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Nutrition

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Nursing

108 Terms

1

Nutrition

body's intake and use of adequate amounts of necessary nutrients for tissue growth and energy production

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2

Nutrients

substances obtained from ingested food that supply the body with energy; build and maintain bones, muscles and skin; and aid in the normal growth and function of each body system

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3

an imbalance in the amount of nutrient intake and the body's needs

malnutrition

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4

basic metabolic rate

the body's resting rate of energy output

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5

major biochemical processess

anabolism, catabolism

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6

Anabolism

Constructive metabolism; the process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones.

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7

Catabolism

Metabolic pathways that break down molecules, releasing energy.

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8

factors affecting BMR

physical activity, type of food and frequency of eating, health conditions

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9

Macro nutrients

carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and water

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10

Micro nutrients

minerals and vitamins

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11

Carbohydrates

simple or complex, 4 kilocalories perm gram

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12

what can fiber be

soluble and insoluble

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13

What is the main source of energy?

carbohydrates

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14

How much carbohydrates do you need?

50-60%

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15

what are some sources of carbohydrates?

bread, pasta, potatoes, rice, dried beans and fruit

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16

how long do carbohydrates take take to break down

2 hrs

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17

Stored forms of carbs

glycogen (muscle and liver)

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18

what does fiber retain

water

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19

what is the functions of fiber

increases the rate that food moves through the colon

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20

too much fiber

diarrhea

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21

Too little fiber

constipation

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22

extreme low fiber

bowel obstruction

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23

what can fiber lower

cholesterol

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24

nursing actions related to fiber

add fiber gradually , drink plenty of water

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25

what is fiber good for?

lowering blood sugar, preventing colon cancer, controlling weight, lowering cholesterol

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26

when do you limit carbs?

polycystic ovarian disease, celiac disease, control carbs with diabetes

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27

how much protein does the body need

10-20%

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28

what are some sources of protein

milk, meats, legumes (nuts)

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29

how long does protein take to break down

slow and provides energy for hours

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30

protein calorie #

4

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31

what is protein needed for

skin, hair, nails, fluid balance, tissue repair, enzymes, antibodies, RBC , WBC

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32

What do complete proteins contain?

all essential amino acids

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33

What do incomplete proteins lack?

one or more of the essential amino acids

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34

what do strict vegetarians lack

incomplete proteins

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35

what do incomplete proteins come from

non animal sources such as grains and nuts , legumes

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36

What is albumin?

protein

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37

normal limit of albumin

3.5-5

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38

albumin deficiency can cause

edema, muscle wasting, loss of strength , slow wound healing

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39

who has to be on a low protein diet

kidney disease, end stage liver disease

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40

high protein is needed for

wound healing, people with burns , may need up to 9000 calories

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41

who is most likely lactose intolerant

African Americans, Hispanics, indians, asians, elderly

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42

symptoms of lactose intolerance

gas, diarrhea, bloating, cramping

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43

lipids

fats

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44

Triglycerides

most abundant lipids in your body and the richest source of energy

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45

What are good fats?

unsaturated fats and omega 3 fatty acids and omega-6

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46

What are fats needed for?

energy and for lipoproteins

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47

Fats

fatty meats, ice cream cream oils, butter, cakes, pies, cookies

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48

types of fat

triglycerides, phospholipids, sterols, fatty acids

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49

trans fatty acids

bad fats, comes from animal sources and increase bad cholesterol

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50

normal limit of triglycerides

under 150

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51

What can LDL cause?

plaque and damage to your arteries

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52

normal limit of LDL

under 100

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53

normal limit for HDL

higher than 35

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54

unsaturated fats

monounsaturated and polyunsaturated, good fats , come from vegetable oils

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55

Vitamin A is for

retinol (vision)

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56

A lack of retinol (vitamin A) can cause

blindness, decreased immunity and dry skin

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57

what are sources of vitamin A

orange and yellow vegetables

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58

vitamin D also know as

cholecalciferol

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59

What does vitamin D do?

promotes calcium absorption

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60

what does vitamin D help with

strong bones, lower cholesterol

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61

low vitamin D causes

rickets (bow legged)

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62

Vitamin D sources

sun, proteins, eggs, whole milk, butter, liver, fatty fish

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63

Vitamin E function

antioxidant

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64

Vitamin K function

blood clotting and bone formation, bacteria in the intestines synthesize this vitamin

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65

Vitamin K deficiency

hemorrhaging

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66

what do babies get right after birth

a vitamin K shot

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67

Vitamin K food sources are

green leafy veggies, milk, eggs, liver, cereal, and fruits

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68

what are some water soluble vitamins

B and C

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69

what is vitamin c used for

growth and repair, collagen

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70

Vitamin C sources

citrus fruit, cantaloupe, strawberries, broccoli , brussel sprouts, chicken liver and kidney

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71

Vitamin C deficiencies

Scurvy

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72

Vitamin C deficiency symptoms

Bleeding gums and lost of teeth, muscle weakness, rough brown scaly skin, fractures, anemia, infection, death

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73

Thiamine (Vitamin B1) Deficiency

Beriberi, occurs in a world where diet is mainly white rice

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74

Deficiency found in chronic alcoholics?

wernicke-korsakoff

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75

Tx for thiamine deficiency

thiamine injection

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76

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

Promotes healthy skin, blood cells, brain, and nervous system.

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77

Vitamin B3 deficiency

Pellagra with 4 D's: dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, death

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78

Sources for B3

most foods, deficiency due to diet of mainly corn

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79

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)

Helps build body tissue and aids in metabolism of protein

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80

sources of vitamin B6

protein , potato, and green veggies

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81

deficiency of vitamin B6

confusion, seizures, also skin problems

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82

toxicity of vitamin B6

numbness, inability to walk

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83

Folate deficiency causes

neural tube defects, and anencephaly

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84

sources of iron

meat, poultry, fish

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85

deficiency of iron symptoms

fatigue, weakness, short of breath, irritability, pale skin , spoon shaped fingers

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86

A toxicity of iron

Hemochromatosis

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87

What is iodine needed for?

thyroid hormone

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88

Zinc deficiency symptoms

poor wound healing, stunted growth, hypogonadism, anemia, impaired immune response

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89

toxicity of copper

Wilson's disease

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90

GI system digestive process

digestion, absorption, metabolism, excretion

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91

Obesity BMI

30 or greater

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92

Underweight BMI

<18.5

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93

normal weight BMI

18.5-24.9

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94

Overweight BMI

25-29.9

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95

causes of malnutrition

anorexia nervosa, bulimia, decreased mobility, chronic alcoholism

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96

protein malnutrition

Kwashiorkor

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97

malnutrition due to decreased calories

marasmus

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98

What is a PEG tube used for?

infuse food directly into the stomach

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99
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100

(fish, whole grains, meat)

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