Entomology Phylum, orders, class

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Subphylum: Crustacea *crayfish, crabs, shrimp, pill bugs

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Subphylum: Crustacea *crayfish, crabs, shrimp, pill bugs

  • Bilateral symmetry

  • Segmented body; abdomen, cephalothorax

  • Biramous legs; 2 branched

  • 2 pair of antennae (4)

  • 2 small eyes

  • Gills (few trachea) respiration; pill bugs

  • Open circulation; no viens no arteries

  • Exoskeleton; marine, aquatic, terrestrial

<ul><li><p>Bilateral symmetry</p></li><li><p>Segmented body; abdomen, cephalothorax</p></li><li><p>Biramous legs; 2 branched</p></li><li><p>2 pair of antennae (4)</p></li><li><p>2 small eyes</p></li><li><p>Gills (few trachea) respiration; pill bugs</p></li><li><p>Open circulation; no viens no arteries</p></li><li><p>Exoskeleton; marine, aquatic, terrestrial</p></li></ul>
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Subphylum: Chelicerata *scorpions, mites; ticks, spiders

  • Bilateral symmetry

  • Segmented body; abdomen, cephalothorax

  • 4 pair of segmented legs

  • No antennae

  • Simple eyes most with 8

  • Book lungs for respiration

  • Open circulation

  • Exoskeleton

<ul><li><p>Bilateral symmetry</p></li><li><p>Segmented body; abdomen, cephalothorax</p></li><li><p>4 pair of segmented legs</p></li><li><p>No antennae</p></li><li><p>Simple eyes most with 8</p></li><li><p>Book lungs for respiration</p></li><li><p>Open circulation</p></li><li><p>Exoskeleton</p></li></ul>
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Subphylum: Myriapoda Class: Pauropoda *pauropods

  • Many body segments

  • Many legs; 2 per segment

  • No eyes

  • 1 pair of biramous antennae

  • tracheal respiration

  • Open circulation

  • Exoskeleton

<ul><li><p>Many body segments</p></li><li><p>Many legs; 2 per segment</p></li><li><p>No eyes</p></li><li><p>1 pair of biramous antennae</p></li><li><p>tracheal respiration</p></li><li><p>Open circulation</p></li><li><p>Exoskeleton</p></li></ul>
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Subphylum: Myriapoda Class: symphyla *Garden centipedes

  • Many body segments

  • Many legs; 2 per segment

  • No eyes

  • 1 pair of moniliform antennae

  • Tracheal respiration

  • Open circulation

  • Exoskeleton

<ul><li><p>Many body segments</p></li><li><p>Many legs; 2 per segment</p></li><li><p>No eyes</p></li><li><p>1 pair of moniliform antennae</p></li><li><p>Tracheal respiration</p></li><li><p>Open circulation</p></li><li><p>Exoskeleton</p></li></ul>
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Subphylum: Myriapoda Class: Diplopoda *milipedes

  • Many body segments

  • Many legs; 2 pair per segment (4)

  • Group of simple eyes

  • 1 pair of antennae

  • Tracheal respiration

  • Open circulation

  • Exoskeleton

<ul><li><p>Many body segments</p></li><li><p>Many legs; 2 pair per segment (4)</p></li><li><p>Group of simple eyes</p></li><li><p>1 pair of antennae</p></li><li><p>Tracheal respiration</p></li><li><p>Open circulation</p></li><li><p>Exoskeleton</p></li></ul>
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Subphylum: Myriapoda Class: Chilopoda *Centipedes

  • Many body segments

  • Many legs; 2 per segment

  • Aposematic coloration

  • 0 to few eyes

  • 1 pair of antennae

<ul><li><p>Many body segments</p></li><li><p>Many legs; 2 per segment</p></li><li><p>Aposematic coloration</p></li><li><p>0 to few eyes</p></li><li><p>1 pair of antennae</p></li></ul>
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Subphylum: Myriapoda Class: Chilopoda *House centipedes

  • Many body segments

  • Many legs; 2 per segment

  • 0 to few eyes

  • 1 pair of antennae

  • 1st pair of legs= jaw like poisonous claw

  • Tracheal respiration

  • Open circulation

  • Exoskeleton

<ul><li><p>Many body segments</p></li><li><p>Many legs; 2 per segment</p></li><li><p>0 to few eyes</p></li><li><p>1 pair of antennae</p></li><li><p>1st pair of legs= jaw like poisonous claw</p></li><li><p>Tracheal respiration</p></li><li><p>Open circulation</p></li><li><p>Exoskeleton</p></li></ul>
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Order: Protura *Proturans Pro: first, ura: Tail

  • Small size, whiteish color, entognathus

  • "Cone heads" no eyes, no antennae, no wings, no trachea

  • live in moist soil

  • detritivores: eat decaying matter, also feed on fungi

  • first pair of sensory hairs

<ul><li><p>Small size, whiteish color, entognathus</p></li><li><p>&quot;Cone heads&quot; no eyes, no antennae, no wings, no trachea</p></li><li><p>live in moist soil</p></li><li><p>detritivores: eat decaying matter, also feed on fungi</p></li><li><p>first pair of sensory hairs</p></li></ul>
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Order: Diplura *Diplurans Dipl: two, ura: tail

  • Small size, whitish color, entognathus

  • Cerci, chewing mouthparts

  • moniliform antennae, no eyes

  • herbivores and carnivores

  • maternal care

<ul><li><p>Small size, whitish color, entognathus</p></li><li><p>Cerci, chewing mouthparts</p></li><li><p>moniliform antennae, no eyes</p></li><li><p>herbivores and carnivores</p></li><li><p>maternal care</p></li></ul>
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Order: Collembola*Springtails coll: glue, embol: wedge

  • collophore; used to "glue" onto substrate its on the 1st abdominal segment

  • furcula hooks into retinaculum; acts like a spring

  • simple eyes (ocelli)

