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sensation

conversion of physical properties of the world or body into a neural code by the peripheral nervous system

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the three interoceptive sensations from inside our body are the ____

nociception

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proprioception

sense of where our limbs are in space

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Nociception

sense of pain due to body damage

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equilibrioception

sense of balance

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perception

the processing and interpretation of the sensory information into a form that is useful for a behavioural decision

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transduction

the process of converting outside stimuli into neural code

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exteroception

sensing and processing information from the five senses

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  • vision

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  • audition

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  • touch

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  • taste

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  • smell

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the visual sensory system

composed of the early visual processing and the late visual processing

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photoreceptors

  • convert light energy to neural code

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  • there are rods and cones

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rods

  • low light levels for night vision

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  • no colour

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  • low resolution

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cones

  • high resolution

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  • good for seeing sharp details in colour

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blindspot

area where the optic nerve leaves the eye

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no photoreceptors

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early visual processing steps

  • light waves enter the eye and have to pass through the cornea

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  • the cornea bends the light so the image is inverted and passed through the pupil in the iris

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  • from the pupil

the light goes to the retina

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  • the electric signal is sent to the bipolar cells and then the ganglion cells

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  • the signal leaves through the optic nerve to get to the brain

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retina

  • structure in the back of the eye

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  • contains multiple neurons including photoreceptors

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fovea

  • part of the retina where cones are highly concentrated

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  • makes the centre of your visual field most detailed

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where are the rods located

periphery of the retina

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optic nerve

bundle of axons that transmit visual information from the retina to the brain

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thalamus

  • important for sensory relay

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  • subcortical region of the brain that serves as a station between sensory inputs and the cortex

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primary visual cortex

the first region of the cortex to receive visual input

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input from the eyes to brain is __

compressed

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blindsight

  • can occur due to head injury or stroke

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  • no conscious awareness of visual objects in the damaged visual field

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  • able to indirectly answer qsts about objects in damaged visual field

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  • suggests indirect perception

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dorsal "where" pathway

  • spatial information

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  • depth perception

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  • estimate movement and direction of objects

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  • takes information to the posterior parietal lobe

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akinetopsia

  • damage to the dorsal pathway

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  • visual motion blindness

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  • cannot see motion

instead sees a series of stationary objects

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optic ataxia

  • damage to the dorsal pathway

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  • inability to reach for objects but can name objects

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visual agnosia

  • damage to the ventral pathway

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  • difficulty recognizing everyday objects

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  • difficulties can be selective to visual categories

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prosopagnosia

  • fusiform face area damage

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  • inability to recognize faces but can recognize objects

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apperceptive visual agnosia

  • failure of recognizing objects b/c of problem w/ perceiving elements of the object as a whole

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  • problems with perception and discrimination of objects

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associative visual agnosia

  • inability to associate visual input with meaning

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  • can't access information from memory

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constructivist theory of perception

  • top down theory of perception

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  • perception influenced by knowledge and context

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  • unconscious guesses to interpret nd predict sensory data

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gestalt organizational principles

  • whole is greater than the sum of its parts

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  • fundamental organizational principles to deal with ambiguity in our environment

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principle of experience

  • we see what we are familiar with the most

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  • principle of proximity

features close to another will be perceived as belonging together

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principle of closed forms

  • see shapes in terms of closed forms

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principle of good contour

perceive objects as continuous where it is expected they continue

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principle of similarity

organizing objects of a scene based on similarity

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direct models

  • passive bottom up approach to perception

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  • cues in the environment that guide how our sensory info. is processed and leads to perception

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phonemic restoration effect

when the brain fills out details of missing sounds from a speech signal based on sensory input

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Cortical Homunculus

spatially organized map of the human body

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travel path of neural information for visual info. from right eye to left lobe of PVC

  1. right retina

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  1. right optic nerve

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  1. optic chiasm

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  1. left optic tract

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  1. left thalamus

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  1. left lobe of the pvc

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binocular disparity

features of an image fall on the retina of the two eyes

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late visual processing

processing simple features to more integrated and complex

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  • edges

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  • angles

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  • colours

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  • light

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visual association area

interprets visual information and assigns meaning

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ventral pathway

  • what pathways

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  • pathway to the visual association area

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  • occipital to temporal lobes

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  • shape

size

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dorsal pathway

  • where pathway

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  • pathway to visual association area

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  • occipital to parietal lobes

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  • location

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damage to only ventral stream

  • object recognition impaired

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  • detecting spatial info isnt

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