Chapter 11 review

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Jeannette Rankin of Montana

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Jeannette Rankin of Montana

Was the first woman elected into Congress. She opposed going to war with Germany.

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Four causes of WWI

Nationalism, Militarism, Imperialism and Alliance System.

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Nationalism

A devotion to the interests and culture of one's nation.

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Often Nationalism led to what?

Competitive and antagonistic rivalries.

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Imperialism

A policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.

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Russia regarded itself as the protector of:

Europe's Slavic people.

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The growth of Nationalism and Imperialism led to:

Increase military spending.

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Militarism

The development of armed forces and their use as a tool of diplomacy.

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By 1890, which country was the strongest nation in Europe?

Germany was the strongest country in Europe.

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Britain always relied on what for defense and protection?

The British Navy.

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Alliance System

A formal agreement between two or more nations or powers to cooperate and come to one another's defense.

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The Triple Entente

France, Great Britain, Russia.

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During WWI, the Triple Entente was later known as...

The Allies.

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The Triple Alliance

Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy.

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Which country left the Triple Alliance and joined the Allies?

Italy.

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The Balkan Peninsula was known as what?

The "powder keg of Europe."

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What type of rivalries happened in the Balkan Peninsula?

Ethnic rivalries among the Balkan people.

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Archduke Franz Ferdinand

Was the heir to the Austrian throne. On June 18, 1914, Archduke was assassinated, including his wife Sophie.

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Gavrilo Princip

The assassin of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife Sophie. He was also a member of the Black Hand.

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The Black Hand

An organization promoting Serbian nationalism.

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July 28, 1914

Austria-Hungary declared what was expected to be a short war against Serbia.

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August 1, 1914

Germany, obligated by treaty to support Austria-Hungary, declared war on Russia.

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August 3, 1914

Germany declared war on Russia's ally France.

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After Germany invaded Belgium on August 3, 1914, Which country declared war on Germany?

Britain.

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The Schlieffen Plan

This plan called for a holding action against Russia, combined with a quick drive through Belgium to Paris; after France had fallen, the two German armies would defeat Russia.

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Where did the Allies eventually stop the German advance?

The Marne River in France.

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"No man's land"

A barren expanse of mud pockmarked with shell craters and filled with barbed wire. Periodically, the soldiers charged enemy lines, only to be mowed down by machine gun fire.

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During the First Battle of the Somme— which began on July 1, 1916, and lasted until mid-November—the British suffered how many deaths?

60,000 on the first day alone.

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Final casualties of the battle of the Somme totaled what?

1.2 million deaths.

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Trench Warfare

A form of warfare in which opposing armies fight each other from trenches dug in the battlefield.

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In 1914, did Americans want to join a struggle 3,000 miles away?

No, they saw no reason because the war did not threaten American lives or property.

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Socialist

Criticized the war as a capitalist and imperialist struggle between Germany and England to control markets and colonies in China, Africa, and the Middle East.

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Pacifist

Believed that war was evil and that the United States should set an example of peace to the world.

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Why did millions of naturalized U.S. citizens followed the war closely?

Because they still had ties to the nations from which they had emigrated. For example, many Americans of German descent sympathized with Germany. Americans of Irish descent remembered the centuries of British oppression in Ireland and saw the war as a chance for Ireland to gain its independence.

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Why did many Americans felt close to Britain?

Because of a common ancestry and language as well as similar democratic institutions and legal systems.

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What caused increase American sympathy for the Allies?

Germany's aggressive sweep across Belgium.

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Who was called "The bully of Europe."

Germany.

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By 1917 America had mobilized for war against the Central Powers for what two reasons?

To ensure Allied repayment of debts to the United States and to prevent the Germans from threatening U.S. shipping.

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Using it's naval strength, the British did what to Germany?

It blockaded the German coast to prevent weapons and other military supplies from getting through. However, the British expanded the definition of contraband to include food. They also extended the blockade to neutral ports and mined the entire North Sea.

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How many Germans starved to death as a result of the British blockade?

750,000 German civilians died because of the British blockade.

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How did Germany respond to the British blockade?

A counter-blockade with U-boats.

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May 7, 1915

A U-boat named U-20 sank the British liner Lusitania off the southern coast of Ireland. Of the 1,198 persons lost, 128 were Americans.

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Germany agreed to change it's tactics under what condition?

If the United States could persuade Britain to lift it's blockade against food and fertilizers, Germany would consider renewing unrestricted submarine warfare.

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Who won the 1916 election?

Woodrow Wilson

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After the election, Wilson tried to do what between the warring alliances?

Mediate between the warring alliances.

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In a speech before the Senate in January 1917, Wilson called for what?

"A peace without victory... a peace between equals," in which neither side would impose harsh terms on the other.