<ul><li><p>collophore; used to &quot;glue&quot; onto substrate its on the 1st abdominal segment</p></li><li><p>furcula hooks into retinaculum; acts like a spring</p></li><li><p>simple eyes (ocelli)</p></li></ul>
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Class: Insecta Subclass: Apterygota Order: Archaeognatha Archaeo: Ancient, gnatha: jaw *Bristletails

  • 2 cerci and 1 caudal filament

  • Compound eyes

  • Humpbacked

  • Eyes meet dorsally

<ul><li><p>2 cerci and 1 caudal filament</p></li><li><p>Compound eyes</p></li><li><p>Humpbacked</p></li><li><p>Eyes meet dorsally</p></li></ul>
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Class: Insecta Subclass: Apterygota Order: ZygentomaZyg: Bridge, entoma: insect

  • sliverfish

  • 2 cerci and 1 caudal filament

  • silver, glittery scales

  • body flattened

  • compound eyes, widely spread

<ul><li><p>2 cerci and 1 caudal filament</p></li><li><p>silver, glittery scales</p></li><li><p>body flattened</p></li><li><p>compound eyes, widely spread</p></li></ul>
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Order: Ephemeroptera ephemero: for one day, ptera: wing *Mayflies

  • Large triangular forewing, cannot fold wings

  • Three caudal tails

  • Naiads- aquatic nymph, gills abdomen

  • Adults live for few hours to day

  • Do not feed just mate and lay eggs

<ul><li><p>Large triangular forewing, cannot fold wings</p></li><li><p>Three caudal tails</p></li><li><p>Naiads- aquatic nymph, gills abdomen</p></li><li><p>Adults live for few hours to day</p></li><li><p>Do not feed just mate and lay eggs</p></li></ul>
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Order: Odonata Odon: tooth

  • Dragonflies and damselflies

  • Dragonflies: wings do not fold, good flyers, stout body, cerci on males

  • Damselflies: wings do not fold, wings are held roof like, slender body, weak flyers, cerci on males

  • Dragonfly naiad: Internal rectal gills

  • Damselfly naiad: 3 external caudal gills

<ul><li><p>Dragonflies: wings do not fold, good flyers, stout body, cerci on males</p></li><li><p>Damselflies: wings do not fold, wings are held roof like, slender body, weak flyers, cerci on males</p></li><li><p>Dragonfly naiad:  Internal rectal gills</p></li><li><p>Damselfly naiad: 3 external caudal gills</p></li></ul>
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Order: Plecoptera Pleco: Braid, ptera: wing *Stoneflies

  • wings held flat over body

  • 2 long filamentous cerci

  • Naiads have gills on thorax and legs

<ul><li><p>wings held flat over body</p></li><li><p>2 long filamentous cerci</p></li><li><p>Naiads have gills on thorax and legs</p></li></ul>
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Order: Dermaptera Derma: skin, ptera: wing *Earwigs

  • Strong cerci/ modified males are curved, females are straight.

  • short tegmina front wings for protection

  • brachypterous wing, short

  • Maternal care

<ul><li><p>Strong cerci/ modified males are curved, females are straight.</p></li><li><p>short tegmina front wings for protection</p></li><li><p>brachypterous wing, short</p></li><li><p>Maternal care</p></li></ul>
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Order: Zoraptera zor: pure, aptera: wingless

  • Angel insects

  • Small look like termites

  • winged forms have eyes

  • short cerci

  • reduced wing venation

  • moniliform antennae

  • No pigment

<ul><li><p>Small look like termites</p></li><li><p>winged forms have eyes</p></li><li><p>short cerci</p></li><li><p>reduced wing venation</p></li><li><p>moniliform antennae</p></li><li><p>No pigment</p></li></ul>
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Order: Orthoptera Ortho: straight, ptera: wing *Grasshoppers and crickets

  • Tegmina forewing, membranous hindwing

  • Jumping legs, digging legs

  • large compound eyes

  • Ovipositor

  • Crypsis- blend with their environment

  • Aposematic- warning colors

<ul><li><p>Tegmina forewing, membranous hindwing</p></li><li><p>Jumping legs, digging legs</p></li><li><p>large compound eyes</p></li><li><p>Ovipositor</p></li><li><p>Crypsis- blend with their environment</p></li><li><p>Aposematic- warning colors</p></li></ul>
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Order: Embioptera Embio: lively, ptera: wings *Webspinners

  • Small with "popeye" arms

  • Females are apterous (no wings) males have soft flexible wings

  • Compound eyes; no occeli

  • live in silken tunnels

<ul><li><p>Small with &quot;popeye&quot; arms</p></li><li><p>Females are apterous (no wings) males have soft flexible wings</p></li><li><p>Compound eyes; no occeli</p></li><li><p>live in silken tunnels</p></li></ul>
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Order: Phasmatodea Phasma: Phantom

  • Walkingsticks

  • Good at cryptic, blend with environment

  • short prothorax, long meso and meta thorax

  • chewing mouthparts

  • long slender legs

<ul><li><p>Good at cryptic, blend with environment</p></li><li><p>short prothorax, long meso and meta thorax</p></li><li><p>chewing mouthparts</p></li><li><p>long slender legs</p></li></ul>
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Order: Notoptera Suborder: Grylloblattodea Gryll: Cricket, blatta: cockroach

  • ice crawlers, rock crawlers

  • Prothorax larger than meso and meta thorax

  • Large coxa

  • Apterous (wingless)

  • found in cold environments

  • active at low temps

<ul><li><p>Prothorax larger than meso and meta thorax</p></li><li><p>Large coxa</p></li><li><p>Apterous (wingless)</p></li><li><p>found in cold environments</p></li><li><p>active at low temps</p></li></ul>
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Order: Notoptera Suborder: Mantophasmatodea Mantodea + Phasmida

