Exam 2

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Why is it useful to have theories?

1 / 272

273 Terms

1

Why is it useful to have theories?

  1. Developmental theories provide a framework for understanding important phenomena. 2)Developmental theories raise crucial question about human nature. 3) Lead to a better understanding of children

New cards
2

What is cognition?

Knowledge, reasoning, and problem-solving

New cards
3

What is cognitive development?

ability to think and reason

New cards
4

Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development

infants and children actively try to organize and make sense of their world

New cards
5

The active child

children contribute to their own development

New cards
6

Constructive processes

generating hypotheses, performing experiments, and drawing conclusions from their observations

New cards
7

What is constructivism?

humans generate knowledge and meaning from an interaction between their experiences and their ideas

New cards
8

What are the four stages of development?

sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational

New cards
9

sensorimotor stage (birth-2 years)

Piaget: infants are BLANK slate

New cards
10

First 8 months..

New cards
11
  • ONLY sensory and motor abilities

New cards
12
  • NO enduring representations

New cards
13
  • Mental representations

New cards
14
  • FAIL Object Permanence

New cards
15

AT 8 months..

New cards
16
  • object permanence arrives

New cards
17
  • representations are FRAGILE

New cards
18
  • A not B error

New cards
19

A-not-B error

the tendency to reach for a hidden object where it was last found rather than in the new location where it was last hidden

New cards
20

deffered imitation

the ability to remember and copy the behavior of models who are not present

New cards
21

preoperational stage(2 to 7 years)

Major Accomplishment: Symbols

New cards
22

Language

New cards
23

Drawing/Art- from process to product to conventional representations

New cards
24

Maps

New cards
25

Pretend Play- using object substitution to sociodramatic play

New cards
26

sociodramatic play

pretend play in which children act out various roles and themes in stories that they create (family)

New cards
27

object substitution

an object is used as something other than itself (broom as horse)

New cards
28

Pre operational Limitations

Egocentrism, Centration, and Conservation

New cards
29

Egocentrism: 3 Mountains Problem

What does the doll see?

New cards
30

Younger pre-op children will pick own view

New cards
31

Older pre-op children will pick other view sometimes but get it wrong

New cards
32

Centration (Piaget)

Inability to incorporate multiple features, only focus on one feature

New cards
33

conservation of liquid

5 year old: fails conservation of liquid by saying they have more water, because a wide cup is shorter than a tall cup

New cards
34

7 year old: succeeds and answers same when person pours liquid into a different container

New cards
35

conservation of number

4/4 1/2 year olds fail to recognize the parents of objects doesn't necessarily change

New cards
36

Concrete Operational (7-12 years)

Logical Reasoning about concrete features of the world

New cards
37

Operations/Transformations

New cards
38

Has Conservation- if you pour it back, it's the same amount

New cards
39

Concrete operational limitations

-reasoning limited to concrete (observable) and specific situations

New cards
40

-reasoning about counterfactual hypotheticals- cant follow the logical set up

New cards
41

do not approach problems systematically- take in factors to account one at a time (pendulum problem)

New cards
42

pendulum problem concrete operational

Children under 12 perform unsystematic experiments and draw incorrect conclusions

New cards
43

Formal operational (12+)

New abilities:

New cards
44

Counterfactuals/hypothetical reasoning

New cards
45

Abstract reasoning

New cards
46

Systematic Approach to pendulum problem

New cards
47

Weaknesses of Piaget's Theory

  1. vague about processes of change

New cards
48
  1. underestimated children's abilities

New cards
49
  1. social and cultural factors

New cards
50

dual representation

the ability to view a symbolic object as both an object in its own right and a symbol

New cards
51

information processing

  • nature and nurture, how change occurs

New cards
52
  • Focus on structure of cognitive system and mental activities to deploy attention and memory to solve problems

New cards
53

task analysis

breaking a task down into smaller components to understand children's failure/points of development

New cards
54

task analysis application to other tasks

Info-processing researchers are able to understand and predict behavior and test precise hypothesis on how development occurs

New cards
55

working memory

attending to, maintaining, and processing info relevant to a task

New cards
56
  • includes incoming info (through encoding) and from Long term memory(through retrieval)

New cards
57
  • LIMITED capacity

New cards
58

long-term memory

knowledge that people store over their lifetime

New cards
59
  • actual, conceptual, and procedural knowledge

New cards
60
  • UNLIMITED capacity

New cards
61
  • accessed by retrieval

New cards
62

executive functioning

Selection of content from LTM

New cards
63

Strategy selection & flexibility

New cards
64

Inhibition of behavior-- resisting temptation to external stimuli

New cards
65

basic processes

the simplest and most frequently used mental activities

New cards
66

rehearsal

conscious repetition of information (ex. repeating someone's phone number that was just given)

New cards
67

content knowledge

Knowledge about the actual subject matter that is to be learned or taught. (facts and concepts)

New cards
68

encoding

the processing of information into the memory system

New cards
69

ex. great knowledge of chess leads children to encode positions of several pieces relative to one another rather than each individual piece

New cards
70

sociocultural theories

development takes place through interactions with other people

New cards
71

guided participation

organizing activities so learners can succeed (sadie's mom holds up part of toy so sadie can screw in the other part. Cannot do alone)

New cards
72

Scaffolding

putting the support at the right level

New cards
73

temporary framework is provided to support children's thinking at a higher level than they could manage alone

New cards
74

intersubjectivity

the mutual understanding that people share during communication

New cards
75

BASIS FOR JOINT ATTENTION

New cards
76

joint attention

the ability to focus on what another person is focused on

New cards
77

Vygotsky sociocultural theories

-children are intent on participating in activities in their local setting

New cards
78

---> social interactions drive development

New cards
79
  • teaching & learning from one another are instincts (tomasello)

New cards
80

social interactions in transmitting culture

ex. one way that schooling can be improved is if we change the culture of schools

New cards
81
  • culture should be aimed at helping children understand by engaging in cooperative activities, creating a desire to learn more

New cards
82

core-knowledge theory

proposes that there us an existence of core concepts (innate or built-in) NOT BLANK SLATE

New cards
83

domain specificity

info about a specific content area

New cards
84
  • allows children to distinguish between inanimate and animate objects

New cards
85

Nativism (Core Knowledge)

  • there ARE innate concepts

New cards
86
  • core domains are simple (innate), starter concepts (core knowledge theory)

New cards
87

Empiricism (core knowledge)

  • there are NOT innate concepts

New cards
88
  • concepts learned with general learning mechanisms

New cards
89

core domains

physical objects, number, space, living things, people, language

New cards
90

concept

A general idea or thought about something

New cards
91

categories

groups or classes of things

New cards
92

physical objects as core domain

is knowledge of physical objects innate>

New cards
93

Baillargeon study (4 months)

"violation of expectancy"

New cards
94

(a) Habituate

New cards
95

(b) Place box behind object

New cards
96

(c) presented a possible event (object laying against box)

New cards
97

(d) impossible event (object going through box)

New cards
98

looking time increases at impossible event

New cards
99

object segregation

identifying the distinct, coherent objects in a scene

New cards
100

what cue do we use for segmentation?

common motion

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 25 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 30 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3359 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(5)
note Note
studied byStudied by 27 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1504 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(9)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard116 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard112 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard66 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard70 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard108 terms
studied byStudied by 36 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard58 terms
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard41 terms
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
4.3 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard63 terms
studied byStudied by 39 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)