Chapter 14 Test Part 1

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  1. Life on the frontier was A) fairly comfortable for women but not for men. B) downright grim for most pioneer families. C) free of disease and premature death. D) rarely portrayed in popular literature. E) based on tight-knit communities.

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1
  1. Life on the frontier was A) fairly comfortable for women but not for men. B) downright grim for most pioneer families. C) free of disease and premature death. D) rarely portrayed in popular literature. E) based on tight-knit communities.

B

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2
  1. All of the following gave rise to a more dynamic, market-oriented, national economy in early nineteenth-century America except A) the push west in search of cheap land. B) government regulation of all major economic industry. C) a vast number of European immigrants settling in the cities. D) newly invented machinery. E) better roads, faster steamboats, further-reaching canals, and tentacle-stretching railroads.

B

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3
  1. Pioneering Americans marooned by geography A) remained well informed despite the barriers. B) grew to depend on other people for most of their clothing. C) abandoned the "rugged individualism" of colonial Americans. D) looked to state governments for economic help. E) became ill informed and individualistic in their attitudes.

E

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4
  1. In early-nineteenth-century America, A) the annual population growth rate was much higher than in colonial days. B) the urban population was growing at an unprecedented rate. C) the birthrate was rapidly declining. D) the death rate was increasing. E) the center of population moved northward.

B

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5
  1. The dramatic growth of American cities between 1800 and 1860 A) led to a lower death rate. B) contributed to a decline in the birthrate. C) resulted in unsanitary conditions in many communities. D) forced the federal government to slow immigration. E) created sharp political conflict between farmers and urbanites.

C

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6
  1. "Ecological imperialism" can best be described as A) the efforts of white settlers to take land from Native Americans. B) the aggressive exploitation of the West's bounty. C) a desire for the United States to acquire California. D) the spread of technology and industry. E) none of the above.

B

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7
  1. George Catlin advocated A) placing Indians on reservations. B) efforts to protect America's endangered species. C) continuing the "rendezvous" system. D) keeping white settlers out of the West. E) the preservation of nature as a national policy.

E

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8
  1. The influx of immigrants to the United States tripled, then quadrupled, in the A) 1810s and 1820s. B) 1820s and 1830s. C) 1830s and 1840s. D) 1840s and 1850s. E) 1860s and 1870s.

D

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9
  1. Ireland's great export in the 1840s was A) people. B) potatoes. C) wool. D) whiskey. E) music.

A

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10
  1. The Irish immigrants to early nineteenth-century America A) were mostly Roman Catholics and hated the British. B) tended to settle on western farmlands. C) were warmly welcomed by American workers. D) identified and sympathized with American free blacks. E) were often members of the Irish Republican Army.

A

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11
  1. When the Irish flocked to the United States in the 1840s, they stayed in the larger seaboard cities because they A) preferred urban life. B) were offered high-paying jobs. C) were welcomed by the people living there. D) were too poor to move west and buy land. E) had experience in urban politics.

D

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12
  1. When the "famine Irish" came to America, they A) moved to the West. B) mostly became farmers. C) moved up the economic ladder quickly. D) mostly remained in the port cities of the Northeast. E) formed alliances with Yankees against the Germans.

D

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13
  1. Native-born Protestant Americans distrusted and resented the Irish mostly because these immigrants A) were poor. B) were thought to love alcohol. C) were Roman Catholic. D) frequently became police officers. E) were slow to learn English.

C

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14
  1. German immigrants in the early nineteenth century tended to A) settle in eastern industrial cities. B) assimilated themselves well into American culture . C) become slave-owners. D) join the temperance movement. E) preserve their own language and culture.

E

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15
  1. German immigrants to the United States A) quickly became a powerful political force. B) came to escape economic hardships and autocratic government. C) were as poor as the Irish. D) contributed little to American life. E) were almost all Roman Catholics.

B

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16
  1. When German immigrants came to the United States, they A) often became Baptist or Methodists. B) mixed well with other Americans. C) remained mostly in the Northeast. D) prospered with astonishing ease. E) dropped most of their German customs.

D

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17
  1. Those who were frightened by the rapid influx of Irish immigrants organized A) the Order of the Star-Spangled Banner. B) the "Molly Maguires." C) Tammany Hall. D) the Ancient Order of Hibernians. E) the Ku Klux Klan.