  • Heelwalkers, gladiators

  • New insect discovered in 2001

  • Large insect with round head

  • have heel like legs

<ul><li><p>New insect discovered in 2001</p></li><li><p>Large insect with round head</p></li><li><p>have heel like legs</p></li></ul>
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Order: Mantodea Mantid: Prophet, Soothsayer *Praying mantids, Mantids

  • elongated prothorax

  • raptorial forelegs

  • lays ootheca

  • triangular head, well-developed eyes, and chewing mouthparts

  • hypognathous mouthparts

  • tegmina forewing, membranous hindwing

  • ambush predators, cryptic

<ul><li><p>elongated prothorax</p></li><li><p>raptorial forelegs</p></li><li><p>lays ootheca</p></li><li><p>triangular head, well-developed eyes, and chewing mouthparts</p></li><li><p>hypognathous mouthparts</p></li><li><p>tegmina forewing, membranous hindwing</p></li><li><p>ambush predators, cryptic</p></li></ul>
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Order: Blattodea Blatta: cockroach *Cockroaches and termites

  • Dorsally flattened

  • large shield pronotum, covers the head

  • forewings tegmina

  • cursorial legs; running legs

  • compound eyes and chewing mouthparts

  • long filiform antennae

  • lay eggs in ootheca

<ul><li><p>Dorsally flattened</p></li><li><p>large shield pronotum, covers the head</p></li><li><p>forewings tegmina</p></li><li><p>cursorial legs; running legs</p></li><li><p>compound eyes and chewing mouthparts</p></li><li><p>long filiform antennae</p></li><li><p>lay eggs in ootheca</p></li></ul>
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Order: Blattodea Infraorder: Isoptera Iso: equal, ptera: wings *Termites

  • Most without wings, but hind and fore are equal

  • abdomen fused to the thorax

  • Soft-bodied

  • Chewing mouthparts

  • Queen does physogastry- grow big and lays eggs

  • Caste system: sterile; workers and soldiers (nasus point head)

  • Subterranean termites- live underground in huge colonies, and build quickly

  • Dry wood termites- live above ground in small colonies, and build slowly

<ul><li><p>Most without wings, but hind and fore are equal</p></li><li><p>abdomen fused to the thorax</p></li><li><p>Soft-bodied</p></li><li><p>Chewing mouthparts</p></li><li><p>Queen does physogastry- grow big and lays eggs</p></li><li><p>Caste system: sterile; workers and soldiers (nasus point head)</p></li><li><p>Subterranean termites- live underground in huge colonies, and build quickly</p></li><li><p>Dry wood termites- live above ground in small colonies, and build slowly</p></li></ul>
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Order: Psocodea Class: Psocoptera Psocus: to grind, ptera: wings *Book lice and bark lice

  • Grinding appearances of mouthparts

  • large mobile head, large eyes

  • small pronotum; meso and metanotum are larger

  • maxillae elongate, showing first modifications for piercing sucking (chewing mouthparts)

<ul><li><p>Grinding appearances of mouthparts</p></li><li><p>large mobile head, large eyes</p></li><li><p>small pronotum; meso and metanotum are larger</p></li><li><p>maxillae elongate, showing first modifications for piercing sucking (chewing mouthparts)</p></li></ul>
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Order: Psocodea Class: Phthiraptera *Parasitic lice

  • Apterous; wingless

  • Tarsal claws used for grasping onto hairs

  • dorsally flattened

  • Chewing lice; found on birds and some mammals, the thorax narrow than the head and abdomen

  • Sucking lice, found on human hair, thorax bigger than head

  • ectoparasites

  • eggs cemented in hair with accessory glands materials= nits

<ul><li><p>Apterous; wingless</p></li><li><p>Tarsal claws used for grasping onto hairs</p></li><li><p>dorsally flattened</p></li><li><p>Chewing lice; found on birds and some mammals, the thorax narrow than the head and abdomen</p></li><li><p>Sucking lice, found on human hair, thorax bigger than head</p></li><li><p>ectoparasites</p></li><li><p>eggs cemented in hair with accessory glands materials= nits</p></li></ul>
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Order: Thysanoptera Thysano: fringe, ptera: wing *Thrisps

  • small with fringed wings

  • Asymmetrical mouthparts (right mandible reduced); left rasping (sucking)

  • elongated head and abdomen

  • slender body, wings at rest over abdomen

  • herbivores

  • vector of plant pathogens; causes damage to plants and crops

  • tomato (wilt virus)

<ul><li><p>small with fringed wings</p></li><li><p>Asymmetrical mouthparts (right mandible reduced); left rasping (sucking)</p></li><li><p>elongated head and  abdomen</p></li><li><p>slender body, wings at rest over abdomen</p></li><li><p>herbivores</p></li><li><p>vector of plant pathogens; causes damage to plants and crops</p></li><li><p>tomato (wilt virus)</p></li></ul>
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Order: Hemiptera Suborder: Auchenorrhyncha Auchenos: neck; throat rrhyncha: beak; nose Family: Cicadidae *Cicadas

  • piercing-sucking mouthparts; mandibles and maxillae modified to stylets (pierce) held in a rostrum (tube, modify labium)

  • rostrum posterior to head, anterior to legs, opisthognathous

  • wings held "roof-like" roof-like

  • large, xylem feeders

  • loudest of all insects uses "tymbal"

  • live for a very long time as nymphs then emerge all at once

<ul><li><p>piercing-sucking mouthparts; mandibles and maxillae modified to stylets (pierce) held in a rostrum (tube, modify labium)</p></li><li><p>rostrum posterior to head, anterior to legs, opisthognathous</p></li><li><p>wings held &quot;roof-like&quot; roof-like</p></li><li><p>large, xylem feeders</p></li><li><p>loudest of all insects uses &quot;tymbal&quot;</p></li><li><p>live for a very long time as nymphs then emerge all at once</p></li></ul>
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Order: Hemiptera Suborder: Auchenorrhyncha Aucheno: neck; throat rrhyncha: beak; nose Family: Cicadellidae *tree hoppers, sharpshooters, spotted lanternfly

