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What particles cannot diffuse across the membrane?
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-Large uncharged polar molecules
saturated fatty acid
Straight, H atoms all the way around
Bent, double bond between oxygen prevents H-atoms all around
central carbon (C), carboxyl, amine, hydrogen, R-group
-High Heat Capacity -Adhesion -Cohesion -Low Vapor pressure -High Solvency -Ice Floats
A chemical subunit that serves as a building block of a polymer.
A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together.
A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water
Bond of Nucleic acids (Covalent) -Between phosphate and sugar (COPOC)
Bonds between amino acids (Covalent) -Between carboxyl and amine (NCCNCC)
bonds between monosaccharides (Covalent)
Parts of nucleic acid
sugar, phosphate group, nitrogen base
-Hydrophobic tail -Hydrophilic Head -Glycerol, fatty acids, phosphate group
How many bonds between A and T?
2 hydrogen bonds
How many bonds between C and G ?
3 hydrogen bonds
polypeptide chain linked by peptide bonds
-A-pleated helix -B-Sheets -Between everything but R-group
-Hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, disulfide bridges, hydrophobic interaction -Only R-Group
-2 ring -Adenine, guanine
-1 ring -cytosine, uracil, thymine
DNA more/less oxygen
RNA has more/less oxygen
96% of all living things
unequal sharing of electrons
equal sharing of electrons
transfer of electrons
What subcellular components do all cells have?
What subunits make up Ribosomes?
Large and Small
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Contains ribosomes, and synthesizes proteins
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Detoxification, lipid synthesis
-Correct folding chemical modification of newly synthesized proteins
-Packaging proteins for protein trafficking
Membrane containers that help move materials
Produces ATP energy that eukaryotic cells can use for cell work
What is the structure of mitochondria?
-inner=high convoluted cristae (folds)
-Used for digest variety of materials
-Have hydrolytic enzymes
-Capture energy from sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell
Stacks of thylakoids
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy
fluid between inner chloroplast membrane and outside thylakoids
What do all cells do?
-Store and transmit information
A cell structure that controls which substances can enter or leave the cell.
All of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism
breaking down, release ATP
build large molecules, use ATP
What cells have a nucleus?
What are the domains of prokaryotes?
Bacteria and Archaea
What is the domain of eukaryotes?
Which cells have organelles?
Which cell is larger?
Which cell has specialization?
Cytoplasm in eukaryotes
Compartmentalization in eukaryotes
\n -plasma membrane that establishes and maintains internal environments that are different from external environments
What compartmentalizes cells?
Cell membrane and membrane-bound organelles?
How is cell compartmentalization seen in lysosomes?
-hydrolytic enzymes function in highly acidic environment different from that of cytosol
How is cell compartmentalization seen in mitochondria?
-membrane folding minimizes surface area for metabolic reactions
How is cell compartmentalization seen in chloroplasts ?
Thylakoids are highly folded membrane compartments that increase efficiency of light dependent reactions
Where is the genetic information found in prokaryotes?
How did mitochondria evolve?
By endosymbiosis of an aerobic prokaryote
How did chloroplasts evolve?
By endosymbiosis of photosynthetic prokaryotes
How are mitochondria and chloroplasts related to prokaryotes?
-Contain own ribosomes
-Produce by similar process
Which cells are part of the endomembrane system?
Which cell has a cell wall?
Why are cells typically small?
-moving materials in/out gets harder as size increases
What ratio is most efficient for exchange of materials?
larger surface area of volume ratio
As object get larger…
-surface area and volume increases
-surface area to volume ratio decreases
-volume increases faster than SA
the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell
-Head: hydrophilic phosphate
-Tail: hydrophobic fatty acid
Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
-Contain a high concentration of solute relative to another solution
-Contain lower concentration of solute relative to another solution
same solute concentration
Energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference
-loosely bound to surface area of membrane
-hydrophilic with charged and polar side groups
-Span the membrane
-hydrophillic with charged and polar side groups
-Hydrophobic with non-polar side group penetrates bilayer
What is the role of embedded protein?
Transport, cell-cell recognition, enzymatic activity