A

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18
  1. The sentiment of fear and opposition to open immigration was called A) the cult of domesticity. B) nativism. C) Unitarianism. D) rugged individualism. E) patriotism.

B

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19
  1. Native-born Americans feared that Catholic immigrants to the United States would A) want to attend school with Protestants. B) overwhelm the native-born Catholics and control the church. C) "establish" the Catholic church at the expense of Protestantism. D) assume control of the "Know-Nothing" party. E) establish monasteries and convents in the West.

C

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20
  1. Immigrants coming to the United States before 1860 A) depressed the economy due to their poverty. B) found themselves involved in few cultural conflicts. C) had little impact on society until after the Civil War. D) settled mostly in the South. E) helped to fuel economic expansion.

E

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21
  1. The "Father of the Factory System" in the United States was A) Robert Fulton. B) Samuel F. B. Morse. C) Eli Whitney. D) Samuel Slater. E) Thomas Edison.

D

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22
  1. Eli Whitney was instrumental in the invention of the A) steamboat. B) cotton gin. C) railroad locomotive. D) telegraph. E) repeating revolver.

B

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23
  1. Most of the cotton produced in the American South after the invention of the cotton gin was A) produced by free labor. B) sold to England. C) grown on the tidewater plains. D) consumed by the southern textile industry. E) of the long-staple variety.

B

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24
  1. The American phase of the industrial revolution first blossomed A) on southern plantations. B) with textile mills. C) in rapidly growing Chicago. D) with shipbuilding. E) in coal-mining regions.

B

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25
  1. As a result of the development of the cotton gin, A) slavery revived and expanded. B) American industry bought more southern cotton than did British manufacturers. C) a nationwide depression ensued. D) the South diversified its economy. E) the textile industry moved to the South.

A

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26
  1. The underlying basis for modern mass production was the A) cotton gin. B) musket. C) use of interchangeable parts. D) principle of limited liability. E) passing of protective tariffs.

C

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27
  1. The early factory system distributed its benefits A) mostly to the owners. B) evenly to all. C) primarily in the South. D) to workers represented by unions. E) to overseas investors.

A

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28
  1. Match each individual below with the correct invention. A. Samuel Morse B. Cyrus McCormick C. Elias Howe D. Robert Fulton 1. telegraph 2. mower-reaper 3. steamboat 4. sewing machine A) A-3, B-1, C-4, D-2 B) A-1, B-2, C-4, D-3 C) A-1, B-4, C-2, D-3 D) A-4, B-2, C-3, D-1 E) A-2, B-1, C-4, D-3

B

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29
  1. The American work force in the early nineteenth century was characterized by A) substantial employment of women and children in factories. B) strikes by workers that were few in number but usually effective. C) a general lengthening of the workday from ten to fourteen hours. D) extensive political activity among workers. E) reliance on the system of apprentices and masters.

A

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30
  1. One reason that the lot of adult wage earners improved was A) support gained from the United States Supreme Court. B) the passage of minimum wage laws. C) the passage of laws restricting the use of strikebreakers. D) the enactment of immigration restrictions. E) the enfranchisement of the laboring man.

E

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31
  1. In the case of Commonwealth v. Hunt, the supreme court of Massachusetts ruled that A) corporations were unconstitutional. B) labor unions were not illegal conspiracies. C) labor strikes were illegal by violating the Fair Labor Acts. D) the Boston Associates employment of young women in their factories was inhumane. E) the state could regulate factory wages and working conditions.

B

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32
  1. The "cult of domesticity" A) gave women more opportunity to seek employment outside the home. B) resulted in more pregnancies for women. C) restricted women's moral influence on the family. D) glorified the traditional role of women as homemakers. E) was especially strong among rural women.

D

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33
  1. Early-nineteenth-century American families A) were becoming more loosely knit and less affectionate. B) usually included three generations in the same household. C) taught their children to be unquestioningly obedient. D) usually allowed parents to determine choice of marriage partners. E) were getting smaller.

E

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34
  1. One of the goals of the child-centered family of the 1800s was to A) raise children who were obedient to authority. B) allow parents to spoil their children. C) raise independent individuals. D) increase the number of children. E) preserve childhood innocence.