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Who ignored Wilson's call for peace?

Germany ignored.

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On January 31, Kaiser Wilhelm II announced that U-boats would do what?

Sink all ships in British waters - hostile or neutral - on site.

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Zimmerman Note

1917 - Germany sent this to Mexico instructing an ambassador to convince Mexico to go to war with the U.S. It was intercepted by British agents and caused by the U.S. to mobilize against Germany, which had proven it was hostile. It also proposed an alliance between Germany and Mexico and promised that if a war with the United States broke out, Germany would support Mexico in recovering "lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona."

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In March, the oppressive Russian monarchy was replaced with what?

A representative government.

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April 2, 1917

U.S. declares war on Germany.

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Eddie Rickenbacker

Famous "ace" pilot who downed 26 enemy fighters in WWI.

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Who did Rickenbacker fight against?

He fought the dreaded Flying Circus, which is a German air squadron led by the "Red Baron", Manfred von Richthofen.

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How many men were in service when the U.S. declared war?

Only 200,000 men.

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Selective Service Act

Passed by Congress in May of 1917, the act required men to register with the government in order to be randomly selected for military service.

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How many men were registered by the end of 1918?

24 million men were registered.

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Of the 24 million men registered, how many were called up to be soldiers?

3 million men.

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Of the 3 million men called to serve, how many troops reached Europe before the truce was signed?

2 million men.

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How many of the drafted men saw actual combat?

1.5 million men.

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How many African Americans served in the armed forces?

About 400,000 men.

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More than half of the African Americans served where?

In France.

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How were African American soldiers treated differently?

African American soldiers served in segregated units and were excluded from the navy and marines. Most African Americans were assigned to noncombat duties, although there were exceptions.

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Which Infantry Regiment saw more continuous duty on the front lines than any other American regiment?

The all-black 369th Infantry Regiment.

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Who were the two soldiers of the 369th to receive France's highest military honor, the Croix de Guerre—the "cross of war"?

Henry Johnson and Needham Roberts.

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During a soldier's 18-month training period partly in the U.S. and partly in Europe, they put in 17 hour long days doing what?

Target practice, bayonet drill, kitchen duty, and cleaning up the grounds.

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Although women were not allowed to enlist in the war, the army reluctantly accepted them into what?

The Army Corps of Nurses.

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How many women accepted noncombat position in the navy and the marines, where they served as nurses, secretaries, and telephone operators with full military rank?

13,000 women.

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The United States had to find a way to transport what over thousands of miles of ocean?

Men, food, and equipment.

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Four steps the U.S. took to expand it's fleet

First, the government exempted many shipyard workers from the draft and gave others a "deferred" classification, delaying their participation in the draft.

Second, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce joined in a public relations campaign to emphasize the importance of shipyard work. They distributed service flags to families of shipyard workers, just like the flags given to families of soldiers and sailors. They also urged automobile owners to give shipyard employees rides to and from work, since streetcars were so crowded.

Third, shipyards used prefabrication techniques. Instead of building an entire ship in the yard, standardized parts were built elsewhere and then assembled at the yard. This method reduced construction time substantially.

Fourth, the government took over commercial and private ships and converted them for transatlantic war use.

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The United States had to find a way to transport what over thousands of miles of ocean?

Men, food, and equipment.

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Vice Admiral William S. Sims

Convinced the British to try the convoy system.

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Convoy System

In which a heavy guard of destroyers escorted merchant ships back and forth across the Atlantic in groups.

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By fall of 1917, shipping losses had been cut by how much?

They have been cut in half.

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The U.S. Navy also helped lay what?

A 230-mile barrier of mines across the North Sea from Scotland to Norway.

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Of the almost 2 million Americans who sailed to Europe during the war, how many were lost due to U-boat attacks?

637 men.

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General John J. Pershing

General of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) in WWI.

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What were the two most innovative weapons of WWI?

Tanks and airplanes.

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Why were tanks so effective?

Tanks ran on caterpillar treads and were built of steel so that bullets bounced off.

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How were early airplanes used in the war?

They were used for scouting because early airplanes were so flimsy.

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By 1918, the British had built up a strategic bomber force of how many planes to attack German factories and army bases?

22,000 planes.

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What were the fighting men surrounded by?

Filth, lice, rats, and polluted water that caused dysentery.

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Shell Shock

A complete emotional collapse from which many never recovered.

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Trench Foot

This was an infection of the feet caused by cold, wet and insanitary conditions. In the trenches men stood for hours on end in waterlogged trenches without being able to remove wet socks or boots. The feet would gradually go numb and the skin would turn red or blue. If untreated, trench foot could turn gangrenous and result in amputation.

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Trench Mouth

A painful infection of the gums and throat common among soldiers in WWI.

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