Ap Bio All units

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

What particles cannot diffuse across the membrane?

1 / 518

Tags and Description

519 Terms

1

What particles cannot diffuse across the membrane?

-Large uncharged polar molecules

New cards
2

Carbohydrates/Lipids

CHO

New cards
3

Amino Acids

CHONS

New cards
4

Nucleic Acids

CHONPS

New cards
5

saturated fatty acid

Straight, H atoms all the way around

New cards
6

unsaturated fats

Bent, double bond between oxygen prevents H-atoms all around

New cards
7

Protein Structure

central carbon (C), carboxyl, amine, hydrogen, R-group

New cards
8

Water Properties

-High Heat Capacity -Adhesion -Cohesion -Low Vapor pressure -High Solvency -Ice Floats

New cards
9

Monomer

A chemical subunit that serves as a building block of a polymer.

New cards
10

Polymer

A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together.

New cards
11

Dehydration Synthesis

A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.

New cards
12

Hydrolysis

Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water

New cards
13

phosphodiester bond

Bond of Nucleic acids (Covalent) -Between phosphate and sugar (COPOC)

New cards
14

Peptide Bonds

Bonds between amino acids (Covalent) -Between carboxyl and amine (NCCNCC)

New cards
15

Glycosidic Bonds

bonds between monosaccharides (Covalent)

New cards
16

Parts of nucleic acid

sugar, phosphate group, nitrogen base

New cards
17

Hydrophobic

Lipids are...

New cards
18

Phospholipid

-Hydrophobic tail -Hydrophilic Head -Glycerol, fatty acids, phosphate group

New cards
19

Hydroxyl

3'

New cards
20

Phosphate

5'

New cards
21

How many bonds between A and T?

2 hydrogen bonds

New cards
22

How many bonds between C and G ?

3 hydrogen bonds

New cards
23

Primary structure

polypeptide chain linked by peptide bonds

New cards
24

Secondary Structure

-A-pleated helix -B-Sheets -Between everything but R-group

New cards
25

Tertiary Strutcure

-Hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, disulfide bridges, hydrophobic interaction -Only R-Group

New cards
26

Purine

-2 ring -Adenine, guanine

New cards
27

Pyrimidine

-1 ring -cytosine, uracil, thymine

New cards
28

DNA more/less oxygen

less

New cards
29

RNA has more/less oxygen

more

New cards
30

CHON

96% of all living things

New cards
31

Polar Covalent

unequal sharing of electrons

New cards
32

Non-polar covalent

equal sharing of electrons

New cards
33

Ionic

transfer of electrons

New cards
34

What subcellular components do all cells have?

-Ribosomes

-Genome

New cards
35

What subunits make up Ribosomes?

Large and Small

New cards
36

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

Contains ribosomes, and synthesizes proteins

New cards
37

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

Detoxification, lipid synthesis

New cards
38

Golgi complex

-Correct folding chemical modification of newly synthesized proteins

-Packaging proteins for protein trafficking

New cards
39

Vesicles

Membrane containers that help move materials

New cards
40

Mitochondria

Produces ATP energy that eukaryotic cells can use for cell work

New cards
41

What is the structure of mitochondria?

-Double membrane

-Outer=smooth

-inner=high convoluted cristae (folds)

New cards
42

lysosomes

-Used for digest variety of materials

-Have hydrolytic enzymes

New cards
43

Chloroplasts

-Capture energy from sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell

-double membrane

New cards
44

Grana

Stacks of thylakoids

New cards
45

Thylakoids

A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy

New cards
46

Stroma

fluid between inner chloroplast membrane and outside thylakoids

New cards
47

Vacuoles

Storage

New cards
48

What do all cells do?

-Maintain homeostasis

-Store and transmit information

-Transfer energy

New cards
49

Cell membrane

A cell structure that controls which substances can enter or leave the cell.

New cards
50

Metabolism

All of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism

New cards
51

Catabolism

breaking down, release ATP

New cards
52

Anabolism

build large molecules, use ATP

New cards
53

What cells have a nucleus?

Eukaryotic

New cards
54

What are the domains of prokaryotes?

Bacteria and Archaea

New cards
55

What is the domain of eukaryotes?

Eukarya

New cards
56

Which cells have organelles?

Eukaryotes

New cards
57

Which cell is larger?

Eukaryotes (size)

New cards
58

Which cell has specialization?