C

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35
  1. The effect of early-nineteenth-century industrialization on the trans-Allegheny West was to encourage A) specialized, cash-crop agriculture. B) slavery. C) self-sufficient farming. D) heavy industry. E) higher tariffs.

A

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36
  1. With the development of cash-crop agriculture in the trans-Allegheny West, A) subsistence farming became common. B) farmers began to support the idea of slave labor. C) farmers quickly faced mounting indebtedness. D) the South could harvest a larger crop. E) the issue of farm surpluses came to the fore.

C

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37
  1. In the 1790's a major transportation project linking the East to the trans-Allegheny West was the A) Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. B) National (Cumberland) Road. C) Erie Canal. D) St. Lawrence Seaway. E) Lancaster Turnpike.

E

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38
  1. Western road building faced all of the following problems except A) the expense. B) states' rights advocates' opposition. C) eastern states' opposition. D) competition from canals. E) wartime interruptions.

D

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39
  1. The major application for steamboats transporting freight and passengers in the United States was on A) New England streams. B) western and southern rivers. C) the Great Lakes. D) the Gulf of Mexico. E) coastal waterways.

B

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40
  1. The "canal era" of American history began with the construction of the A) Mainline Canal in Pennsylvania. B) James River and Kanasha Canal from Virginia to Ohio. C) Wabash Canal in Indiana. D) Suez Canal in Illinois. E) Erie Canal in New York.

E

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41
  1. Construction of the Erie Canal A) forced some New England farmers to move or change occupations. B) showed how long-established local markets could survive a continental economy. C) helped farmers so much that industrialization was slowed. D) was aided by federal money. E) created political tensions between the Northeast and the Midwest.

A

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42
  1. Most early railroads in the United States were built in the A) North. B) Old South. C) lower Mississippi Valley. D) Far West. E) Appalachian Mountains.

A

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43
  1. Compared with canals, railroads A) were more expensive to construct. B) transported freight more slowly. C) were generally safer. D) were susceptible to weather delays. E) could be built almost anywhere.

E

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44
  1. In the new continental economy, each region specialized in a particular economic activity: the South _________ for export; the West grew grains and livestock to feed _; and the East _ for the other two regions. A) raised grain, southern slaves, processed meat B) grew cotton, southern slaves, made machines and textiles C) grew cotton, eastern factory workers, made machines and textiles D) raised grain, eastern factory workers, made furniture and tools E) processed meat, southern slaves, raised grain

C

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45
  1. As a result of the transportation revolution, A) division of labor became a thing of the past. B) New Orleans became an even more important port. C) each region in the nation specialized in a particular type of economic activity. D) self-sufficiency became easier to achieve for American families. E) the Midwest became the first industrialized region.

C

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46
  1. In general, _________ tended to bind the West and South together, while _________ and _________ connected West to East. A) steamboats, canals, railroads B) railroads, canals, steamboats C) canals, steamboats, turnpikes D) turnpikes, steamboats, canals E) turnpikes, railroads, steamboats

A

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47
  1. All of the following were legal questions raised as a result of the new market economy except A) how tightly should patents protect inventions? B) should the government regulate monopolies? C) can a democratic government still support slavery? D) who should own these new technologies? E) who should own the new transportation network?

E

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48
  1. As the new continental market economy grew, A) individual households became increasingly self-sufficient. B) the home came to be viewed as a refuge from the workday world. C) traditional women's work became more highly valued and increasingly important. D) respect for women as homemakers declined. E) the home lost most of its importance for family life.

B

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49
  1. A major economic consequence of the transportation and marketing revolutions was A) a lessening of the gap between great wealth and poverty. B) a stabilization of the work force in industrial cities. C) the declining significance of American agriculture. D) a steady improvement in average wages and standards of living. E) the growing realization of the "rags-to-riches" American dream.

D

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50

What was the first state to secede from the Union? When did they secede? Who was president?

South Carolina December 1860 James Buchanan

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51

What did country did the southern states create when they seceded?

Confederate States of America

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52

Who was the President of the CSA? Vice president? Capital?

Jefferson Davis Alexander Stephens Richmond, VA

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53

When and where did the Civil War begin?

Fort Sumter in Charleston, SC in December 1860

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54

How did President Buchanan respond to South Carolina's secession? How did South Carolina view this response?

