Exam 2 Review

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Positive sense RNA

1 / 146

Tags and Description

147 Terms

1

Positive sense RNA

  1. Ready for immediate translation

  2. Makes negative sense RNA because that is its complement

New cards
2

Negative sense RNA

  1. Uses RDRP, in virion

  2. Makes a protein and positive sense RNA

New cards
3

RT

  1. RT

  2. Always retroviruses

  3. RNA to DNA to RNA to protein

New cards
4

life cycle stages

  1. adsorption

  2. penetration

  3. uncoating

  4. synthesis

  5. assembly

  6. ran

New cards
5

adsorption

  1. Sticks to surface of host cell

  2. Viral attachment proteins

New cards
6

penetration

get into by endocytosis

New cards
7

uncoating

release nucleic acids

New cards
8

what cell does uncoating and penetration happen at the same time in

bacteria

New cards
9

synthesis

make nucleic acids and proteins

New cards
10

assembly

assembly by themselves

  • if assembled right causes infection

New cards
11

release

getting out

  • enveloped by budding

  • naked by lysing cell

New cards
12

where are VAP on enveloped virus

envelope

New cards
13

where are VAP on naked virus

capsid

New cards
14

CPE-cytopathic effects

change in cell appearance due to virus

New cards
15

inclusion bodies

CPE- causes clumps

New cards
16

syncytia- CPE

CPE- big multicellular cells

New cards
17

acute infection

symptoms rapidly appear and then the virus disappears

  • 1 and done

New cards
18

persistent infection

acute but the virus stays

  • Anytime you have the virus you are infectious

  • Leads to chronic infection

New cards
19

latent infection

virus is present in the body but not multiplying

  • That virus is not infectious

New cards
20

cancer infection

acute and then the virus will be gone

  • The virus has left behind cancer genes=oncogenes

New cards
21

lytic

goes through the regular life cycle

New cards
22

lysogenic cycle

injects nucleic acid into the chromosome

  • Integrates into the chromosome and then just sits there

New cards
23

Prions

viral proteins

  1. Contains NO dna or rna

  2. NO cell membrane

  3. NO cell wall

New cards
24

how do prions cause disease

through physical contact

  • abnormal protein touches a normal protein

New cards
25

genome

sum total of genetic material of an organisms

  • chromosomes or plasmids

New cards
26

chromosome

discrete cellular structure composed of a neatly package DNA molecule

  • bacteria, has one

New cards
27

gene

a certain segment of DNA that contains necessary code to make a protein or RNA molecule

New cards
28

genotype

actual gene

New cards
29

phenotype

physical result of gene

New cards
30

H bonds in DNA

nucleotides ( A T G C)

New cards
31

covalent bonds in DNA

backbone

New cards
32

Origin of replication

A T rich so it comes apart easily

  • bacterial cell

  • no origin no replication

New cards
33

recombinant steps

  1. conjugation

  2. transformation

  3. transduction

New cards
34

conjugation

Pili DNA transfer

  • Pili positive goes to pili negative

New cards
35

transformation

Naked DNA uptakes when competent (takes in foreign DNA)

New cards
36

transduction

DNA exchange using bacteriophages

New cards
37

transduction types

  1. generalized

  2. specalized

New cards
38

generalized

during lytic cycle, random DNA

New cards
39

specialized

during lysogenic cycle, specific DNA

New cards
40

spontaneous mutation

random change in DNA arising from errors in replication

New cards
41

induced mutation

results from pre exposure to known mutagens

  1. radiation

  2. chemicals

New cards
42

missense mutation

change in amino acid- do not know the function

New cards
43

non sense mutation

codes for STOP- NO function

New cards
44

silent mutation

changes nucleotide but does not change amino acid- functions

New cards
45

frameshift mutation

dd or delete- NO function

New cards
46

restriction endonucleases

cut the DNA sequences and then leave sticky ends behind

New cards
47

cDNA

DNA made from RNA

  • Used to synthesize eukaryotic genes from mRNA transcripts and is free from introns

