Child Psychology Exam 1

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Child Development

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120 Terms

1

Child Development

a field of study focused on understanding constancy and change from conception to adolescence

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Stages of Child Development

  1. Prenatal

  2. Infancy

  3. Early Childhood

  4. Middle Childhood

  5. Adolescence

  6. emerging adulthood

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Prenatal Period

  • conception to birth

  • one-celled organism is transformed into a human baby with remarkable capacities for adjusting to life in the surrounding world

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Infancy and Toddlerhood

  • birth to 2 years

  • dramatic changes in the body and brain

  • beginning of language and the first intimate ties to others

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Early Childhood

  • 2 years to 6 years

  • make-believe play and thoughts and languages expand

  • morality begins

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Middle Childhood

  • 6 years to 11 years

  • improved athletic abilities, more logical thought process, mastery of fundamental reading, writing, math and other academic knowledge

  • advances in understanding self-morality and friendship

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Adolescence

  • 11 years to 18 years

  • puberty leads to changes in body and sexual maturity

  • person establishes autonomy from family and defines personal values and goals

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Continuous or Discontinuous Development ?

  • Continuous = a process of gradually adding more of the same type of skills that were there to begin

  • Discontinous = new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times

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One Course of Development v. Many

unique combinations of personal and environmental circumstances that can result in different changes in patterns

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Nature v Nurture

  • are we shaped by our environment or our biology?

  • stability (nature) = individual differences maintained throughout development

  • plasticity (nurture) = open to change in response to influential experience

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John Locke

  • children being as “blank slates” and shaped entirely by experience

  • relates to continuous

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Rousseau

  • disagreed with Locke

  • believe children are born with an innate sense of right and wrong + maturation

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Maturation

genetically determines, naturally unfolding course of growth

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Charles Darwin

  • theory of evolution

  • natural selection

  • survival of the fittest

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Stanley Hall

  • founder of the child study movement

  • believed in the normative approach

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Normative Approach

measures of behavior are taken from large samples and age-related averages are computed to represent typical development

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Alfred Binet

  • need to identify school children with learning problems in order to provide accommodations

  • believed intelligence was based on good judgment, planning and critical reflection

  • developed the 1st intelligence test

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Psychoanalytic Perspective

children move through a series of stages in which they confront conflict between biological drives and societal expectations

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Psychosexual Theory

  • how parents manage their child’s sexual aggressive drives in the first few years are crucial for healthy personality development

  • developed by Sigmund Freud

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Id

  • the largest portion of the mind

  • the sources of basic biological needs and desires

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Ego

  • the conscious, rational part of personality

  • emerges in early infancy to redirect the id’s impulses so they are discharged in acceptable ways

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Superego

  • also known as our conscience

  • develops as parents insist that children conform to values of society

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Psychosocial Theory

the ego makes a positive contribution to development by acquiring attitudes + skills that make the individual an active contributing member of society

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Behaviorism

  • developed by Watson

  • directly observable events (stimuli + responses) are the appropriate form of study

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Social Learning Theory

social behaviors is learned by observing and imitating the behavior of others

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Social Cognitive Learning Theory

further emphasizes the importance of how children think about themselves

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Applied Behavior Analysis

observations of relationships between behavior and environmental events, followed by systematic changes in those events

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Cognitive Developmental Theory

  • developed by Piaget

  • children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore the world

  • environment doesn’t impact the child

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Stages in Cognitive Developmental Theory

  1. Sensorimotor

  2. Preoperational

  3. Concrete Operational

  4. Formal Operational

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Sensorimotor

  • birth to 2 years old

  • child begins to use senses

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Preoperational

  • 2 years to 7 years

  • development of language and make-believe play

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Concrete Operational

  • 7 years to 11 years

  • children begin to use reasoning and logic only with info they can perceive directly

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Formal Operational

  • 11 years on

  • begins to use problem solving

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Info- Processing

human mind is alike a computer in that info is actively coded, transformed and organized in brain

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Developmental Neuroscience

studies the relationship between changes and developing child’s cognitive processing and behavior patterns

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Developmental Social Neuroscience

relationship between brain change, emotional and social development

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Ethnology

study of a behaviors adaptive value and evolutionary theory

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Evolutionary Developmental Psychology

adaptive value of species-wide cognitive, emotional and social competencies as the change with age

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Sociocultural Theory

  • developed by Vygotsky

  • culture is transmitted to the next generation through the social interactions between elders and youth

  • emphasis on biology and mutually influential relation

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Ecological Systems Theory

  • developed by Bronfenbrenner

  • children develop within a complex system of relationships affected by Mutiple levels of the surrounding environment

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Stages of Ecological Systems Theory

  1. Mircosystem

  2. Mesosystem

  3. Exosystem

  4. Marcosystem

  5. Chronosystem

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Mircosystem

activties and interactions with parents

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Mesosystem

immediate experiences connect with child (childcare and playing with children)

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Exosystem

family, extended family, health services, parents workplace

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Macrosystem

different cultural values, laws and resources

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Chronosystem

aspects of theory that considers time

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Naturalistic Observation

  • observation of behavior in natural setting

  • lack of control compared to lab setting

  • reflective children’s everyday life

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Structured Observation

observations of behavior in a lab, where conditions are all the same for all participants

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Self-Report

  • structured interviews and questionnaires

  • unstructured interviews

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Case Study (clinical study)

  • comprehensive picture a child’s psychological functioning

  • combination of interviews, questionnaires, observations and test scores

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Ethnography

descriptive, qualitative technique to understand a culture or a distinct social group through participant observation.

