Biology II

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Cell cycle

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1

Cell cycle

Series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide

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Diploid cells

Somatic and stem cells 23 pairs

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Haploid

Gametes 23 chromosomes

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4

Cell cycle

G1, S, G2, M

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5

Cell cycle somatic and gametes

Somatic goes through mitosis and gametes meiosis

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6

Necrosis

Cell death affected by external sources

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7

Apoptosis

Cell auto-destruction

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Interphase

G1, S, G2

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9

G1

Cell increases in size

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Synthesis

Chromosomes are duplicated and the synthesis of DNA molecules takes place

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11

G2 phase

many of the organelles and molecules required for cell division are produced

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12

M phase

prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

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13

Prophase

Nuclear envelope disappears DNA is condensed into chromosomes Centrioles move to the opposite hemispheres Mitotic spindle is produced from the centrioles

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Metaphase

The cell elongates The chromosomes line up in the center The spindle hold the chromosomes by their centromeres

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Anaphase

Chromosomes split, half goes to one side (spindle pulls) and the other to the opposite

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Telophase

DNA uncondensed Nuclear envelope reappears Spindle disappears Formation of cleavage

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17

Cytokinesis

The cell fully divides into cell daughters

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18

Mitosis

(Stem and Somatic) (1 division) Divides into 2 new daughters with exactly the same information and same set

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19

Meiosis

2 cell divisions The first one is diploid and the 2 has a different sortment of the genetic material

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20

Karyotype

A display of the chromosome that we have in a cell

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21

Autosomes

Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome (1-22)

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Production of gametes (men)

Sperms - Spermatenogenesis - Meiosis

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23

Production of gametes (women)

Eggs - Oogenesis - Happens on ovaries (4 cells, the one that is mature goes)

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Fertilization

Sperm-egg fusion

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after fertilization

The Zygote is created (1 new cell, diplod)

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26

Moral

Cluster of cells (not an embrion) - Differenciation

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27

Asexual reproduction

Vegetative propagation, budding, fragmentation, binnary fussion, sporelation, parthenogenesis

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28

Vegetative propagation

Part of a plant is separated from the parent and grows into a new identical part, plant produces different structures.

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29

Vegetative propagation examples

Tulips, onions, risoms, ginger

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30

Budding

Organism splits off a small part of themselves to grow into a new organism (small budd)

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31

Budding examples

Amoeba, Coral, Cacti, Hydra, Jellyfish

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32

Fragmentation

A piece break off and grow into new individuals (genetically identical)

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Fragmentation examples

Starfish, Worms, Sponges

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34

Binnary fission

Single parent cell doubles its DNA, then divides into 2 cells

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35

Sporelation

Every single spore can develop into a new individual

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36

Sporelation examples

Fungi, liveworms, moses, ferms

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37

Parthenogenesis

Egg develops without being fertilized, only females

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38

Parthenogenesis examples

Ants, bees, salamanders

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39

Sexual reproduction

Internal fecundation, external fecundation and hermaphroditism

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40

Internal fecundation

Inside the female, advantage of protecting the egg

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41

Internal fecundation examples

Humans, dogs, cats

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42

External fecundation

Aquatic, humid environments

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43

External fecundation examples

Fish, frogs, crustacea, corals

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44

Hermaphroditism

individual may have both male and female reproductive systems, they can self-fertilize and change

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45

Hermaphroditism examples

Snales, slugs, linchs, clownfish

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46

Mendel's Principles

Principle of dominance, principle of segregation, and principle of independent assortment

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47

Principle of dominance

Some alleles are dominant, and others are recessive

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48

Principle of segregation

When any individual produces gametes, the copies of a gene separate so that each gamete receive only one copy (allele).

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49

Principle of independent assortment

Genes from different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes

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50

Types of genetic disorders

Monogenic, Multifactorial, Chromosomal

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51

Monogenic

caused by a mutation in one gene

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52

Multifactorial

mutation in multiple genes by a combination of gene mutations and environmental factors

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53

Chromosomal

Changes in the number or structure of entire chromosome

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54

Chromosomal genetic disorder classification

Sex linked, Autosomal, Aneuploidy

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55

Sex linked

Mutation in only sex chromosomes, there is y - linked (only men affected) and x - linked

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56

Autosomal

Mutation between 1st to 22nd pair of chromosomes

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Aneuploidy

Missing or extra chromosomes, it's a mutation due to external factors (radiation, drugs, alcohol, tobacco), hence it's not inherited.

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58

Sex-linked inheritance

Hemophilia, Color blindness, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), Azoospermia, Abnormal testicular development, Retinitis pigmentosa.

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59

Hemophilia

Blood clotting gene is carried on the X chromosome The royal disease Disorder characterized by the inability to properly form blood clots This results in abnormally heavy bleeding that will not stop, even from a small cut

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60

Factors for Hemophilia (x-linked)

Factor VIII - A Factor IX - B (christmas disease)

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61

Color blindness (x-linked)

Group of conditions that affect the perception of color Red-green color vision defects are the most common form of color vision deficiency Color blindness will be expressed in males with a higher probability than in females

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Types of Color blindness

Deuteranopia: M - cones affected (green) Protanopia: S - cones affected (red) Tritanopia: L - cones affected (blue) Monochromacy: the 3 cones are affected alongside the rods.

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63

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) (x-linked)

Genetic disorder characterized by progressive muscle degeneration and weakness. The disease primarily affects boys, but in rare cases it can affect girls. The affected child might have difficulty jumping, running, and walking, enlargement of the calves, waddling gait, scoliosis, respiratory failure.