President Buchanan declared that the secession was illegal, but he also said that the federal gov't did not have the authority to forcefully restore the Union South Carolina saw this as recognition of their independence Demanded that the US forces at Fort Sumter leave

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55

What happened when American forces refused to leave Fort Sumter at the request of SC?

Buchanan sent an unarmed merchant ship to the fort with supplies for the soldiers The Confederate forces fired on the ship, and Buchanan backed down

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56

What was the Crittenden Plan?

Buchanan and Congress's last attempt to compromise Amend the constitution to prevent the federal gov't from interfering where it already existed Bring back the Missouri Compromise line and extend it to California They upheld the Fugitive Slave Act Defeated in Congress

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57

How did Lincoln respond to the drama at Fort Sumter? What was the result?

The American forces were still in need of supplies When Lincoln became president, he sent supplies and troops to Fort Sumter He said he would not use the troops unless the delivery was interrupted Jefferson Davis demanded that US forces at the fort surrender When they refused, fighting broke out on April 12, 1861 It took two days for American forces to surrender Fort Sumter Lincoln immediately began to mobilize troops for war

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58

How did West Virginia form?

Admitted as a state in 1863 Very high yeomen population and they did not want to secede, while VA was seceding

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59

What was the southern strategy in the Civil War?

Defend itself as a new nation (defend its independence) Did not intend to conquer new territory All they needed was to keep the Union army from taking over (stalemate at least) The CSA was committed to maintaining the institution of slavery

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60

What is total war?

A war in which a nation uses all resources possible to fight Results in warfare against civilians Pretty much attack anything that can help the enemy

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61

Who used total war the most?

Ulysses Grant and William Sherman

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62

What is an example of total war?

Sherman's March to Sea devastated Georgia Burned fields, destroyed infrastructure, wiped out anything Union couldn't use

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63

Which side was more successful in mobilizing and engaging in total war tactics?

US

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64

What is draft/conscription?

involuntary military service

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65

Which side was the first to institute a draft?

CSA

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66

What did the draft in CSA result in?

Draft exemptions caused tensions between rich and poor Only the rich could only hire subs Exempt one white man for twenty slaves Became a rich man's war and a poor man's fight Caused rebellion in some areas

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67

Which side was more firm in instituting and enforcing draft?

US

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68

What did the draft in US result in?

riots The wealthy could be exempt if they paid a fee

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69

Why did some northerners not agree with the war?

Thought the South should be able to secede if they wanted to Did not want blacks to take their jobs Immigrants didn't feel like they should have to fight

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70

What controversial decision did Lincoln make in regards to the draft?

Lincoln suspended the Writ of Habeas Corpus Protects citizens from unlawful imprisonment Imprisoned Confederates sympathizers and rioters without a trial Those that resisted draft were subject to martial law (strict military courts)

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71

What was the US Sanitary Commission?

Formed during the war Purpose was the offer medical services and prevent the spread of disease Large number of women volunteers Served as nurses, provided supplies, sewed uniforms

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72

What was a big issue for soldiers?

Despite the efforts of the Sanitary Commission, disease was a big issue for US soldiers, (killed more soldiers than combat,) but the US has better control over disease than the CSA

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73

What was the role of women of the Civil War?

US Sanitary Commission (US only) Confederate postal service (CSA only) Both regions: Nurses Replacing men on farms and factories Government - secretaries, record keepers Soldiers (secretly)

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74

Who had the advantage in resources?

North

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75

What resources did the North have?

Greater population Better developed transportation Industrialized Could produce more resources

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76

What resources did the South have?

Some strong industrialization in border states Slaves to produce food for army and cotton for revenue (export) to buy material abroad King Cotton - knew that Britain's textile industry depended on American cotton - used that to gain support from Britain

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77

What were the governmental policies in the North?

Protective tariffs Used central banking system - created by Polk, expanded by Lincoln Controlled money supply and inflation Continued to make internal improvements (railroads) Maintained a northern allegiance

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78

How did the North maintain northern allegiance?

Homestead Act of 1862 Provided free land in the west to Northern farmers Had to live on land for 3 years

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79

What were the governmental policies in the South?

Power was kept in the states Feared a strong central government When the federal gov't did try to take control, it caused resentment Did take control of food, resources, and trade Richmond developed shipyards, arsenals, and mills

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80

How did the North raise money?