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Correlational

investigators gathers information on individuals without altering their experiences and then examines relationships between participants characteristics and their behavior or development

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Experimental

researcher directly controls or manipulates change in a variable of interest and assess the impact on another variable

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Confounding Variable

a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment (3rd variable problem)

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Longitudinal

particpants are studies repeatedly, and changes are noted as they get older

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Downsides to Longitudinal Studies

  • biased sampling

  • selective attribution

  • practice effects

  • cohort effects

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Biased Sampling

the failure to enlist participants who adequately represent the population of interest

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Selective Attribution

participants drop out of a study for reasons that are relevant to the research question

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Practice effects

performance improves not because of development, but because participants are familiarize themselves with the study tests

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Cohort Effects

results based on 1 cohort may not apply to children developing at other times due to historical changes

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Cross-Sectional

groups of people differing in age are studied at the same point in time

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Ethnical Consideration

  • children are more vulnerable than adults to physical and psychological harm

  • inability to provide informed consent (adults must consent for ages 7-17)

  • increased risk when using deception and debriefing

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Chromosomes

rodlike structures in the nucleus of the cell that store and transmit genetic info

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DNA

long, double-stranded molecule

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Bases

chemical substances that provide genetic instructions

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Genes

segments of DNA along the length of a chromosome

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Protein-Coding Genes

directly affects our body’s characteristics

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Regulatory Genes

modify the instructions given by protein-coding genes

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Phenotype

directly observable traits

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Genotype

complex blend of genetic info that determines our species and influences our unique characteristics

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Gametes

  • sperm and ovum combined

  • 23 chromosomes

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Meiosis

  • cell division which halves the number of chromosomes normally present in body cells

  • chromosomes pair up and exchange segments so that genes from one are replaced by genes from another

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Zygote

results from union of the sperm and ovum that has 46 chromosomes

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Monozygotic Twins (Identical)

form when a zygote that has started to duplicate seperates into 2 clusters of cells that develop into 2 clusters that develop into 2 individuals

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Dizygotic Twins (Fraternal)

release and fertilization of 2 ova

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Allele

each form of gene

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Homozygous

if the alleles from both parents are alike

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heterozygous

if the alleles are different, the relationship between the alleles influence the phenotype

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Dominant-Recessive Pattern

  • only 1 allele affects the child’s characteristics, and the 2nd allele has no effect

  • carriers = heterozygous individuals with just 1 recessive allele that can pass that their trait to their children

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Incomplete-Dominance Pattern

both alleles are expressed in the phenotype, resulting in a combined trait

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X-linked Pattern

recessive gene that is carried on the X chromosome that lead to males being more likely than females to display the recessive trait

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Genetic Imprinting

alleles are completely marked within the ovum or sperm in such a way 1 pair member are silenced, leaving the other to be expressed of its makeup

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Mutation

a sudden but permanent change in a segment of DNA

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Germine Mutation

takes place in cells that give rise to gametes, so when the infected individual reproduce, the defective DNA is passed on to the next generation

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Somatic Mutation

normal body cells mutate which can occur at any time of life

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Polygenic Inheritance

Many genes affect the characteristics in question (height, weight, intelligence, personality)

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Down Syndrome

  • results from a failure of the 21st pair of chromosomes to seperate during meiosis 95% of the time

  • individuals recieves 3 of these chromosomes rather than 2

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Cognitive Features of Down Syndrome

intellectual disability, memory and speech problems, limited vocab, slow motor development

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Physical Features of Down Syndrome

short, stocky build, flattened face, protruding tongue, almond-shaped eyes

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Genetic Counseling

a communication process designed to help couples assess their chances of giving birth to a baby with hereditary disorder and choose the best course of action in view of risks and family goals

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Adoption

  • children are more likely to have difficulty in learning and emotion

  • develop adaptively

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Family

  • apart of the mircosystem and has the most influence on child’s development

  • direct influence = how parents interact with their children

  • indirect influence = quality of martial relationships

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Socioeconomic Status

years of education, prestige of one’s job and the skills require, income

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Higher SES parents tend to

talk to, read to, stimulate their infants and preschoolers more

use more warmth explanations, verbal braise

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Lower SES parents tend to

use more commands, criticism and physical punishment

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Neighborhoods

  • mesosystems and exosystems

  • have more of an impact on children’s development in low SES than high

  • has been seen to reduced behavioral and emotional problems for children

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Schools

complex social system that affects many aspects of developmental but can vary drastically in their resources and interpersonal environment

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Individualism

  • privacy, self-reliance, independence

  • children should be primarily raised by their primary caretakers

  • personal needs take priority

  • value independence

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Collectivism

  • group goals over individual goals

  • value interdependent qualities

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Public Policy and Practices

way we attempt to solve widespread social problems

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