New cards
48

electrophoresis

produced a readable pattern of DNA fragments

  • DNA negative charged will moved towards the positive end of gel

  • Big particles move slower

  • Must be cut with restriction endonuclease

  • Must stain to be viewed

New cards
49

PCR

Genotypic test type

  • 2 primers, grows by exponential rate

New cards
50

3 ways to identify bacteria

  1. Genotypic

  2. Phenotypic

  3. Immunologic

New cards
51

phenotypic testing

  1. Microscopy

  2. Colony morphology

  3. Biochemical testing

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing

  5. MALDI-TOF

New cards
52

genotypic testing

yes or no thing

must ask a lot of question

  1. PCR

  2. DNA sequencing

  3. PFGE

  4. DNA probe

  5. FISH

New cards
53

immunologic testing

  1. Immunofluorescence

  2. Latex agglutination

  3. ELISA indirect- antibodies

  4. ELISA direct- antigen

New cards
54

antibody

test for presence of pathogen in patient

  • test for immune response

New cards
55

antigen

comes from the pathogen

New cards
56

goals of clinical microbio

  1. Identity causative agent

  2. Characterize the pathogen

New cards
57

disinfection

lower microbe number on surfaces

New cards
58

sterlization

kills everything

New cards
59

antisepsis

lowers microbe number on body

New cards
60

sanitation

cleans, wipe things doqn

New cards
61

cide

kill

New cards
62

static

inhibit growth

New cards
63

2 most resistant

  1. prions

  2. endospores

New cards
64

autoclaving

15 psi=121 C=15 min

New cards
65

pasteurization and boiling

disinfect

New cards
66

baking in over

sterilization

New cards
67

incineration

sterilization even kills prions

New cards
68

ionizing radiation

passes through barrierss

New cards
69

filtiration

filters out small things, sterlizes

New cards
70

air filtration

hepa filters

New cards
71

chemicals used on people

  1. halogen

  2. hydrogen peroxide

  3. phenol

  4. alcohol

  5. detergents

New cards
72

chemicals not used on people

  1. chrlorohexadine

  2. aldehydes

  3. gases

  4. heavy metals

  5. dyes

New cards
73

factors that affect germicidal activity

  1. nature of microorganism

  2. nature of place it is in

  3. time

  4. expsiure

New cards
74

goal of antimicrobial chemotherapy

destory infective agent without harming host cell

New cards
75

prophylaxis

use of a rug to prevent imminent infection of person at risl

New cards
76

microbistatic

numbers stay the same, until they die

New cards
77

microbicidal

agent kills it all, cannot grow or multiple

New cards
78

antibotics

made from nature

New cards
79

narrow spectrum

kills one group

New cards
80

broad spectrum

kills many groups

New cards
81

primary sites of action on bacterial cells

  1. cell wall inhibitors

  2. protein synthesis

  3. folic acid synthesis

  4. DNA synthesis

  5. disrupt cell membrane

New cards
82

effect on cell wall

precent the cross linking of peptidoglycan

New cards
83

Vancomycin- cell wall

treats MRSA

New cards
84

beta lactam antibotics

  1. cephalosporin

  2. penicillin

New cards
85

block protein synthesis

inhibit translation by reacting with mRNA complex

New cards
86

folic acid synthesis

sulfoamides- competiive inhibition

New cards
87

meteronizadole

only work with parasites and anaerboes

New cards
88

quinolones

inhibit DNA syntheis

New cards
89

cell membrane function

  1. Disrupts metabolism

  2. Disrupts cytoplasmic membrane which means no more ETC

    • causes cell to die

New cards
90

4 classes of antifungals

  1. macrolide

  2. griseofulvin

  3. synthetic azoles

  4. flucytosine

New cards
91

3 modes of action for anitvirals

stop from

  1. adsorption

  2. assembly

  3. synthesis

New cards
92

antibiotic resistance

  1. drug inactivation

  2. decrease permeability

  3. activation of drug pumps

  4. change in biding site

  5. use of alternate pathway

New cards
93

superinfection

beneficial species are destroyed which can cause microbes to overgrow and cause disease

New cards
94

Koch postauletes

  1. isolate organism that is pathogen

  2. grow in pure culture

  3. must go into an animal

  4. take out of animal

New cards
95

sites that harbor normal flora

anything open to the outside world

New cards
96

true frank pathogens

not found as normal flora

  • in body=pathogen

New cards
97

opportunistic pathogen

present elsewhere usually

New cards
98

virulence

how likely is it to cause a infection

New cards
99

virulence factor

increase chances of infection

New cards
100

portal of infection entry

respiratory

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 29 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 31 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10273 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(44)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard59 terms
studied byStudied by 35 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard36 terms
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard67 terms
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard54 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard50 terms
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard84 terms
studied byStudied by 71 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard74 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)