  • piercing-sucking mouthparts; mandibles and maxillae modified to stylets (pierce) held in a rostrum (tube, modify labium)

  • rostrum posterior to head, anterior to legs, opisthognathous

  • wings held "roof-like" roof-like

  • xylem feeders

  • diverse shape and colors

  • vectors of plant pathogens

  • exceptional crypsis

  • tree hoppers have weird nose/ horn

<ul><li><p>piercing-sucking mouthparts; mandibles and maxillae modified to stylets (pierce) held in a rostrum (tube, modify labium)</p></li><li><p>rostrum posterior to head, anterior to legs, opisthognathous</p></li><li><p>wings held &quot;roof-like&quot; roof-like</p></li><li><p>xylem feeders</p></li><li><p>diverse shape and colors</p></li><li><p>vectors of plant pathogens</p></li><li><p>exceptional crypsis</p></li><li><p>tree hoppers have weird nose/ horn</p></li></ul>
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Order: Hemiptera Suborder: Auchenorrhyncha Aucheno: neck; throat rrhyncha: beak; nose Family: Cercopidae *Spittlebugs

  • nymphs feed on the xylem and cover themselves with "spit" blow bubbles

  • spit is mucus from anal secretions and blowing air out the anus.. produces bubbles

  • adult are jumpers

<ul><li><p>nymphs feed on the xylem and cover themselves with &quot;spit&quot; blow bubbles</p></li><li><p>spit is mucus from anal secretions and blowing air out the anus.. produces bubbles</p></li><li><p>adult are jumpers</p></li></ul>
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Order: Hemiptera Suborder: Sternorrhyncha Sterno: chest, rrhyncha: beak; nose *Aphids

  • Rostrum appears from legs actually from head

  • cornicles- horn-like for pheromones

  • opisthognathous

  • piercing-sucking mouthparts; mandibles and maxillae modified to stylets (pierce) held in a rostrum (tube, modify labium)

  • All feed on plant sap (phloem or xylem)

  • structure in their gut that gets rid of the excess sugar; filter chamber

  • phloem feeders; sugar is excreted with the water called honeydew

  • honeydew gets all over plants and fungus grows called sooty mold

<ul><li><p>Rostrum appears from legs actually from head</p></li><li><p>cornicles- horn-like for pheromones</p></li><li><p>opisthognathous</p></li><li><p>piercing-sucking mouthparts; mandibles and maxillae modified to stylets (pierce) held in a rostrum (tube, modify labium)</p></li><li><p>All feed on plant sap (phloem or xylem)</p></li><li><p>structure in their gut that gets rid of the excess sugar; filter chamber</p></li><li><p>phloem feeders; sugar is excreted with the water called honeydew</p></li><li><p>honeydew gets all over plants and fungus grows called sooty mold</p></li></ul>
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Order: Hemiptera Suborder: Sternorrhyncha Sterno: chest, rryhncha: nose; beak *Scales

  • soft bodied

  • legless and wingless

  • sexual dimorphism; male has legs and wings

  • piercing-sucking mouthparts; mandibles and maxillae modified to stylets (pierce) held in a rostrum (tube, modify labium)

  • All feed on plant sap (phloem or xylem)

<ul><li><p>soft bodied</p></li><li><p>legless and wingless</p></li><li><p>sexual dimorphism; male has legs and wings</p></li><li><p>piercing-sucking mouthparts; mandibles and maxillae modified to stylets (pierce) held in a rostrum (tube, modify labium)</p></li><li><p>All feed on plant sap (phloem or xylem)</p></li></ul>
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Order: Hemiptera Suborder: Sternorrhyncha Sterno: chest, rryhncha: nose; beak *whiteflies

  • small, white powdery wings

  • nymphs; are oval crawlers; usually look like scales with spikes

  • piercing-sucking mouthparts; mandibles and maxillae modified to stylets (pierce) held in a rostrum (tube, modify labium)

  • All feed on plant sap (phloem or xylem)

<ul><li><p>small, white powdery wings</p></li><li><p>nymphs; are oval crawlers; usually look like scales with spikes</p></li><li><p>piercing-sucking mouthparts; mandibles and maxillae modified to stylets (pierce) held in a rostrum (tube, modify labium)</p></li><li><p>All feed on plant sap (phloem or xylem)</p></li></ul>
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Order: Hemiptera Suborder: Heteroptera Hetero: different, ptera: wing Family: Belostomatidae

  • Giant Water Bug (Water diving bugs)

  • piercing-sucking mouthparts; mandibles and maxillae modified to stylets (pierce) held in a rostrum (tube, modify labium)

  • forewing hemelytra, create an "X" pattern on the back

  • well-developed pronotum and triangular scutellum

  • Natatorial legs; swimming

  • females mount eggs on the male's back; paternal care

  • spiracles at the end of the abdomen

  • sucks body contents of prey

<ul><li><p>piercing-sucking mouthparts; mandibles and maxillae modified to stylets (pierce) held in a rostrum (tube, modify labium)</p></li><li><p>forewing hemelytra, create an &quot;X&quot; pattern on the back</p></li><li><p>well-developed pronotum and triangular scutellum</p></li><li><p>Natatorial legs; swimming</p></li><li><p>females mount eggs on the male&apos;s back; paternal care</p></li><li><p>spiracles at the end of the abdomen</p></li><li><p>sucks body contents of prey</p></li></ul>
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Order: Hemiptera Suborder: Heteroptera Hetero: different, ptera: wing Family: Gerridae

  • Water strider (Water surface bug)

  • piercing-sucking mouthparts; mandibles and maxillae modified to stylets (pierce) held in a rostrum (tube, modify labium)

