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ratio of fat mass to fat-free mass in the body
bone, water, muscle, connective/organ tissues, teeth
what is fat-free mass?
women; greater need, hormones, pregnancy etc
who typically has more fat mass, men or women? why?
one pound of body fat is equal to ____.
fat right below the skin
fat around major organs
what is visceral fat also called?
putting pressure directly on vital organs
why is visceral fat for dangerous fat?
not putting pressure directly on vital organs
why is subcutaneous fat not as dangerous to your health?
weight divided by height
body mass index (BMI)
____ weighs more than fat.
muscle and water
electrical currents move faster through ____ than fat.
fat free mass
for some athletes, it may be beneficial to increase _____.
require power, strength, and muscular endurance
athletes that increase fat-free mass may include activities that ______.
it adds weight
why may some athletes not want to add fat-free mass?
endurance runners, pole vaulter, high jumpers
what are some examples of athletes that may not want to add fat-free mass?
t/f fat mass addition is almost always detrimental to performance, except for some athletes like heavyweight powerlifters or sumo wrestlers.
additional fat helps lower center of gravity
why may heavyweight powerlifters want fat mass addition?
reproductive issues, respiratory issues, circulatory/immune issues, muscle wasting, fatigue, premature death
having too little body fat can lead to things like _____.
individuals with too little body fat are likely to have ____.
formed by plants via photosynthesis, then stored in plants as starch
energy from CHO =
monosaccharides and disaccharides
what are simple CHO?
glucose, fructose, galactose
monosaccharides include ___.
sucrose, lactose, maltose
disaccharides include ____.
oligosaccharides (3-10) and polysaccharides (10+)
complex CHO include ____.
maltodextrin, corn syrup
oligosaccharides include ____.
polysaccharides include ____.
primary energy source for the body
high-intensity anaerobic exercise (anaerobic glycolysis)
carbohydrates are the only energy source for _____.
central nervous system (CNS)
CHO are the energy source for the _____.
CHO helps prevent the breakdown of ____ for energy.
CHO helps start the breakdown of ____.
from leafy plants, fruits, and some vegetables
soluble fiber lowers _____.
indication of how much a certain food raises blood sugar when consumed
type, fiber content, protein content, fat content, form, etc.
glycemic index is dependent on ____.
reduced LDL cholesterol, potential reduced risk of heart disease, greatest improvement in weight loss seen with higher protein intake
what are the benefits of low GI food?
slow release of glucose into blood, sustainable energy
in general, low GI foods prior to exercise =
fast release of glucose, increase protein synthesis
in general, high GI foods post-exercise =
building blocks of life
bones, teeth, ligaments, tendons, muscle, hair, skin, nails, organs
proteins, body tissue structure include:
enzymes, hormones, water balance
what body processes do proteins regulate?
proteins are made up of ____.
how many amino acids are in a protein?
9 essential, 11 non-essential
of the 20 amino acids, there are ____ essential and ____ non-essential.
give shape and structure to the cell and organelles -examples: actin, mysoin, tubulin
catalyze biological reactions -examples: trypsin, adenylate cyclase
bind to other molecules and transmit signals -examples: glutamate
other functional proteins
have specific functions examples: antibodies
one's your body can create itself
amino acids that are "non-essential" are ____.
high quality protein
a complete protein
contains all the essential amino acids that are needed plus extra for protein synthesis
what is a high quality protein?
high quality proteins have good _____.
high quality proteins are usually from _____.
low quality protein
an incomplete protein; lacking one or more limiting amino acids
low quality proteins are usually from _____.
essential amino acids
complete proteins can supply all of the ____.
t/f you can combine incomplete proteins (complementing proteins) to create complete protein sources.
total energy intake, desire to lose or gain weight, exercise intensity and duration, training status, fitness level, body composition, dietary protein quality, age
protein needs depend on _____.
protein needs depend on you age. the older you are, the _____ protein you need.
1lb muscle tissue = _____g protein
t/f dietary fat does NOT make you fat.
fats belong to a group of compounds called _____.
plants and animals
fats are found in ____.
most common dietary lipid
water and fat soluble; used for cell membranes
fats that are used for hormones
saturated fats are saturated with ___.
saturated fats are ____ at room temperature.
number of double bonds
unsaturated fats, mono and poly, are based on _____.
omega 3 and 6
what are the essential fatty acids?
fish oil improves _____ in older adults.
increase protein synthesis
anabolic signaling helps _____.
taken out during processing then put back in
what are enriched vitamins?
vitamins that were not originally in the food
what are fortified vitamins?
B vitamins, choline, and vitamin C
what are examples of water soluble vitamins?
water soluble vitamins
vitamins that dissolve in water
water soluble vitamins have low potential for _____.
A, D, E, K
what are the fat soluble vitamins?
what must transfer fat soluble vitamins into the blood?
when can fat soluble vitamins be toxic?
what are essential for human survival?
minerals have no _____.