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Nernst Potential

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1

Nernst Potential

extracellular over intracellular concentration

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2

Nernst Potential is influenced by

concentration gradient of ions, ion should be able to cross the barrier, a single ion

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3

Goldman-Hodgkkin-Katz Equation

measures membrane potential using multiple ions

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4

G-H-K Equation format

(concP in)/(concP out)

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5

Resting Membrane Potential

-70mV

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6

Resting Membrane Potential determined by

ECF and ICF concentration gradient of K, Na, and large negatively charged anionic intracellular proteins A

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7

Na/K pump

3 Na out for every 2K in

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8

Which ion is leaking out of the cell the most?

K

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9

Input side of neuron

dendrites

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10

output side of neuron

axon terminal

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11

Graded potential

potential fades with distance away from the stimulus, it's mechanically gated, strength of potential is directly related to strength of the stimulus.

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12

voltage gated sodium channel

has an activation and inactivation gate

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13

voltage gated potassium channel

mechanically sensitive channel that allows K to leave

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14

What potential would a potassium channel open at?

-55mV, but won't be fully opened until -30mV

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15

Factors that increase speed of conduction

increase diameter of axon or increase resistance to ion leakage

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16

Myelin Sheath

increases resistance to ion leakage, increases speed of conduction

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17

Nodes of Ranvier

spaces in between myelin sheaths

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18

Saltatory Conduction

jumping from one node of renvier to the next

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19

Synaptic knob

ending of pre-synaptic neuron, contains vescicles of neurotransmitters

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20

synaptic cleft

space between pre and post synaptic neurons

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21

post-synaptic neuron

neuron receiving action potential

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22

Triggers Ca+ channels to open

When action potential gets to the axon terminal

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23

Triggers exocytosis of neurotransmitters

release of Ca+ ions

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24

Initiates a response in the post-synaptic neuron

neurotransmitter binding with receptors of post-synaptic neuron

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25

Is EPSP depolarizing or hyper-polarizing?

depolarizing

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26

IPSP is depolarizing or hyper-polarizing?

hyper-polarizing

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27

Ion involved in EPSP

Na+

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28

Ion involved in IPSP

Cl-

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29

Refractory Period

need a stronger stimulus than normal to create a second action potential

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30

Absolute Refractory Period

second action potential is impossible

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31

Refractory periods prevent

backward conduction

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32

Action potential is triggered by

depolarization

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33

Key notes on Action potential

threshold must be reached, all or none event, propagates w/o decrement, impossible to trigger another action potential during absolute refractory period

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34

What would happen if the K+ outside of the cell greatly increased?

The neuron would depolarize because less K+ is able to move out of the cell which creates a more positive ICF

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35

What if ECF increased in Na?

The cell would shrink because water would move outside to even out the [Na]

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36

Temporal summation

2 sub-threshold potentials arrive at same spot within a short amount of time to create an action potential

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Spatial Summation

2 sub-threshold potentials from different neurons arrive at about the same time to create a potential

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38

EPSP and IPSP cancellation

excitatory and inhibitory inputs arrive near the same time and cancel their signal

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39

Coding strength of a stimulus is based on

frequency, number of neurotransmitters released, and number of neurons that reach action potential

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40

What happens to strength of the signal in a graded potential?

strength of graded potential decreases the farther away it is from the stimulus

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41

At Point 1, Na activation gate is opened or closed?

closed

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42

At Point 1, Na inactivation is opened or closed?

opened

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43

At Point 1, K gate is opened or closed?

closed

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44

What is happening at point 3?

threshold is reached for Na channels, Na channel opens, inactivation gate starts to close slowly, K starts to slowly open

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45

What is happening at point 4?

Na activation gate is completely open and Na ions are moving into the cell, K channel is still closed

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46

What is happening at point 5?

peak of action potential, Na inactivation gate is closed(Na ions stop moving)

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47

What is happening at point 6?

K channel is opened(K ions move to decrease potential)

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48

What is happening at point 7?

reaches resting potential, but goes past it

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49

What is happening at point 8?

K channel begins to close, Na inactivation gate starts to open

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50

What is happening at point 9?

Return to resting potential

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51

monosynaptic reflexes

one synapse

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52

monosynaptic pathway

stimulus, afferent somatosensory neuron synapse with efferent neuron, target cell, response

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53

polysynaptic reflex

more than one synapse

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54

polysynaptic pathway

stimulus, afferent somatosensory neuron via dorsal horn, synapse 1 with intermediate neuron, synapse 2 between intermediate and efferent neuron, target cell, response

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55

somatic reflex

somatic motor neurons; skeletal muscles

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56

autonomic reflex

automatic/visceral reflex; polysnaptic; one in CNS, one in autonomic ganglion

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57

autonomic reflex pathway

stimulus, visceral sensory neuron, intermediate neuron, pre ganglionic autonomic neuron, autonomic neuron, post ganglionic autonomic neuron, target cell, response

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58

muscle spindles

stretch receptors that send information to the spinal cord and brain about muscle length and changes in muscle length; anchored parallel to muscle fibers

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59

stretch reflex pathways

negative feedback loop; muscle stretch, increased afferent signals to spinal cord, spinal cord, increased efferent output thru alpha motor neurons, muscle contraction, firing rate of afferent neuron decreases to prevent overstretching

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60

stretch in a muscle causes what to open?

