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atom<mineral<rock<mountain<planet<star<system

geological hierarchy of elements

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minerals

  • naturally occurring

  • inorganic solid material

  • possesses an orderly crystalline structure

  • defined chemical compound

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properties of minerals

crystal shape (habit), luster, color, streak, tenacity, hardness, cleavage, fracture, density

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color

  • reflected color of the absorbed visible light

Milky Quartz - white Amethyst - Purple Citrine - Yellow Smoky Quartz - Black

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Streak

color of mineral in powdered form (true color) you can see when scratched

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hardness

measure of mineral's resistance to scratching or abrasion

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moh's scale of hardness

talc, gypsum, calcite, fluorite, apatite, orthoclase, quartz, topaz, corundum, diamond

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most common element composition of minerals

O, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Na, K, Mg

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luster

indicates how much the surface of a mineral reflects light

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metallic luster

mineral is not transparent and reflects light as a metal would

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submetallic luster

mineral is not transparent or dull. dark colored

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nonmetallic luster

does not reflect light like a metal. using modifiers that refer to commonly known qualities

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waxy luster

mineral looks liker paraffin or wax.

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vitreous luster

mineral looks like broken glass

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pearly luster

mineral appears iridescent

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silky luster

mineral looks fibrous

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greasy luster

mineral looks like oil in water

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resinous luster

mineral looks like hardened tree sap (resin)

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adamantine luster

mineral looks brilliant, like a diamond

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tenacity

how hard a mineral is to be bend. describes how the particles hold together or resist seperation.

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fracture

tendency of a mineral to break along curved surfaces without a definite shape. do not have planes of weakness and break irregularly

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transparency/diaphaneity

the way light interacts with the surface of a substance. degree depends on the thickness of the mineral

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transparent

if light enters and exit the surface in a relatively undisturbed fashion

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translucent

if light can enter and exit the surface of the substance, but in a distorted fashion

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opaque

if light cannot even penetrate the surface of the substance

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mineral's specific gravity : weight of the mineral : weight of an equal amount of water

found by finding the difference between the weight of mineral in air and water

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specific gravity formulas

  1. mass of mineral : mass of equal volume of water

  2. weight of mineral in air : (weight in air - weight in water)

  3. density of mineral : density of water

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cleavage

tendency of mineral to break along smooth planes parallel to zones of weak bonding. (how easy it is to break)

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first criteria in defining cleavage of a mineral

how easily the cleavage is obtained.

  • perfect: easily distinguished

  • good: produced with some difficulty but has obvious cleavage planes

  • imperfect: planes are difficult to distinguish and obtained difficultly

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second criteria in defining cleavage of a mineral

direction of the cleavage surfaces.

the names correspond to the shape formed by the cleavage surfaces (cubic, rhombohedral, octahedral, dodecahedral, basal, prismatic)

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muscovite

cleavage in one direction

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feldspar

cleavage in 2 directions

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halite

cleavage in 3 directions

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calcite

cleavage in 2 directions with an angle of 30/120 degrees

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rhombohedral cleavage

occurs when 3 cleavage planes intersect at angles that are not 90 degrees (ex. calcite)

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prismatic cleavage

occurs when there are 2 cleavage planes in a crystal

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crystal growth faces:

  • smooth

  • with fire grooves/ridges on the surface

cleavage planes:

  • smooth but broken in a step-like fashion

  • do not have fire ridges on the surface

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magnetism of a mineral

characteristic that allows a mineral to attract/repel other minerals

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solubility of a mineral

mineral in diet are in a form of water-soluble salts.

when salts are dissolved, they dissociate into aqueous cations and anions.

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crystalline structure of a mineral

shape is determined by:

  1. arrangement of atoms

  2. molecules or ions that make up the crystal and how they are joined (crystal lattice)

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microcrystalline & cryptocrystalline

can only be viewed using high magnification

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amorphous crystals

no crystalline structure (few; only observed under extreme high magnification)

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minerals have no odor

unless acted upon the ff:

moistened heated breathed upon rubbed

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only soluble minerals have taste

however, it is not advisable to place minerals in the mouth/tongue

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silicates

most common group of minerals, contain SO2 groups that have tetrahedral crystal shape

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carbonates

minerals containing carbonate ions that exhibit effervescence (foaming reaction to acids)

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ore

naturally occurring concentration of mineral deposits that can be mined

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acid reaction of minerals

minerals containing carbonate: react to diluted hydrochloric acid forming CO2 or gas bubbles

