Biology-science

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

levels of organization

1 / 224

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

225 Terms

1

levels of organization

cell→tissues→organ→organ system→organism

New cards
2

organ systems

perform basic functions, one or more organs and other structures

New cards
3

organs

two or more types of tissue to perform a complex function

New cards
4

tissues

made up of multiple cells

New cards
5

epithelial tissue

thin sheets of tightly packed cells covering surfaces and lining internal organs

New cards
6

connective tissue

various types of cells and fibres held together by a liquid, solid, or gel for support and insulation

New cards
7

muscle tissue

bundles of long cells called muscle fibres that contain specialized proteins capable of shortening or contracting

New cards
8

nerve tissue

long, thin cells with fine branches at the ends, conduct electrical impulses

New cards
9

the digestive system

organ system that takes in food, digests it, excretes waste

New cards
10

the digestive tract

one long tube with two openings

lined with epithelial tissue and goblet cells

layers of muscle tissues and nerves

New cards
11

purpose of goblet cells in the digestive tract

secretes mucus, mucus protects digestive tube from enzymes and allows materials to pass smoothly along tube

New cards
12

the mouth

begins process of breaking down food

New cards
13

mechanical breakdown in the mouth

teeth and tongue

New cards
14

chemical breakdown in the mouth

salivary enzymes produced by cells in epithelial tissue

New cards
15

the esophagus

muscular tube connecting mouth to stomach, made of smooth muscle tissue

New cards
16

what moves food along the esophagus

contractions

New cards
17

the stomach

holds and churns food, lining contains cells that produce digestive enzymes and acid

New cards
18

purpose of smooth muscle tissue in the stomach

contracts to mix stomach contents

New cards
19

the intestine

digestive tracts between the stomach and the anus, lining has mucus producing cells and many blood vessels

New cards
20

small intestine

6m long, narrow, where most digestion occurs, nutrients diffuse through walls and enter bloodstream

New cards
21

large intestine

colon, 1.5m long, absorbs water from indigestible food

New cards
22

accessory organs

liver, pancreas, gallbladder

New cards
23

liver

produces bile to help breakdown fats

New cards
24

pancreas

produces insulin to regulate concentration of glucose in blood

New cards
25

gallbladder

stores bile

New cards
26

the cell theory (1)

all living things are made up of one or more cells and their products

New cards
27

the cell theory (2)

the cell is the simplest unit that can carry out all life processes

New cards
28

the cell theory (3)

all cells come from other cells, do not come from non-living material

New cards
29

cytoplasm

mostly water, allows organelles to move around

New cards
30

cell membrane

semi-permeable double layered wall that supports the cell

New cards
31

nucleus

contains genetic material that controls all cell activities

New cards
32

mitochondria

makes energy available to plants through cellular respiration, stores energy as a form of glucose

New cards
33

cellular respiration

glucose+oxygen→co2+water+energy

New cards
34

endoplasmic reticulum

3D network of branching tubes and pockets that extends from nuclear membrane to cell membrane fluid filled, transports proteins through cell and assists with production and release of hormone, involved with muscle contractions

New cards
35

golgi bodies

collects and processes materials to be removed from the cell, make and secrete mucus

New cards
36

vacuoles

single layer of membrane enclosing fluid in a sac, contain substances, maintain turgor pressure

New cards
37

animal cell vacuole

many small vacuoles

New cards
38

plant cell vacuole

one central vacuole

New cards
39

cell wall

outside of cell membrane, cellulose provides support for the cell and protection

New cards
40

chloroplasts

contain chlorophyll, perform photosynthesis

New cards
41

photosynthesis

co2+water+energy (sunlight)→glucose+ox

New cards
42

purpose of cell division

to reproduce, grow, and repair damage

New cards
43

cell division for reproduction

asexual (binary fission) or sexual (meiosis)

New cards
44

cell division for growth

mitosis, number of cells increases

New cards
45

diffusion

transport mechanism for moving chemicals in and out of cell, from high concentration to low concentrationc

New cards
46

concentration

amount of a solute present in a given volume of solution

New cards
47

osmosis

movement of a fluid across a membrane towards high concentration

New cards
48

interphase

cell performs its normal functions, genetic material in long thing invisible strands, DNA is duplicated

New cards
49

mitosis

division of the contents of the nucleus

New cards
50

prophase

strands of DNA condense into chromosomes, made of two sister chromatids, nuclear membrane breaks downs

