • together make a stack with intervertebral discs between them

<ul><li><p>located anteriorly</p></li><li><p>weight-bearing</p></li><li><p>together make a stack with intervertebral discs between them</p></li></ul>
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Vertebral Arch

  • located posteriorly; consists of pedicles and laminae

  • body and arch unite to for

<ul><li><p>located posteriorly; consists of pedicles and laminae</p></li><li><p>body and arch unite to for</p></li></ul>
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Vertebral foramen

  • vertebral body and arch unite to form vertebral foramen

<ul><li><p>vertebral body and arch unite to form vertebral foramen</p></li></ul>
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Spinal canal

  • vertebral foramen of all stacked vertebral unite to form the spinal canal

  • contains the spinal cord, adipose tissue, areolar CT, blood vessels

<ul><li><p>vertebral foramen of all stacked vertebral unite to form the spinal canal</p></li><li><p>contains the spinal cord, adipose tissue, areolar CT, blood vessels</p></li></ul>
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