Biology STAAR Sim Review

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carbohydrate

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Biology

168 Terms

1

carbohydrate

biomolecule made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

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2

used to make energy (ATP) ex) starch, glucose, fructose

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3

lipid

biomolecule that is fat

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4

makes up the cell membrane with phospolipids, stores energy, and protects internal organs ex) fats, oils, waxes

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5

protein

biomolecule made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen

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6

made of amino acids

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7

functions include growth, repair, and metabolic functions ex) hemoglobin, enzymes

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8

nucleic acids

biomolecule that stores genetic material, carry out daily functions, and make proteins in protein synthesis ex)DNA, RNA

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9

lysosome

organelle that carries out the digestive processes in a cell

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10

rough ER

has ribosomes

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11

makes proteins

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12

smooth ER

detoxifies and makes lipids

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13

golgi apparatus

sorts and distributes proteins

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14

ribosomes

where proteins are made

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15

binary fission

cell division the occurs in bacteria result: 2 identical organisms (clones)

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16

mitosis

cell division in somatic cells of multicelled organisms (nonsex cells) that occurs for growth and development result: 2 cells with the same # of chromosomes as the parent cell

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17

meiosis

cell division in gametes (sex cells)

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18

makes reproductive cells result: 4 cells with half the # of chromosomes as the parent cell

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19

plasma membrane

cell membrane composed of phospolipid molecules to serve as a boundary

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20

semi

permeable

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21

homeostasis

maintaining a balanced internal enviornment regarless of the external enviorment

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22

passive transport

when substances pass across the membrane without requiring cellular energy ex) osmosis

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23

osmosis

the diffusion of water across a memebrane from an area of high water concentration to an area of low water concentration

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24

active transport

when cell enegry is required for substances to pass across the plasma membrane

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25

cellular respiration

the process of transferring stored energy from glucose to energy for the cell (ATP)

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26

cellular respiration formula

C6 H12 06 + 6O2

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27

photosynthesis

the process by which plants make their own food (glucose)

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28

photosynthesis formula

6CO2 + 6H2O + sunlight

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29

virus

infectious agent that replicates only within the cells of living hosts, mainly bacteria, plants, and animals: composed of an RNA or DNA core, a protein coat, and, in more complex types, a surrounding envelope.

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30

bacteriophage

a virus that attacks bacterial cells

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31

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

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32

found in the nucleus of cells and contains the hereditary information for making proteins

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33

made up of nucleotides

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34

double helix, double stranded

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35

nucleotide

building blocks of DNA

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36

made up of a sugar, phosphate, and a nitrogen base

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37

DNA replication

must occur before a cell can divide ex) GATTACACG

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38

RNA

ribonucleic acid

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39

three types of RNA that are involved in making proteins

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40

single stranded, sugar ribose, and RNA had Uracil instead of Thymine

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41

mRNA

messanger RNA

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42

a copy of the DNA code

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43

tRNA

transfer RNA

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44

carries the amino acids to the ribosomes to assemble proteins

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45

rRNA

ribosomal RNA

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46

makes up the ribosomes

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47

codon

a sequence of 3 nucleotides of mRNA

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48

codes for an amino acid

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49

protein synthesis

the process by which the cell makes proteins using the DNA code

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50

transcription

the DNA code is copied to make mRNA

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51

hydrogen bonds between the DNA seperate

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translation

tRNA brings amino acids to the ribosome to make a protein

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53

genetics

the study of heredity

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54

allele

alternate forms of genes

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55

located on chromosome pairs

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56

phenotype

physical appearance of an organism

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57

genotype

actual gene makeup

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58

homozygous

when both genes are the same

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59

heterozygous

when the two genes are different

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60

punnett square

chart used to predict the possible genotypes and phenotypes of an organism

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61

incomplete dominance

two different genes, when paired, blend together and produce a 3rd phenotype ex)red flower and white flower produce pink flowers

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62

codominance

both alleles are expressed ex)a black chicken crossed with a white chicken produces a checkered chicken

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63

sex

linked trait

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64

multiple alleles

traits controlled by more than two alleles in a population ex)each individual has 2 genes for blood type, bur 3 alleles exist in our population. The type A allele and type B allele are codominant. Type O is recessive. This gives us 4 blood types. (A, AB, B, O)

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65

karyotype

a picture of an organism's chromosomes

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66

shows if an individual has too many or too few chromosomes

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67

nondisjunction

when chromosomes fail to seperate during meiosis and gametes receive extra or missing chromosomes

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68

mutation

a change in the DNA of a cell

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69

only passed to offspring if it occurs in a reproductive cell or gamete

can be beneficial ex)mistakes in replication, mistakes in transcription, external agents(chemicals,etc.)

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70

evolution

the theory that organisms change over time

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71

homologous structures

structures that are similar and suggest evolution from a common ancestor

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72

vestigal strutures

structures that have little or no function but were probably used by ancestral organisms

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73

natural selection

a scientific theory that explains the process of evolution

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74

states that organisms with favorable traits are more likely to survive, reproduce, and pass those traits on to their offspring

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75

taxonomy

the science of naming and classifying organisms

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76

kingdoms

archaebacteria, eubacteria, protista, fungi, plant, and animal

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phyla

smaller groups of the 6 kingdoms: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species

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78

scientific name

species name of an organism that includes the genus name followed by the specific name (should be italicized or underlined)

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79

prokaryotic

no nucleus, no membrane

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80

eukaryotic

nucleus, membrane

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81

invertebrates

organisms with no backbone

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82

vertebrate

organisms with a backbone

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83

plant

like protists

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84

produces much of the Earth's oxygen and green algae is said to be the ancestors of plants

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85

animal

like protists

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86

classified by how they move: flagella, no movement, and pseudopods

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fungus

like protists

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88

mollusks

muscular foot for movement and a mantle ex)snails,squid,etc.

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89

arthropods

have jointed appendages, an exoskeleton, and body segments ex) insects

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90

echinoderms

move by tiny tube feet, have spiny skin, and live in the ocean ex) sea star, sea cucumber, etc.

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91

melanin

pigment that gives the skin color and helps protect it from sun damage

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92

appendicualr skeleton

the bones of the arms and legs and the structures associated with them

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93

villi

finger

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94

the link between the digestive system and the circulatory system

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95

neuron

nerve cell

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96

cerebrum

part of the brain divided in two halves. controls your conscious activites, intelligence, memory, language, muscle movement, and senses (nervous system)

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97

cerebellum

part of the brain that controls balance, posture, and coordination (nervous system)

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98

brain stem

part of the brain

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99

made up of the medulla oblongata(controls involuntary activites like breathing and heart rate), pons, and midbrain (nervous system)

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100

pancreas

secretes insulin which regulates blood sugar levels (endocrine system)

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