  • forewing hemelytra, create an "X" pattern on the back

  • well-developed pronotum and triangular scutellum

  • Tarsi have hydrophobic hairs

  • found on the quiet surface of waters

  • sucks body contents of prey

<ul><li><p>piercing-sucking mouthparts; mandibles and maxillae modified to stylets (pierce) held in a rostrum (tube, modify labium)</p></li><li><p>forewing hemelytra, create an &quot;X&quot; pattern on the back</p></li><li><p>well-developed pronotum and triangular scutellum</p></li><li><p>Tarsi have hydrophobic hairs</p></li><li><p>found on the quiet surface of waters</p></li><li><p>sucks body contents of prey</p></li></ul>
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Order: Hemiptera Suborder: Heteroptera Hetero: different, ptera: wing Family: Pentatomidae

  • Stink bugs (terrestrial bug)

  • piercing-sucking mouthparts; mandibles and maxillae modified to stylets (pierce) held in a rostrum (tube, modify labium)

  • forewing hemelytra, create an "X" pattern on the back

  • well-developed pronotum and triangular scutellum

  • shield-like body shape

  • noxious odor from abdominal glands

  • phytophagous

<ul><li><p>piercing-sucking mouthparts; mandibles and maxillae modified to stylets (pierce) held in a rostrum (tube, modify labium)</p></li><li><p>forewing hemelytra, create an &quot;X&quot; pattern on the back</p></li><li><p>well-developed pronotum and triangular scutellum</p></li><li><p>shield-like body shape</p></li><li><p>noxious odor from abdominal glands</p></li><li><p>phytophagous</p></li></ul>
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Order: Hemiptera Suborder: Heteroptera Hetero: different, ptera: wing Family: Reduviidae

  • Assassin bugs and kissing bugs (terrestrial bug)

  • piercing-sucking mouthparts; mandibles and maxillae modified to stylets (pierce) held in a rostrum (tube, modify labium)

  • forewing hemelytra, create an "X" pattern on the back

  • well-developed pronotum and triangular scutellum

  • raptorial forelegs, ambush predators

  • paralytic venom; suck out the body of the prey

  • kissing bug; feeds on blood; hematophagous; causes Chagas disease

<ul><li><p>piercing-sucking mouthparts; mandibles and maxillae modified to stylets (pierce) held in a rostrum (tube, modify labium)</p></li><li><p>forewing hemelytra, create an &quot;X&quot; pattern on the back</p></li><li><p>well-developed pronotum and triangular scutellum</p></li><li><p>raptorial forelegs, ambush predators</p></li><li><p>paralytic venom; suck out the body of the prey</p></li><li><p>kissing bug; feeds on blood; hematophagous; causes Chagas disease</p></li></ul>
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Order: Hemiptera Suborder: Heteroptera Hetero: different, ptera: wing Family: Cimicidae

  • Bed bugs (terrestrial bugs)

  • piercing-sucking mouthparts; mandibles and maxillae modified to stylets (pierce) held in a rostrum (tube, modify labium)

  • dorsally flattened, elongated oval body shape

  • blood feeders; hematophagous

  • live in cracks and folds of mattresses, active at night

  • bites are irritating

  • traumatic insemination; aedeagus pierces female

<ul><li><p>piercing-sucking mouthparts; mandibles and maxillae modified to stylets (pierce) held in a rostrum (tube, modify labium)</p></li><li><p>dorsally flattened, elongated oval body shape</p></li><li><p>blood feeders; hematophagous</p></li><li><p>live in cracks and folds of mattresses, active at night</p></li><li><p>bites are irritating</p></li><li><p>traumatic insemination; aedeagus pierces female</p></li></ul>
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Order: Neuroptera Neuro: nerve, ptera: wing *Lacewing

  • Wings vein detailed, held "roof-like" *Sickle shaped mandibles and maxillae

  • Predatory on aphids *lay eggs on stalk (made out of silk)

<ul><li><p>Wings vein detailed, held &quot;roof-like&quot; *Sickle shaped mandibles and maxillae</p></li><li><p>Predatory on aphids *lay eggs on stalk (made out of silk)</p></li></ul>
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Order: Neuroptera *lacewing larvae

*spiky worm type like *"backpack bugs" or "junk bugs"

  • carry deceased insects on back

<p>*spiky worm type like *&quot;backpack bugs&quot; or &quot;junk bugs&quot;</p><ul><li><p>carry deceased insects on back</p></li></ul>
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Order: Neuroptera Neuro: nerve, ptera: wing *Antlion

  • Wings vein detailed, held "roof-like" *Sickle shaped mandibles and maxillae

  • Clubbed antennae

<ul><li><p>Wings vein detailed, held &quot;roof-like&quot; *Sickle shaped mandibles and maxillae</p></li><li><p>Clubbed antennae</p></li></ul>
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Order: Neuroptera *Antlion larva

  • also known as doodle bugs

  • antilon pit; larve stay at bottom with mandible out

<ul><li><p>also known as doodle bugs</p></li><li><p>antilon pit; larve stay at bottom with mandible out</p></li></ul>
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Order: NeuropteraNeuro: nerve, ptera: wing

  • owlflys

  • Wings vein detailed, held "roof-like" *Sickle shaped mandibles and maxillae

  • clubbed antennae

  • owl-fly eggs and larvae, laid on stems

<ul><li><p>Wings vein detailed, held &quot;roof-like&quot; *Sickle shaped mandibles and maxillae</p></li><li><p>clubbed antennae</p></li><li><p>owl-fly eggs and larvae, laid on stems</p></li></ul>
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Order: Neuroptera

  • owl fly larvae

  • owlfly eggs serve as first meal of emerging larvae

  • Round; sometime

  • have setae hair

  • large mandibles

<ul><li><p>owlfly eggs serve as first meal of emerging larvae</p></li><li><p>Round; sometime</p></li><li><p>have setae hair</p></li><li><p>large mandibles</p></li></ul>
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Order: Neuroptera Neuro: nerve, ptera: wing

  • Mantifly

  • Wings vein detailed, held "roof-like"

