KIN 303 Chapter 15

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body composition

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1

body composition

ratio of fat mass to fat-free mass in the body

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bone, water, muscle, connective/organ tissues, teeth

what is fat-free mass?

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3

women; greater need, hormones, pregnancy etc

who typically has more fat mass, men or women? why?

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4

3500 calories

one pound of body fat is equal to ____.

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subcutaenous fat

fat right below the skin

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visceral fat

fat around major organs

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intra-abdominal fat

what is visceral fat also called?

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8

putting pressure directly on vital organs

why is visceral fat for dangerous fat?

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not putting pressure directly on vital organs

why is subcutaneous fat not as dangerous to your health?

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10

weight divided by height

body mass index (BMI)

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11

muscle

____ weighs more than fat.

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muscle and water

electrical currents move faster through ____ than fat.

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13

fat free mass

for some athletes, it may be beneficial to increase _____.

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14

require power, strength, and muscular endurance

athletes that increase fat-free mass may include activities that ______.

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15

it adds weight

why may some athletes not want to add fat-free mass?

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endurance runners, pole vaulter, high jumpers

what are some examples of athletes that may not want to add fat-free mass?

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true

t/f fat mass addition is almost always detrimental to performance, except for some athletes like heavyweight powerlifters or sumo wrestlers.

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18

additional fat helps lower center of gravity

why may heavyweight powerlifters want fat mass addition?

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19

reproductive issues, respiratory issues, circulatory/immune issues, muscle wasting, fatigue, premature death

having too little body fat can lead to things like _____.

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eating disorders

individuals with too little body fat are likely to have ____.

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carbohydrates (CHO)

formed by plants via photosynthesis, then stored in plants as starch

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4kcal/gram

energy from CHO =

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monosaccharides and disaccharides

what are simple CHO?

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glucose, fructose, galactose

monosaccharides include ___.

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sucrose, lactose, maltose

disaccharides include ____.

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oligosaccharides (3-10) and polysaccharides (10+)

complex CHO include ____.

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maltodextrin, corn syrup

oligosaccharides include ____.

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starch, glycogen

polysaccharides include ____.

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carbohydrates

primary energy source for the body

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high-intensity anaerobic exercise (anaerobic glycolysis)

carbohydrates are the only energy source for _____.

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central nervous system (CNS)

CHO are the energy source for the _____.

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protein

CHO helps prevent the breakdown of ____ for energy.

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fats

CHO helps start the breakdown of ____.

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phytonutrients

from leafy plants, fruits, and some vegetables

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cholesterol

soluble fiber lowers _____.

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glycemic index

indication of how much a certain food raises blood sugar when consumed

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type, fiber content, protein content, fat content, form, etc.

glycemic index is dependent on ____.

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reduced LDL cholesterol, potential reduced risk of heart disease, greatest improvement in weight loss seen with higher protein intake

what are the benefits of low GI food?

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slow release of glucose into blood, sustainable energy

in general, low GI foods prior to exercise =

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fast release of glucose, increase protein synthesis

in general, high GI foods post-exercise =

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proteins (PRO)

building blocks of life

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bones, teeth, ligaments, tendons, muscle, hair, skin, nails, organs

proteins, body tissue structure include:

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enzymes, hormones, water balance

what body processes do proteins regulate?

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amino acids

proteins are made up of ____.

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20

how many amino acids are in a protein?

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9 essential, 11 non-essential

of the 20 amino acids, there are ____ essential and ____ non-essential.

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structural protein

give shape and structure to the cell and organelles -examples: actin, mysoin, tubulin

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enzymes

catalyze biological reactions -examples: trypsin, adenylate cyclase

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receptors

bind to other molecules and transmit signals -examples: glutamate

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other functional proteins

have specific functions examples: antibodies

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one's your body can create itself

amino acids that are "non-essential" are ____.

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high quality protein

a complete protein

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contains all the essential amino acids that are needed plus extra for protein synthesis

what is a high quality protein?

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digestibilty

high quality proteins have good _____.

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animal-derived foods

high quality proteins are usually from _____.

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low quality protein

an incomplete protein; lacking one or more limiting amino acids

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plant-derived foods

low quality proteins are usually from _____.

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essential amino acids

complete proteins can supply all of the ____.

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true

t/f you can combine incomplete proteins (complementing proteins) to create complete protein sources.

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total energy intake, desire to lose or gain weight, exercise intensity and duration, training status, fitness level, body composition, dietary protein quality, age

protein needs depend on _____.

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more

protein needs depend on you age. the older you are, the _____ protein you need.

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140g

1lb muscle tissue = _____g protein

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true

t/f dietary fat does NOT make you fat.

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lipids

fats belong to a group of compounds called _____.

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plants and animals

fats are found in ____.

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triglycerides

most common dietary lipid

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phospholipids

water and fat soluble; used for cell membranes

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sterols

fats that are used for hormones

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hydrogen

saturated fats are saturated with ___.

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solid

saturated fats are ____ at room temperature.

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number of double bonds

unsaturated fats, mono and poly, are based on _____.

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omega 3 and 6

what are the essential fatty acids?

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anabolic signaling

fish oil improves _____ in older adults.

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increase protein synthesis

anabolic signaling helps _____.

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taken out during processing then put back in

what are enriched vitamins?

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vitamins that were not originally in the food

what are fortified vitamins?

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B vitamins, choline, and vitamin C

what are examples of water soluble vitamins?

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water soluble vitamins

vitamins that dissolve in water

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toxicity

water soluble vitamins have low potential for _____.

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A, D, E, K

what are the fat soluble vitamins?

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dietary fat

what must transfer fat soluble vitamins into the blood?

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high concentrations

when can fat soluble vitamins be toxic?

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minerals

what are essential for human survival?

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caloric value

minerals have no _____.

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sodium, potassium, calcium

what are examples of major minerals?

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100mg

major minerals are needed in amounts ____.

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<= 100mg

trace minerals are needed in amounts ____.

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iron, zinc, chromium

what are examples of trace minerals?

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water

what is the most essential nutrient?

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provides cell structure, cooling, assists in pH balance, lubricates joints

what are the functions of water?

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water

major constituent of blood volume

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ingested fluids

~80% of water comes from ____.

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ingested foods

<20% of water comes from ____.

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metabolism

water is a product of ____ in a very small amount.

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95

dehydration

water intake < water loss =

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balance

water intake = water loss=

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hyperhydration

water intake > water loss =

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body weight, urine color, urine specific gravity, urine volume

what are ways to monitor hydration?

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hyponatremia

water intoxication

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ultra-endurance events

hyperhydration is most common in ____.

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