Calcium channels

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61

patellar reflex pathway

stimulus, muscle stretch, muscle spindle fires, action potential travel thru sensory neuron, synapse in spinal cord, breaks into two paths: path 1 - efferent path 1 (monosynaptic): somatic motor neuron and goes to quads. path 2 - efferent path 2 (polysynaptic): interneuron inhibits somatic motor neuron so hamstring relaxes.

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62

the patellar motor pathway is an example of both a monosynaptic and polysynaptic reflex (T/F)

TRUE

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63

withdrawal and crossed extensor reflex pathway

stimulus, nociceptors send signal to spinal cord, signal diverges into 3 parts: 1) to brain, tells brain and activates pathways for pain and posture adjustment. 2) withdrawal reflex pulls foot away from painful stimulus. 3) crossed extensor reflex supports body as weight shifts away from stimulus

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64

what reflex is the withdrawal pathway?

monosynaptic

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65

what reflex is the crossed extensor reflex pathway?

polysnaptic

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66

crossed extensor reflex

helps maintain balance when one foot is lifted from the ground

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67

baroreflex pathway

increase BP, baroreceptors fire, sensory neurons, cardiovascular control center in medulla oblongata, sympathetic decreases (less norepinephrine released, β1 and β2), parasympathetic increased (more ACh on muscarinic receptor), decrease heart rate

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68

what does baroreflex control?

controls mean arterial blood pressure

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69

two types of baroreceptors

carotid - to brain aortic - to body both will increase firing when blood pressure increases

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70

increase in blood pressure will cause increase in sympathetic output and decrease heart rate (T/F)

FALSE

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71

which of the following reflex pathways does not have an interneuron?

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72

a) pathway for hamstring inhibition in patellar reflex b) pathway for extensor inhibition in withdrawal reflex c) pathway for extensor contraction in crossed extensor reflex d) pathway for quadriceps contraction in patellar reflex e) pathway for hamstring inhibition in crossed extensor reflex

d

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73

main role of autonomic nervous system

homeostasis

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74

ANS

involuntary, controls internal organs

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75

2 branches of ANS

  1. sympathetic (flight or flight/stress situations)

  2. parasympathetic (rest and digest/chill situations)

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76

only one can purely dominate in each situation

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77

3 parts of autonomic control center

hypothalamus, pons, medulla

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78

what does each part of the autonomic control center to?

hypothalamus (temperature, water balance, eating behavior) pons (urinary bladder, secondary respiratory control)

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79

pathway of autonomic control center

ACC, pre ganglionic fiber, dendrites, synapses, target

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80

pathway of sympathetic nervous system

CNS, pre releases ACh onto nicotinic receptor in autonomic ganglion, post releases norepinephrine onto adrenergic receptor on target tissue

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81

pathway of parasympathetic nervous system

CNS, pre releases ACh onto nicotinic receptor in the autonomic ganglion, post releases ACh onto muscarinic receptor on target tissue.

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82

exception of sympathetic nervous system pathway

sweat glands; release ACh onto adrenergic receptor instead of norepinephrine

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83

similarities of SNS and PNS

both primaries secrete ACh onto nicotinic receptors

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84

contrasts of SNS and PNS: (think neurotransmitter released, length of fibers, ganglion/ where it synapses)

SNS: post secrete norepinephrine onto ADRENERGIC receptors PNS: post ACh onto MUSCARINIC receptors

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85

SNS: short pre fiber, long post fiber PNS: long pre fiber, short post fiber

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86

SNS: ganglion close to spinal cord PNS: ganglion close to target organ

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87

SNS Adrenergic receptors are comprised of what?

α and β 1

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88

4 Adrenergic receptor types

α 1, β 1, β 2, β 3

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89

where is α 1 found? sensitivity? effect on second messenger?

most sympathetic tissues, NE>E, activates phospholipase C

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90

where is β 1 found? sensitivity? effect on second messenger?

heart muscle, kidney, NE=E, increases cAMP

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91

where is β 2 found? sensitivity? effect on second messenger?

blood vessels, smooth muscles of organs, E>NE, increases cAMP

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92

where is β 3 found? sensitivity? effect on second messenger?

adipose tissue, NE>E, increases cAMP

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93

all adrenergic receptors re:

G protein coupled and longer lasting

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94

α is the ___ common type of receptor

most

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95

muscarinic receptors

all G protein coupled; initiate 2nd messenger pathways like K+ or Ca2+ channels

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96

adrenal medulla (associated with what, what does it secrete, where is it, contain what)

SNS, epinephrine, on top of kidneys, chromaffin cells

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97

what do chromaffin cells do?

secrete epinephrine directly into blood

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98

with fight or flight, the adrenal medulla will release ___ amounts of ____

large; epinephrine

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99

pathway of adrenal medulla

spinal cord, pre ganglionic sympathetic neuron, adrenal medulla, ACh, chromaffin cell, epinephrine, blood vessel, target tissue

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100

epinephrine is ONLY a hormone whereas norepinephrine is both a hormone and a neurotransmitter (T/F)

TRUE

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