  • Both wings are membranous

  • Mimic wasps

<ul><li><p>Wings vein detailed, held &quot;roof-like&quot;</p></li><li><p>Both wings are membranous</p></li><li><p>Mimic wasps</p></li></ul>
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Order: Neuroptera Neuro: nerve, ptera: wing *sponge-fly

  • Wings vein detailed, held "roof-like"

  • Feed on feshwater sponge

  • Larvae is aquatic and have abdominal gills

<ul><li><p>Wings vein detailed, held &quot;roof-like&quot;</p></li><li><p>Feed on feshwater sponge</p></li><li><p>Larvae is aquatic and have abdominal gills</p></li></ul>
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Order: Megaloptera Megalo: large, ptera: wing *Dobson fly

  • very large wings

  • Males have longer mandible than females, males use it to compete

<ul><li><p>very large wings</p></li><li><p>Males have longer mandible than females, males use it to compete</p></li></ul>
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Order: Megaloptera

  • Dodson fly larvae

  • aquatic larvae

  • Abdominal gills

  • Also known as "Hellgrammite"

  • spiky

<ul><li><p>aquatic larvae</p></li><li><p>Abdominal gills</p></li><li><p>Also known as &quot;Hellgrammite&quot;</p></li><li><p>spiky</p></li></ul>
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Order Megaloptera

  • Alderfly

  • very large wings

  • aquatic larvae

  • Most adults do not feed

<ul><li><p>very large wings</p></li><li><p>aquatic larvae</p></li><li><p>Most adults do not feed</p></li></ul>
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Order: Raphidioptera Raphio: needle, ptera: wing

  • Snake fly

  • Ovipositor long and needle like

  • Elongate prothorax, cursorial forelegs at posterior end of prothorax

  • Gives appearance of a snake

<ul><li><p>Ovipositor long and needle like</p></li><li><p>Elongate prothorax, cursorial forelegs at posterior end of prothorax</p></li><li><p>Gives appearance of a snake</p></li></ul>
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Order: Raphidioptera *snake fly larva

  • prey on insects under bark

  • lay eggs under bark

  • Prognathous mouthparts

  • long body

<ul><li><p>prey on insects under bark</p></li><li><p>lay eggs under bark</p></li><li><p>Prognathous mouthparts</p></li><li><p>long body</p></li></ul>
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Order: Mecoptera Meco: Long, ptera: wing

  • Scorpionfly

  • long and slender wings

  • elongated clypeus "beak-like"

  • chewing mouth parts at end of beak

  • Males have "bulbs" like terminal genitals

  • omnivores: eat dead arthropods (necrophagous)

  • Males entice female with nuptial gifts of dead insects

<ul><li><p>long and slender wings</p></li><li><p>elongated clypeus &quot;beak-like&quot;</p></li><li><p>chewing mouth parts at end of beak</p></li><li><p>Males have &quot;bulbs&quot; like terminal genitals</p></li><li><p>omnivores: eat dead arthropods (necrophagous)</p></li><li><p>Males entice female with nuptial gifts of dead insects</p></li></ul>
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<p></p>

Rostrum

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term image

Tymbal

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term image

filter chamber

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term image

A: Pronotum B: Scutellum C: Hemelytra

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term image

A: Cornicles B: Honeydew

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term image

Sooty mold fungus caused by honeydew produce by spotted lantern-flies and aphids, affects the plant by inhibiting photosynthesis

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cornicles

release alarm pheromones

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term image

Paternal Care

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Order: Coleoptera Ground Beetles

*Front wing elytra, hind wing membranous *Elytra meet down the middle *Well developed pronotum *Black or Green coloration *Long legs; elongated head and mandible *Live on ground *Shiny lined elytra

<p>*Front wing elytra, hind wing membranous *Elytra meet down the middle *Well developed pronotum *Black or Green coloration *Long legs; elongated head and mandible *Live on ground *Shiny lined elytra</p>
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Order: Coleoptera Bombardier Beetles

*Front wing elytra, hind wing membranous *Elytra meet down the middle *Well developed pronotum *Elaborate defense spray chemical

<p>*Front wing elytra, hind wing membranous *Elytra meet down the middle *Well developed pronotum *Elaborate defense spray chemical</p>
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Order: Coleoptera Tiger Beetle

*Front wing elytra, hind wing membranous *Elytra meet down the middle *Well developed pronotum *Bulging eyes *Long, curosorial legs *iridescent or metallic colors *Strong, chewing mouthparts

<p>*Front wing elytra, hind wing membranous *Elytra meet down the middle *Well developed pronotum *Bulging eyes *Long, curosorial legs *iridescent or metallic colors *Strong, chewing mouthparts</p>
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Order: Coleoptera Tiger Beetles Larvae

*Strong, chewing mouthparts *Lives in vertical burrows

<p>*Strong, chewing mouthparts *Lives in vertical burrows</p>
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Order: Coleoptera Darkling Beetles

*Noxious chemical from end of abdomen *Genus Eleodes *Head stand warning *Fused elytra

<p>*Noxious chemical from end of abdomen *Genus Eleodes *Head stand warning *Fused elytra</p>
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Order: Coleoptera Click Beetles

*Elytra meet down the middle *Pronotum extends to points on the side *Ventral surface used to snap beetle on back to flip over "click"

<p>*Elytra meet down the middle *Pronotum extends to points on the side *Ventral surface used to snap beetle on back to flip over &quot;click&quot;</p>
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Order: Coleoptera Scarab Beetles

*Stout, heavy beetles *Larvae are C-shaped "white grubs" *Herbivores, coprophagous, scavengers *Egyptians associated them with their gods, ancient jewelry

<p>*Stout, heavy beetles *Larvae are C-shaped &quot;white grubs&quot; *Herbivores, coprophagous, scavengers *Egyptians associated them with their gods, ancient jewelry</p>
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Order: Coleoptera Ladybird Beetles