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feel of minerals

  • talc feels soapy or greasy

  • diamond feels cold at room temperature

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presence of striations

pyrite has closely spaced fine grooves

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rocks

a consolidated mixture of minerals

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igneous rocks

rocks formed from cooled magma that solidified through crystallization. (heavy, unlayered, dark)

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size of solidified crystals

dependent on rate of cooling of magma

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lava

magma that reaches the earth's surface

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intrusive igneous rocks

large crystals formed from slow cooling of magma below the Earth's surface (Granite)

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extrusive igneous rocks

small crystals formed from quick cooling of magma at the Earth's surface

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aphanite

fine-grained igneous rock having such compact texture that the constituent minerals cannot be detected by the naked eye

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phanerite

igneous rock whose microstructure is made up of crystals large enough to be distinguished with the unaided eye

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plutonism

formation of intrusive igneous rocks by solidification of magma beneath Earth's surface

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pyroclastic rocks

came from erupted matters/volcano

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sedimentary rocks

formed from the lithification (compaction) of sediment.

accumulation and consolidation of mineral and articulate matter deposited by the action of water, wind, glacial ice.

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fragmental rocks

composed of mineral particles produced by mechanical disintegration, transported and deposited in layers (shale to slate)

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detrital sediment

originate as solid particles derived from weathering and transported (Shale, Sandstone)

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Chemical Sediment

originate from soluble materials produced by chemical weathering (Limestone, Chert)

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Metamorphic Rocks

formed from previous rocks subjected to extreme heat and pressure. (hardest)

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effects of metamorphism

  1. increased density

  2. recrystallization (formation of larger crystals)

  3. reorientation of mineral grains (foliation)

  4. formation of new minerals

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exogenic processes

responsible for transforming rocks into sediment (rock cycle)

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weathering

breaking down of rocks into smaller pieces

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agents of weathering

atmosphere weather plants animals activities of man

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physical/mechanical weathering

occur when rocks are broken down without changing the chemical composition

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types of physical weathering

  1. block disintegration

  2. exfoliation

  3. frost action

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block disintegration

the successive heating and cooling of rocks.

hot: expand cold: shrink

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exfoliation

peeling off of the outer layer of rocks due to intense heating. (thermal expansion)

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frost action

the alternate freezing and melting of water in the joint of rocks

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chemical weathering

composition of substances of the rocks change

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types of chemical weathering

  1. oxidation

  2. hydration

  3. carbonation

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oxidation

(iron oxide) oxygen reacts on ferrous material found in rocks producing oxide.

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hydration

absorption of water. minerals will swell and form cracks. water can also combine with the minerals and form new substances

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carbonation

formation of carbonates e.g CO2 reacts on limestone then produces carbonic acid

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biotic weathering

caused by activities of living things

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burrowing

(of animals) digging

e.g ants, termites, rats, rabbits, & earth worms

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roots of plants and trees

penetrates into the joint of rocks. wind carries seed and lands into the cracks

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man's activities

agriculture, construction, burning, camping, mountain climbing

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mass wasting

downslope movement of rocks (by sliding/slumping[along the curve of the earth's surface]) under the influence of gravity

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talus

fallen material from a rockfall

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rockslides

follows a zone of weakness, such as bedding plane/ foliation plane

rapid flow of rock mass on a long flat inclined plane

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debris flow

mass-wasting events in which turbulence occurs throughout the mass

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earthflow

earth materials move down a hillside as a fluid like mass

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mudflow

very slow to rapid movement of fine grained sediments and rock particles

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landslide

masses of rocks and sediments side downslope

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creep

slow, gradual movement of soil or regolith downhill over time

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slump

earth material that has moved as a unit along a curved surface

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erosion

destruction made by natural forces whereas rock particles transfer from one place to another

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agents of erosion

water and wind

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endogenic processes

driven by internal heat from radioactive decay of elements beneath the surface

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diastrophism

movement of all solid parts of the earth. (may deform)

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upward forces (diastrophism)

cause the local/widespread rising or uplift of the crust

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downward forces (diastrophism)

cause the local/widespread sinking subsidence of the crust

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sideward force (diastrophism)

cause the horizontal motion of the crust called "thrust"

large masses of rocks slide and slip against each other into new positions

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effects of diastophism

  1. folding

  2. faulting

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