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64

Azoospermia (y-linked)

Azoospermia means there's no sperm in a man's ejaculate. Azoospermia leads to male infertility. Infertility • Low sex drive. • Erectile dysfunction. • Lump, swelling, or discomfort around the testicles. • Decreased hair on the face or body.

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65

Abnormal testicular development (y-linked)

Several abnormalities in males caused by Y chromosome mutations, may be caused due to harmful environmental factors that disrupt embryonal programming and genetic factors Poor semen quality, testicular cancer, undescended testes, hypospadias, low birth weight

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66

Retinitis pigmentosa (y-linked)

Eye diseases that affect the retina. RP makes cells in the retina break down slowly over time, causing vision loss. Hard time seeing in poor lighting or in the dark, a reduced ability to see either central vision or side or peripheral vision, hard time reading print., hard time figuring out detailed images, hard time with stumbling or tripping over objects not seen.

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67

Autosomal

Albinism, Sickle cell anemia, Polydactyly, Hutchinson Gilford (progeria), Tay-Sachs disease

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68

Albinism (recessive)

Group of inherited disorders where there is little or no production of the piment melanin

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69

Sickle cell anemia (recessive)

Affects hemoglobin and structure of red blood cells, which are crescent, or "sickle" shaped

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Polydactyly (dominant)

Abnormality characterized by extra fingers or toes. The condition may be present as part of a collection of abnormalities, or may exist by itself.

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71

Hutchinson Gilford (progeria) (dominant)

Genetic condition characterized by the dramatic, rapid appearance of aging beginning in childhood. Slowed growth, with below-average height and weight, narrowed face, small lower jaw, thin lips and beaked nose, prominent eyes and incomplete closure of the eyelids, hair loss, including eyelashes and eyebrows, thinning, spotty, wrinkled skin, visible veins.

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72

Tay-Sachs disease (recessive)

Tay-Sachs is caused by a baby receiving two defective HEXA genes, one from each parent. Babies born with Tay-Sachs often die at a young age. "Cherry-red" spots in the eyes, loss of motor skills, muscle weakness, progressing to paralysis, vision loss and blindness, hearing loss and deafness, problems swallowing, loss of mental functions

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73

Abnormal testicular development (y-linked)

Several abnormalities in males caused by Y chromosome mutations, may be caused due to harmful environmental factors that disrupt embryonal programming and genetic factors Poor semen quality, testicular cancer, undescended testes, hypospadias, low birth weight

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74

after fertilization

The Zygote is created (1 new cell, diplod)

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75

Albinism (recessive)

Group of inherited disorders where there is little or no production of the piment melanin

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76

Anaphase

Chromosomes split, half goes to one side (spindle pulls) and the other to the opposite

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77

Aneuploidies (not inherited)

Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, Edward's syndrome (Trisomy 18), Patau syndrome (Trisomy 13), Triple X syndrome (XXX), Jacob's syndrome (XYY), Down syndrome.

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78

Aneuploidy

Missing or extra chromosomes, it's a mutation due to external factors (radiation, drugs, alcohol, tobacco), hence it's not inherited.

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79

Apoptosis

Cell auto-destruction

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80

Asexual reproduction

Vegetative propagation, budding, fragmentation, binnary fussion, sporelation, parthenogenesis

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81

Autosomal

Albinism, Sickle cell anemia, Polydactyly, Hutchinson Gilford (progeria), Tay-Sachs disease

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82

Autosomal

Mutation between 1st to 22nd pair of chromosomes

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83

Autosomes

Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome (1-22)

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84

Azoospermia (y-linked)

Azoospermia means there's no sperm in a man's ejaculate. Azoospermia leads to male infertility. Infertility • Low sex drive. • Erectile dysfunction. • Lump, swelling, or discomfort around the testicles. • Decreased hair on the face or body.

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85

Binnary fission

Single parent cell doubles its DNA, then divides into 2 cells

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86

Budding

Organism splits off a small part of themselves to grow into a new organism (small budd)

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87

Budding examples

Amoeba, Coral, Cacti, Hydra, Jellyfish

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88

Cell cycle

G1, S, G2, M

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89

Cell cycle

Series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide

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90

Cell cycle somatic and gametes

Somatic goes through mitosis and gametes meiosis

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91

Chromosomal

Changes in the number or structure of entire chromosome

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92

Chromosomal genetic disorder classification

Sex linked, Autosomal, Aneuploidy

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93

Color blindness (x-linked)

Group of conditions that affect the perception of color Red-green color vision defects are the most common form of color vision deficiency Color blindness will be expressed in males with a higher probability than in females

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94

Cytokinesis

The cell fully divides into cell daughters

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95

Diploid cells

Somatic and stem cells 23 pairs

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96

Down syndrome (trisomy 21)

Down syndrome is a condition in which a person has an extra chromosome A flattened face, especially the bridge of the nose, a short neck, a tongue that tends to stick out of the mouth, tiny white spots on the iris (colored part) of the eye, a single line across the palm of the hand (palmar crease), small pinky fingers that sometimes curve toward the thumb, poor muscle tone or loose joints

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97

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) (x-linked)

Genetic disorder characterized by progressive muscle degeneration and weakness. The disease primarily affects boys, but in rare cases it can affect girls. The affected child might have difficulty jumping, running, and walking, enlargement of the calves, waddling gait, scoliosis, respiratory failure.

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98

Edward's syndrome (trisomy 18)

small, abnormally shaped head; a small jaw and moth; and clenched fists with overlapping fingers Many individuals with trisomy 18 die before birth or within their first month.

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99

External fecundation

Aquatic, humid environments

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100

External fecundation examples

Fish, frogs, crustacea, corals

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