  • Diff spots= diff species *Adults and larvae predators *Great for biological control *Use aggregation pheromones to gather at overwintering sites

<ul><li><p>Diff spots= diff species *Adults and larvae predators *Great for biological control *Use aggregation pheromones to gather at overwintering sites</p></li></ul>
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Order: Coleoptera Predaceous diving beetles

*Aquatic beetles that store air in compressible gill under elytra *Breathe with plastron: hydrophobic hairs or ridges that trap air *Some males have suction discs, hold onto female during mating

<p>*Aquatic beetles that store air in compressible gill under elytra *Breathe with plastron: hydrophobic hairs or ridges that trap air *Some males have suction discs, hold onto female during mating</p>
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Order: Coleoptera Predaceous diving beetle larvae

*Larvae breathes through caudal spiracles *Abdomen curves up

<p>*Larvae breathes through caudal spiracles *Abdomen curves up</p>
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Order: Coleoptera Leaf Beetles

*Both larvae and adult are herbivores *Tortoise beetle; large pronotum

<p>*Both larvae and adult are herbivores *Tortoise beetle; large pronotum</p>
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Order: Coleoptera Long-horned beetles

*Antennae very long *Lay egg in tree bark *Larvae bore the wood, kill trees

<p>*Antennae very long *Lay egg in tree bark *Larvae bore the wood, kill trees</p>
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Order: Coleoptera Snout beetles

*Long snout (labrum), mandible at tip *Herbivores; serious pest

<p>*Long snout (labrum), mandible at tip *Herbivores; serious pest</p>
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Order: Coleoptera Blister Beetles

*Broad head and abdomen and narrow thorax *Elytra loosely covers abdomen, end expose *Contain cantharadin, cause blisters *Thought to be aphrodisiac; spanish fly *Fatal if consumed in large quantities

<p>*Broad head and abdomen and narrow thorax *Elytra loosely covers abdomen, end expose *Contain cantharadin, cause blisters *Thought to be aphrodisiac; spanish fly *Fatal if consumed in large quantities</p>
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Order: Coleoptera Lighting Beetles

*Enlarged pronotum *Light produce organ in abdomen *Flash lights to attract mates *Males will mate (Photinuos) they are eaten

<p>*Enlarged pronotum *Light produce organ in abdomen *Flash lights to attract mates *Males will mate (Photinuos) they are eaten</p>
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Order: Strepsiptera Strepsi: turning, twisted ptera: wing *Twisted wing parasites

*Tiny insectd, sexually dimorphic *Female: laviform, without wing, eyes, antennae, cephalothorax *Males: forewing clublike halteres, hindwing are twisted and used for flight *Endoparasites of other insects; female is endoparasite her entire life

<p>*Tiny insectd, sexually dimorphic *Female: laviform, without wing, eyes, antennae, cephalothorax *Males: forewing clublike halteres, hindwing are twisted and used for flight *Endoparasites of other insects; female is endoparasite her entire life</p>
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Brood Canal in Strepsiptera

Sperm transfer, between female cephalothorax and last larval exoskeleton

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Triungulans

Emerge through the brood passage as mobile 6 legged larvae, find their own host

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Stylopized Hosts

Deformed bodies of their hosts are termed stylopized; genus stylops

<p>Deformed bodies of their hosts are termed stylopized; genus stylops</p>
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Order: Diptera Mosquitos

*One pair of haltere(hindwings), one pair of membranous wings *Piercing sucking mouthparts *Deadliest animals *Female= blood, Males= nectar *Larvae aquatic primitive

<p>*One pair of haltere(hindwings), one pair of membranous wings *Piercing sucking mouthparts *Deadliest animals *Female= blood, Males= nectar *Larvae aquatic primitive</p>
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Order: Diptera Black Flies

*One pair of haltere(hindwings), one pair of membranous wings *Small, black color *Pest, feed on blood of animals can be deadly if bites too much *Humpback *Larvae are aquatic, disc like suckers

<p>*One pair of haltere(hindwings), one pair of membranous wings *Small, black color *Pest, feed on blood of animals can be deadly if bites too much *Humpback *Larvae are aquatic, disc like suckers</p>
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Order: Diptera Horse Flies

*One pair of haltere (hindwings), one pair of membranous wings *Cut-sponging mouthparts (labellum) *Female= blood, Males= nectar *Vector some disease mostly livestock

<p>*One pair of haltere (hindwings), one pair of membranous wings *Cut-sponging mouthparts (labellum) *Female= blood, Males= nectar *Vector some disease mostly livestock</p>
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Order: Diptera House Flies

*One pair of haltere (hindwings), one pair of membranous wings *Musca Domestica *Plumose arista antennae *Eggs lays in rotting material *Vector diseases associated with feces

<p>*One pair of haltere (hindwings), one pair of membranous wings *Musca Domestica *Plumose arista antennae *Eggs lays in rotting material *Vector diseases associated with feces</p>
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Order: Diptera Blow Flies

*One pair of haltere (hindwings), one pair of membranous wings *Metallic color *Plumose arista antennae *Screwworms, lay eggs in wound *SIT: Sterile insects technique

<p>*One pair of haltere (hindwings), one pair of membranous wings *Metallic color *Plumose arista antennae *Screwworms, lay eggs in wound *SIT: Sterile insects technique</p>
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Order: Diptera Fruit Flies

*One pair of haltere (hindwings), one pair of membranous wings *Dark pattern on wings *Lay eggs in fruit *Diverse, larvae most species are phytophagous

<p>*One pair of haltere (hindwings), one pair of membranous wings *Dark pattern on wings *Lay eggs in fruit *Diverse, larvae most species are phytophagous</p>
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Order: Diptera Vinegar Flies

*One pair of haltere (hindwings), one pair of membranous wings *Major pest to fruits

<p>*One pair of haltere (hindwings), one pair of membranous wings *Major pest to fruits</p>
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Order: Siphonaptera Siphon: tube, aptera: no wins *Fleas

