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A physical or chemical factor affecting an ecosystem e.g. light intensity or temperature.
The movement of digested food molecules through the wall of the intestine into the blood.
Adjustments made by the eye to produce a clear image on the retina.
How close the result is to the 'true value'.
Rain that is more acidic than normal because various gases (such as sulphur dioxide) have dissolved in it.
A process which requires energy to occur.
The part of an enzyme into which a substrate fits during a reaction.
Active movement of molecules from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration, against a concentration gradient, using carrier proteins.
A feature of an organism that is well suited to its function and helps the organism survive.
One of the nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA. Pairs with thymine in DNA and uracil in RNA.
A hormone produced by the pituitary gland which is involved in control of water levels in the body, makes the collecting duct more permeable to water.
A hormone produced by the adrenal gland in response to stressful situations. Affects the circulatory, respiratory and digestive systems.
Respiration that requires the presence of oxygen.
The rapid growth of algae resulting from an increased nutrient supply.
One of the alternative forms of a gene.
The air sacs in the lungs where gas exchange takes place, site of gas exchange in the lungs.
The monomer from which proteins are made, contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen (some have sulphur).
Membrane enclosing the embryo during pregnancy.
Fluid secreted by the amnion, which supports and protects the developing embryo.
An enzyme that digests starch into maltose. Produced in the mouth and pancreas.
Respiration that takes place in the absence of oxygen.
Multicellular organisms that have no cell walls, form zygotes after fertilisation and ingest their food.
A reading which falls outside the normal, expected, range of measurements.
The part of the stamen in which pollen is formed and from which it is released.
Proteins secreted by lymphocytes in response to pathogens, attach to pathogens and destroy them.
A group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to the codon on the mRNA.
A chemical 'marker' on the surface of a cell that identifies it.
The passage through which faeces are egested.
The artery which leaves the left ventricle of the heart.
A small artery.
A blood vessel which takes blood away from the heart towards the capillaries.
Reproduction which does not involve the fusion of gametes, produces genetically identical offspring.
A chemical produced in respiration and used in processes that require energy.
A chamber in the heart which receives blood returning to the heart, smaller than a ventricle.
Plant growth factor involved in the control of cell elongation.
A long projection in a neurone that carries nerve impulses away from the cell body.
A child which has just been born.
Single celled organisms that do not contain any membrane bound organelles and possess circular DNA in chromosomes and plasmids.
The large loop of DNA found within bacterial cells.
A virus that infects bacteria that can be used as a vector in genetic engineering.
A diet that contains all the basic nutrients in the proportions necessary to maintain health.
Used to test for sugar in the Benedict's test.
Valve in the heart between the left atrium and ventricle.
Produced by the liver and stored in the gall bladder. Bile emulsifies fats to increase the surface area for lipase to act on.
Build up of pollutants in an organism.
The amount of variation shown by organisms in an ecosystem; it takes into account the number of species and abundance (number) of each species.
The use of natural predators or parasites to control pest populations.
The increase in concentration of bioaccumulated substances (e.g. pollutants) along a food chain.
The measure of mass of living material present of a species, measured in g per meter squared.
A biological factor affecting an ecosystem e.g. predation.
The organ where urine is stored before being lost through the urethra.
Area of the retina where the optic nerve leaves the eye.
Biological Oxygen Demand; the amount of oxygen in water used up by organisms, measured in mg per litre.
The first part of the nephron, site of ultrafiltration.
The organ which coordinates the activities of the nervous system. Part of the CNS.
One of the smaller airways of the respiratory system, connects the main airways (bronchi) to the alveoli.
One of the main airways of the respiratory system, connects the trachea to the bronchioles.
An important mineral ion used in the formation of bones and teeth. Found in dairy products, fish and vegetables.
The smallest of the blood vessels and the site of substance exchange.
An layer found outside the cell wall of in some bacterial species.
Enzyme that digests carbohydrates.
Starches and sugars; biological molecules containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen only.
The way in which carbon cycles in an ecosystem.
Toxic gas present in car exhaust and cigarette smoke.
An organism which feeds on other organisms.
The female reproductive organ of plants, made up of the stigma, style and ovary.
A protein found in the membrane which helps transport substances into and out of the cell; involved in active transport.
A substance that speeds up the rate of reaction and is not used up in the process.
The basic unit of living organisms.
The process by which one cells forms two daughter cells. Can be by mitosis or meiosis.
A thin layer that marks the boundary between the cell and the outside. Is selectively permeable and controls what gets into and out of the cell.
Found in the vacuole, a store of sugars, mineral ions, other solutes and water.
A layer outside of the cell membrane that supports cells and helps them to keep their shape. They are made of cellulose in plants, chitin in fungi and a carbohydrate-protein mixture in bacteria.
A carbohydrate found in plants, the main component of cell walls in plants.
Disease caused by blockage of the coronary arteries due to build up of fatty material, which can lead to a heart attack.
Chemical that makes up the cell wall of fungi.
A green, magnesium containing pigment involved in photosynthesis.
The site of photosynthesis in plant cells, contains the pigment chlorophyll.
Lipid substance present in the blood that can lead to CHD.
A threadlike structure in the nucleus formed of DNA.
Microscopic hair-like projections on the surface of cells lining the trachea and bronchi that can move mucus and trapped particles out of the lungs.
Muscles in the eye responsible for altering the shape of the lens.
Organisms which are genetically identical to each other.