AQA Psychology - Research Methods (copy)

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What is a general statement about what the researcher intends to study; the purpose of the study?

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What is a general statement about what the researcher intends to study; the purpose of the study?

aim

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What is a precise, testable, measurable statement that states the relationship between variables?

hypothesis

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What are the three types of hypothesis?

directional, non-directional and null hypotheses

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Which type of hypothesis only simply states that there will be an effect but does not state which way that effect will go.

non-directional (hypothesis)

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Which hypothesis states that there will be an effect and states which way that effect will go?

directional (hypothesis)

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What is a negative version of the research hypothesis, a statement which predicts there will be no effect?

null hypothesis

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What is the condition/variable that is manipulated in an experiment?

independent variable (IV)

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What is the variable that is changed as a result of changes in the independent variable?

dependent variable (DV)

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What are the variables or conditions that are kept the same throughout the experiment?

control

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What is something other than the IV that could influence the DV or the result if not controlled?

extraneous variables (EV)

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What is the process of clearly defining variables so that they are measurable and testable; making the variable specific?

operationalisation

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What is an extraneous variable that have already affected the result; they can be controlled but was overlooked or cannot be controlled at all?

confounding variable

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Name the four types of experiment.

lab, field, natural and quasi

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What is a type of experiment takes place in a highly controlled, artificial setting?

lab experiments

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What is an experiment takes place in a natural setting?

field experiment

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What type of experiment involves researchers taking advantage of a pre-existing IV?

natural experiment

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What type of experiment involves the IV being a pre-determined characteristic that are different between people, the IV is not manipulated?

quasi experiment

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What is the difference between natural and quasi experiments?

The IV in natural experiments vary naturally whereas in a quasi, it does not vary at all

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What are the three experimental designs?

independent measures design, repeated measures design, matched pairs design

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Which type of experimental design involves participants being matched into pairs based on a characteristic and then each member of the pair takes part in a different condition?

matched pairs

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What are individual differences between participants, usually affect the internal validity of an experiment called?

participant variable

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Which type of experimental design involves all participants completing all conditions of the experiment?

repeated measures

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Which type of experimental design involves participants being placed in separate groups and complete only one condition of the experiment?

independent groups

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What happens when performance is affected by conditions that the participant experienced first like practice effect or boredom effect?

order effects

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How can participant variables be controlled?

use of random allocation

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How can order effects be controlled?

(use of) counterbalancing

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What is the extent to which the results can be generalised to real life?

ecological validity

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What is the extent to which the results of a study can be generalised over time?

temporal validity

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What is validity within the experiment, whether the researchers tested what they expected to test?

internal validity

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What EV is the study suffering from when participants in a study being aware that they are taking part in a study and act unnaturally to satisfy the researcher?

demand characteristics

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What is the extent to which findings from a study can be generalised to other contexts: ecological and temporal validity are examples of external validity)?

external validity

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What is the morality of the experiment?

ethics

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What are the five ethical issues?

deception, lack of informed consent, lack of rights to withdraw, lack of protection from harm, lack of confidentiality

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What is the solution for deception?

debriefing participants at the end

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What is the solution for lack of informed consent, if deception was used?

use of presumptive consent

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What is happening when participants are deliberately misled about the nature of the study; they are not told the true aims of the study?

deception

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How can researchers ensure participants' rights to withdraw?

constantly remind participants that they have the right to withdraw at any point, even after the experiment is over

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How can researchers ensure that participants are protected from harm?

ethics board or ethical committee (can decide whether the experiment can take place); researchers can abandon the study

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How can researchers ensure confidentiality?

use of pseudonyms (when referring to participants in reports)

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What type of research analyses the strength and direction of a relationship between two co-variables?

correlations

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Which type of data are measurable and are often numerical data?

quantitative data

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Which type of data are often more difficult to analyse since it is descriptive?

qualitative data

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What are the three main types of correlations?

positive, negative and no correlations

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What can't correlations establish?

cause-and-effect

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Which type of research methods can establish causal relationships?

experiments

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What is the number that represents the strength and direction of the relationship between two co-variables?

correlation coefficient

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What is the correlation coefficient for a perfect negative correlation?

-1

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What is the correlation coefficient for a perfect positive correlation

+1

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What is the correlation coefficient needed to say that there is a strong correlation between two co-variables?

+0.8

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What is an advantage of using a correlational analysis?

easy to analyse, prompt new lines of research

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Are observational techniques experimental or non-experimental?

non-experimental

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Which type of observation involve the observation being carried out in the natural setting, and the researcher does not influence the situation?

naturalistic observations

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Which type of observation involves the observations being carried out in a regulated setting?

controlled observations

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What are some strengths of naturalistic observations?

high ecological validity, low demand characteristics

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What are some strengths of controlled observations?

high internal validity, easy to replicate and check for reliability

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In which type of observations are participants aware that their behaviour is being watched and recorded?

overt observations

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In which type of observations are participants not aware that their behaviour is being watched and recorded?

covert observations

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Which ethical code of conduct are covert observations violating?

lacked of informed consent

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What is a strength of covert observations?

lower chance of demand characteristics

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In which type of observations are researchers part of the group that they are observing?

participant observations

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In which type of observations are researchers not part of the group they are observing - they observed as an outsider?

non-participant observations

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What is a strength of participant observations?

having first-hand insights, clearer details, higher internal validity

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What is a weakness of participant observations?

investigator effects, researcher bias, low internal validity, lose objectivity

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What is the term used to describe when observer's expectations influence what the researcher sees or hears or even the data that they recorded?

observer bias

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What is the technique of choosing which behaviours to observe and record that records behaviour at specific time intervals?

time sampling

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What is the observation technique that involves continuously watching a certain behaviour and counting the number of times that even occurs in the targeted group?

event sampling

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What is a strength of event sampling?

infrequent behaviours can be recorded

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What is a strength of time sampling?

easy to carry out due to a reduced number of observations

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What is a set of specific, observable, clearly operationalised behaviours that is created as a subset of a target behaviour called?

behavioural categories

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What is a set of written questions on a topic to assess participants' thoughts, feelings and opinions?

questionnaires

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What type of question is used in a questionnaire that offers a fixed number of responses and produced quantitative data?

closed questions

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What type of question is used in a questionnaire that does not have a fixed range and collects qualitative data?

open questions

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What is a weakness of using closed questions?

response set bias (where they would respond in similar way at the same end of the rating scale)

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How can we chance whether the questions on the questionnaire is ambiguous or not?

use a "pilot study"

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What will the research suffer from if participants are not honest when answering, and would answer differently to put them in a more positive light (seen as right)?

social desirability bias

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What is a solution to social desirability bias?

ensure confidentiality

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What is a self-report technique that involves asking participants questions face-to-face or over the phone on a topic to assess participants' opinions and thoughts?

interview

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What are the two types of interviews?

structured and unstructured interviews

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What the type of interview that is a mixture of both structured and unstructured interviews?

semi-structured

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Which type of interview is made up of a pre-determined set of questions that are asked in a fixed order, similar to designing a questionnaire?

structured interviews

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Which type of interview allowed more free-flowing conversations with no set questions and questions will be developed as the interview progressed?

unstructured interviews

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What is a strength of structured interviews?

easy to replicate, quick, cheap

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What is a strength of unstructured interviews?

rich and more detailed, give insights, able to observe body language

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What is a weakness of structured interviews?

social desirability bias, restrictive (no elaboration), lower generalisability

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