Taxes were passed - tariffs and excise War bonds Printed more paper money - limited amounts to prevent inflation

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81

How did the South raise money?

Taxed the middle class, not the wealthy Caused anger Sold bonds but they were not trusted Inflated money supply Caused the price of items to skyrocket Led to raids and riots by people who could not afford items

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82

Which side had more success in raising money and maintaining order in economy?

North

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83

Who was Matthew Brady and what effect did he have?

First military conflict that Americans saw in photos Major Civil war photographer Showed what soldiers were doing Put civilians face to face with death and destruction of war

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84

What was the northern strategy in the Civil War?

Use aggressive military force Fight until the CSA surrenders They needed to take control of the South

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85

What happened at the First Battle of Bull Run? Why was it significant?

First major battle Bull Run > tributary of Potomac River in Manassas, VA Lincoln wanted to attack Richmond (Confederate capital) to quickly end the war Union attacked Confederate troops at Manassas Confederate victory Showed it wouldn't be an easy war

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86

Who was Robert E. Lee? What was his contribution to the Civil War?

Famous Confederate general Gained early victories Very aggressive Changed the South from a defensive position to offensive position Started to conquer territory in the North Not part of their original goal of South

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87

What happened at the Battle of Antietam? What was the result?

One of the results of Lee's aggressiveness was the Battle of Antietam Bloodiest single day in American military history 9000 people died Lincoln claimed that it was a victory for the Union But really McClellan allowed Lee's forces to retreat instead of fighting to the end Lincoln was not happy Dismissed McClellan

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88

What happened in the early battles in the West in the Civil War for the Union?

Controlled major waterways - including MS River Bloody victory at the Battle of Shiloh (TN) Captured New Orleans

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89

Who called for a new war aim? What was the war aim?

Abolitionists and anti-slavery Republicans called for the abolition of slavery to become a new war aim (in addition to restoring the US) Claimed the slavery kept the confederacy strong

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90

Who was Frederick Douglass?

Mother was a slave, father was the slave owner Learned to read and write as a child Took on a false identity to escape slavery Dynamic speaker Created an abolitionist newspaper called the North Star Became involved in politics as a way to work for abolition One of the main forces behind abolitionist movement

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91

How did slaves take advantage of wartime chaos?

They escaped to the North

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92

What declaration by a Union general led to freedom for many slaves? Who was the general?

Union general Benjamin Butler claimed that slaves were contraband of war Something that can be legally seized during a war Refused to return them to the South

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93

Describe the road to emancipation.

In April 1862, slavery was ended in DC with compensation In June of 1862, slavery was outlawed in all federal territories In July of 1862, fugitive slaves and slaves captured by the Union army were declared forever free (got rid of Fugitive Slave Act) In September 1862, Lincoln issued the first of two emancipation proclamations 5. Led to second one, January 1863

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94

What did the first Emancipation Proclamation say?

Said the US would fight to end slavery in the rebel states, effective January 1, 1863 Said if the rebel states decided to return to the Union within 100 days, slavery would be protected No states returned to Union

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95

What did the second Emancipation Proclamation say?

Stated that all slaves in the rebel states were free Freed no slaves because he didn't have control over the South Changed the goal of the North in the war > To free the slaves

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96

What was the turning point in the Civil War? Why?

Battle of Gettysburg It was the last Confederate invasion of the U.S. It renewed support for the war in the U.S. It caused political divisions in the C.S.A. Great Britain stopped trading war materials with the C.S.A.

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97

What happened in the Battle of Gettysburg?

Pennsylvania in July 1863 Confederate offensive attack on American territory The U.S. forces were able to sustain the attack and outnumber the confederate troops. There was an extremely high loss of life on both sides. The Confederates had to retreat, and it was a big victory for the Union.

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98

How did the Battle of Gettysburg renew support for the US?

Many had become tired of death and destruction and wanted peace Didn't think U.S. could win

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99

How did the Battle of Gettysburg cause political divisions in CSA?

Southerners were also becoming tired of the war Jefferson Davis was losing popular support.

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100

How did the Battle of Gettysburg cause Great Britain to stop trading war materials with the CSA?

American diplomats were able to stop that. British didn't want to risk retaliation from the U.S. The Confederacy does not have any other allies because the war is now about slavery Britain does not support slavery.

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