*Laterally flattened *Backward facing spines *Saltatorial legs *Adults- piercing sucking mouthparts, larvae- chewing mouthparts *Ectoparasites *Jumping ability; resilin

<p>*Laterally flattened *Backward facing spines *Saltatorial legs *Adults- piercing sucking mouthparts, larvae- chewing mouthparts *Ectoparasites *Jumping ability; resilin</p>
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Order: Trichoptera Tricho: hair, ptera: wing

*Adults have hairy wings *Held roof-like over abdomen *Chewing mouthparts reduced or vestigial *Weak flyers *Key fish food

<p>*Adults have hairy wings *Held roof-like over abdomen *Chewing mouthparts reduced or vestigial *Weak flyers *Key fish food</p>
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Order: Trichoptera Caddisfly larvae; Catch net

*net-spinners *Food catcher and protection

<p>*net-spinners *Food catcher and protection</p>
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Order: Trichoptera Caddisfly larvae; Case-bearer

*Use pebbles, leafs in the environment

<p>*Use pebbles, leafs in the environment</p>
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Order: Trichoptera Caddisfly larvae; Free living

*Larvae for caddisfly

<p>*Larvae for caddisfly</p>
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Order: Lepidoptera Lepido: scale, ptera: wing *Monarch Butterfly

  • 2 pairs of membranous wings covered with scales (4)

  • Mouthparts coiled proboscis

  • Feed on nectar, high sugar source for mating and oviposition( flying testes and ovaries)

  • Major pollinators of many plants

<ul><li><p>2 pairs of membranous wings covered with scales (4)</p></li><li><p>Mouthparts coiled proboscis</p></li><li><p>Feed on nectar, high sugar source for mating and oviposition( flying testes and ovaries)</p></li><li><p>Major pollinators of many plants</p></li></ul>
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Order: Lepidoptera Larvae Characteristics

  • worm like soft bodies

  • chewing mouthparts, phytophagous

  • 3 pairs of true legs

  • up to 5 pairs prolegs with crochets (hooks)

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Order Lepidoptera Swallow tail butterfly

  • 2 pairs of membranous wings covered with scales (4)

  • Mouthparts coiled proboscis

  • Feed on nectar, high sugar source for mating and oviposition( flying testes and ovaries)

  • have tails on ends of wings

<ul><li><p>2 pairs of membranous wings covered with scales (4)</p></li><li><p>Mouthparts coiled proboscis</p></li><li><p>Feed on nectar, high sugar source for mating and oviposition( flying testes and ovaries)</p></li><li><p>have tails on ends of wings</p></li></ul>
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Order: Lepidoptera Birdwing buttefly

  • 2 pairs of membranous wings covered with scales (4)

  • Mouthparts coiled proboscis

  • Feed on nectar, high sugar source for mating and oviposition( flying testes and ovaries)

  • Major pollinators of many plants *unique coloration

<ul><li><p>2 pairs of membranous wings covered with scales (4)</p></li><li><p>Mouthparts coiled proboscis</p></li><li><p>Feed on nectar, high sugar source for mating and oviposition( flying testes and ovaries)</p></li><li><p>Major pollinators of many plants *unique coloration</p></li></ul>
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Order: Lepidoptera Skippers

  • 2 pairs of membranous wings covered with scales (4)

  • Mouthparts coiled proboscis

  • Feed on nectar, high sugar source for mating and oviposition( flying testes and ovaries)

  • Major pollinators of many plants

  • clubbed antennae with hook

<ul><li><p>2 pairs of membranous wings covered with scales (4)</p></li><li><p>Mouthparts coiled proboscis</p></li><li><p>Feed on nectar, high sugar source for mating and oviposition( flying testes and ovaries)</p></li><li><p>Major pollinators of many plants</p></li><li><p>clubbed antennae with hook</p></li></ul>
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Order: Lepidoptera Blues, hairstreaks

  • 2 pairs of membranous wings covered with scales (4)

  • Mouthparts coiled proboscis

  • Feed on nectar, high sugar source for mating and oviposition( flying testes and ovaries)

  • Major pollinators of many plants

  • blue coloration

  • larvae clear

<ul><li><p>2 pairs of membranous wings covered with scales (4)</p></li><li><p>Mouthparts coiled proboscis</p></li><li><p>Feed on nectar, high sugar source for mating and oviposition( flying testes and ovaries)</p></li><li><p>Major pollinators of many plants</p></li><li><p>blue coloration</p></li><li><p>larvae clear</p></li></ul>
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Order Lepidoptera Sulfurs, whites

  • 2 pairs of membranous wings covered with scales (4)

  • Mouthparts coiled proboscis

  • Feed on nectar, high sugar source for mating and oviposition( flying testes and ovaries)

  • Major pollinators of many plants

  • white or yellow coloration

  • get color from pigments from their food

  • males do puddling (get salt from wet soil)

<ul><li><p>2 pairs of membranous wings covered with scales (4)</p></li><li><p>Mouthparts coiled proboscis</p></li><li><p>Feed on nectar, high sugar source for mating and oviposition( flying testes and ovaries)</p></li><li><p>Major pollinators of many plants</p></li><li><p>white or yellow coloration</p></li><li><p>get color from pigments from their food</p></li><li><p>males do puddling (get salt from wet soil)</p></li></ul>
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Order: Lepidoptera Hawk moth

  • 2 pairs of membranous wings covered with scales (4)

  • Mouthparts coiled proboscis

  • Feed on nectar, high sugar source for mating and oviposition( flying testes and ovaries)

  • Major pollinators of many plants

<ul><li><p>2 pairs of membranous wings covered with scales (4)</p></li><li><p>Mouthparts coiled proboscis</p></li><li><p>Feed on nectar, high sugar source for mating and oviposition( flying testes and ovaries)</p></li><li><p>Major pollinators of many plants</p></li></ul>
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