GLGY 209 (complete)

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11,000

The boundary between the fossil and subfossil domains is at _____ years

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Trace Fossils

Which kind of fossils represent vestiges of organism activities

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Bacteria

Prokaryote species are included in this kingdom

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Land colonization

The major diversification approx. 430 million years ago of the kingdom plantae was triggered by the

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Palynology

Branch of paleontology that studies the spore and pollen grains

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Habitat

The environment in which an organism or community of organisms lived is known as

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Biostratigraphy

The palaeontology-related science used for sediment dating

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Replacement

Pyritization is a case of

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Dehydration (mummification)

The most frequently found soft tissue fossilization process in the desert areas

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Rapid burial, occurrence of an anoxic environment is the sedimentary basin, absence of sea currents, absence of scavengers.

What conditions can increase the chances of formation of formation of a fossil lagersttaten

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stress

The force applied per unit area is known as

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Confining

What stress is equal in all three directions?

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Brittle

This type of deformation results rock fracture

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anticlines

A fold with upward converging limbs is known as

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Anticlines

The oldest layers are found in the axial part of this kind of fold

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Trough

The lowest point of syncline is known as

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Recumbent

The anticline with horizontal axial plane and the two limbs dipping in opposite directions is known as

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Joint

A fracture without an apparent displacement between the two resulting blocks is known as

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Hanging Wall

The block above the fault plane is known as

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Oblique-slip fault

A fault that presents both horizontal and vertical displacement is referred to as

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Stratigraphy

Sub discipline of geology that represents the study of the strata and bodies of rock architecture

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Principle of Successive Layer Formation

Steno's Principle of layer formation that postulates that at the time of formation of a layer only fluid was above it

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Mud-cracks (Desiccation cracks)

Sedimentary structures that are used to recognize the normal or inverse nature of a stratigraphical succession

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Hiatus

The time interval encompassed by an unconformity is known is known as

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Local

Unconformities may be used for correlation at _____ Scale

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Extinction

The last occurrence of a fossil in stratigraphical record is marked by this event

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Xenolith

An inclusion in an igenous rock

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Hadean

The oldest eon in the earths history

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Permian

The youngest period of the Palaeozoic Era

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Tephrachronology

Branch of stratigraphy that considers the layers of volcanic ash for correlation

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Carl Linnaeus

The first life form classification was given by

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Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

The first naturalist who observed the simple to complex pattern in the life evolution

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Trinomial System

The species nomenclature system proposed by Darwin is known as

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Tachytely

The fastest evolution tempo in the classification by George Gaylord Simpson

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Monomers

The simplest chemical substances that form by the combination of the CHON(SP) elements

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3.5 billion years

The age the approximates best that of the oldest fossils on earth is

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Fig tree formation

The oldest stromatolites on earth are known from the

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Cyanobacteria diversification

The fossils from the gunflint formation demonstrate this major event in the history of life

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Organelles

The chromosomes of an eukaryote cell are situated within its intracellular structure

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2.1 billion years

The oldest chemical fossil that indicates the eukaryote occurrence in the fossil record is dated

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Europe

Which continent was not part of Gondwana?

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Abyssal plain

This feature occupies most of the ocean seafloor

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oceanic trenches

Volcanic events are not associated with these seafloor features

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plate movement

Divergent settings are initiated by the

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Normal faults

Most of the faults in the continental rift zone are

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Benioff Plane

The subduction plane is also known as

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Oceanic trench

The collision zone between two lithospheric plates is marked by this ocean floor feature

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Eurasia

Himalayas resulted from the collision between India and this plate

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Rodinia

The supercontinent from which the Proterozoic North American was blocked-up

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Intelligent design, creation science

Which of the following is considered a pseudoscience?

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Galileo

The first scholar that observed the relief at the moon surface was

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is an example of mineraloid

Opal

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Accepted explanation for a set processes or phenomena

The word theory is associated with

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Studies only the processes that can be observed directly as they happen

Which of the following is not a characteristic of science?

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Hypothesis

A ____ is at first formulated through the interpretation of the experimental and or observation data

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Petrology

This branch /subdiscipline of geology represents the study of the rocks

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Palaeontology

Vestiges of ancient life forms are studied within this branch/sub-discipline of geology

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rock responce to applied force

Structural geology represents the study of the

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Milky way

The galaxy in which the solar system is situated

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H and He

Most of one star mass consists of these two elements

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Tetrahedron

The atoms of carbon in the structure of the mineral diamond are situated in corners of this geometrical body.

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Graphite

Which mineral is the final product of the organic matter decay? (hint: it consists entirely of atoms of carbon).

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Lustre

Physical property that describes qualitatively how the light is reflected from the mineral faces.

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They are much larger when compared to the terrestrial planets, they have many moons, their density is significantly smaller when compared to that of the terrestrial planets, they have rings (all the above)

These characteristics are shared by the four Jovian planets

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Hydrogen

The dominant element in the jovian planets

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Io

This natural satellite of jupiter has active volcanism

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Chondrites

Most of the meteorites are

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None of the above

Meteorites with small amounts of organic matter in their composition are known as

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None of the above

Which planet of the solar system formed first according to the solar nebula theory?

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Solar wind

Solar energy is dissipated in the solar system mostly through

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Mercury

What planet was left without most of its atmospheric gases when the sun ignited?

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nebula

The cold contracting cloud from the earliest stages of solar system formation can be best described as

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mantle

Most of the earth volume is occupied by this component of the subdivision according to chemical composition

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Earthquakes

These natural phenomena are extensively used to study the earth interior

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Asthenosphere

What layer of its internal structure is characteristic to earth when compared to the other planets of the solar system?

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outer core

What component of the earth interior is in liquid physical state?

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plastic

The physical state of the asthenosphere can be best described as

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crust

_____ is the earths outermost layer in the classification according to chemical and mineralogical composition

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Aluminum

The dominant metal in the earths crust

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Pacific.

Rocky Mountains of western Canada are formed as the result of collision between North american plate and _____ plate

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Granite

What is an example of rock with phaneritic texture?

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Volcanic Eruptions

Natural phenomena through which material from Earth's interior is brought up to the surface

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Rock melting

Which of the following processes is not part of the clastic rock formation cycle?

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wind erosion of the pre-existent rocks, and volcanic activity.

The source of the solid particles in suspension in the Earth atmosphere

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