Eukaryotes

New cards
59

Cytosol

Cytoplasm in eukaryotes

New cards
60

Compartmentalization in eukaryotes

\n -plasma membrane that establishes and maintains internal environments that are different from external environments

New cards
61

What compartmentalizes cells?

Cell membrane and membrane-bound organelles?

New cards
62

How is cell compartmentalization seen in lysosomes?

-hydrolytic enzymes function in highly acidic environment different from that of cytosol

New cards
63

How is cell compartmentalization seen in mitochondria?

-membrane folding minimizes surface area for metabolic reactions

New cards
64

How is cell compartmentalization seen in chloroplasts ?

Thylakoids are highly folded membrane compartments that increase efficiency of light dependent reactions

New cards
65

Where is the genetic information found in prokaryotes?

Nucleoid

New cards
66

How did mitochondria evolve?

By endosymbiosis of an aerobic prokaryote

New cards
67

How did chloroplasts evolve?

By endosymbiosis of photosynthetic prokaryotes

New cards
68

How are mitochondria and chloroplasts related to prokaryotes?

-Circular DNA

-Contain own ribosomes

-Produce by similar process

New cards
69

Which cells are part of the endomembrane system?

-Nucleus

-ER

-Vesicles

-Golgi Body

-Lysosomes

New cards
70

Which cell has a cell wall?

Plant cell

New cards
71

Why are cells typically small?

-moving materials in/out gets harder as size increases

New cards
72

What ratio is most efficient for exchange of materials?

larger surface area of volume ratio

New cards
73

As object get larger…

-surface area and volume increases

-surface area to volume ratio decreases

-volume increases faster than SA

New cards
74

passive transport

the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell

New cards
75

Phospholipid bilayer

-Head: hydrophilic phosphate

-Tail: hydrophobic fatty acid

New cards
76

Diffusion

Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.

New cards
77

Osmosis

Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

New cards
78

Hypertonic solution

-Contain a high concentration of solute relative to another solution

-Cell shrivels

New cards
79

Hypotonic solution

-Contain lower concentration of solute relative to another solution

-Cell explodes

New cards
80

Isotonic solution

same solute concentration

New cards
81

Active transport

Energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference

New cards
82

Peripheral Protein

-loosely bound to surface area of membrane

-hydrophilic with charged and polar side groups

New cards
83

Integral protein

-Span the membrane

-hydrophillic with charged and polar side groups

-Hydrophobic with non-polar side group penetrates bilayer

New cards
84

What is the role of embedded protein?

Transport, cell-cell recognition, enzymatic activity

New cards
85

What is the role of cholesterol?

They regulate fluidity in the membrane. It can also be used to make other hormones. Formation of cell membrane and stability of it.

New cards
86

What particles can diffuse across the membrane?

-Small nonpolar molecules

-Small uncharged molecules

-Small polar molecules

New cards
87

Channel proteins

hydrophilic tunnel spanning the membrane that allows specific target molecules to pass through

New cards
88

Carrier protein

spans the membrane and change shape to move target molecules

New cards
89

Osmolarity

total concentration of all solute particles in a solution

New cards
90

Tonicity

measurement of relative concentration

New cards
91

Facilitates diffusion

passive transport of ions and small molecules across the plasma membrane by transport proteins

New cards
92

Electrochemical gradient

The diffusion gradient of an ion, representing a type of potential energy that accounts for both the concentration difference of the ion across a membrane and its tendency to move relative to the membrane potential.

New cards
93

Water potential

measure of water molecules to move freely

New cards
94

Where does water always move?

A more negative water potential

New cards
95

If there is a high solute...

lower water potential

New cards
96

If there is low solute...

high water potential

New cards
97

How does water move?

-high water concentration to low water concentration\

-hypotonic solution to hypertonic solution

-high water potential to low water potential

-low osmotic pressure to high osmotic pressure

New cards
98

What do enzymes do?

speed up chemical reactions by lowering activation energy

New cards
99

Why must tertiary structure of enzymes be maintained?

In order to maintain function

New cards
100

Active site

a region on an enzyme that binds to a protein or other substance during a reaction.

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 25 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 30 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3359 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(5)
note Note
studied byStudied by 27 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1504 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(9)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard116 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard112 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard66 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard70 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard108 terms
studied byStudied by 36 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard58 terms
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard41 terms
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
4.3 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard63 terms
studied byStudied by 39 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)