New cards
51

metaphase

chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell

New cards
52

anaphase

centromere splits, sister chromatids separates, daughter chromosomes move to opposite poles

New cards
53

telophase

daughter chromosomes stretch and become invisible, nuclear membrane forms around each group of daughter chromosomes

New cards
54

cytokinesis

cytoplasm divides

New cards
55

cytokinesis in animals

cleavage furrow formsc

New cards
56

cytokinesis in plants

cell plate forms between nuclei

New cards
57

spindle fibres

move chromosomes and attach to centromeres, form during late interphase, fibres pull to middle in prophase and metaphase, pull to opposite poles in anaphase

New cards
58

cell cycle checkpoints

specialized proteins monitor cell activities and cells surround

New cards
59

purpose of cell division

to reproduce, grow, and repair damage

New cards
60

cell division for reproduction

asexual (binary fission) or sexual (meiosis)

New cards
61

cell division for growth

mitosis, number of cells increases

New cards
62

diffusion

transport mechanism for moving chemicals in and out of cell, from high concentration to low concentrationc

New cards
63

concentration

amount of a solute present in a given volume of solution

New cards
64

osmosis

movement of a fluid across a membrane towards high concentration

New cards
65

interphase

cell performs its normal functions, genetic material in long thing invisible strands, DNA is duplicated

New cards
66

mitosis

division of the contents of the nucleus

New cards
67

prophase

strands of DNA condense into chromosomes, made of two sister chromatids, nuclear membrane breaks downs

New cards
68

metaphase

chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell

New cards
69

anaphase

centromere splits, sister chromatids separates, daughter chromosomes move to opposite poles

New cards
70

telophase

daughter chromosomes stretch and become invisible, nuclear membrane forms around each group of daughter chromosomes

New cards
71

cytokinesis

cytoplasm divides

New cards
72

cytokinesis in animals

cleavage furrow formsc

New cards
73

cytokinesis in plants

cell plate forms between nuclei

New cards
74

spindle fibres

move chromosomes and attach to centromeres, form during late interphase, fibres pull to middle in prophase and metaphase, pull to opposite poles in anaphase

New cards
75

cell cycle checkpoints

specialized proteins monitor cell activities and cells surround

New cards
76

purpose of cell division

to reproduce, grow, and repair damage

New cards
77

cell division for reproduction

asexual (binary fission) or sexual (meiosis)

New cards
78

cell division for growth

mitosis, number of cells increases

New cards
79

diffusion

transport mechanism for moving chemicals in and out of cell, from high concentration to low concentrationc

New cards
80

concentration

amount of a solute present in a given volume of solution

New cards
81

osmosis

movement of a fluid across a membrane towards high concentration

New cards
82

interphase

cell performs its normal functions, genetic material in long thing invisible strands, DNA is duplicated

New cards
83

mitosis

division of the contents of the nucleus

New cards
84

prophase

strands of DNA condense into chromosomes, made of two sister chromatids, nuclear membrane breaks downs

New cards
85

metaphase

chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell

New cards
86

anaphase

centromere splits, sister chromatids separates, daughter chromosomes move to opposite poles

New cards
87

telophase

daughter chromosomes stretch and become invisible, nuclear membrane forms around each group of daughter chromosomes

New cards
88

cytokinesis

cytoplasm divides

New cards
89

cytokinesis in animals

cleavage furrow formsc

New cards
90

cytokinesis in plants

cell plate forms between nuclei

New cards
91

spindle fibres

move chromosomes and attach to centromeres, form during late interphase, fibres pull to middle in prophase and metaphase, pull to opposite poles in anaphase

New cards
92

cell cycle checkpoints

specialized proteins monitor cell activities and cells surround

New cards
93

tumour

uncontrolled growth and division of cells forms a growing mass

New cards
94

causes of cancer

carcinogens, radiation, viruses, genetics

New cards
95

cancer screening for women

breast self examinations, pap test

New cards
96

cancer screening for men

blood test for prostate cancer and colon cancer

New cards
97

ABCD of moles

asymmetry, border, colour, diametre

New cards
98

lifestyle choices to reduce cancer

avoid tobacco smoke, diet with fruits and vegetables, lower body fat

New cards
99

endoscopy

screens for colon cancer, fibre-optic cable with tiny camera

New cards
100

mammogram

specialized x-ray technique for imaging breast tissue

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 89 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1109 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard34 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard50 terms
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 43 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard122 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard58 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard65 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard75 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard46 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)