MCAT Psych/Social

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Biopsychosocial approach to health and illness

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Neuroscience

832 Terms

1

Biopsychosocial approach to health and illness

Illness is determined by a variety of influences

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2

Biomedical approach to health and illness

Disease is studied by examining only the biological factors of illness

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3

Models

Provide an approximation (physical/conceptual representation) of a scientific phenomenon that cannot be observed directly

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4

Theories

Provides the conceptual framework for understanding objects of study

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5

Social constructionism

Human actors actively construct their "reality"

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6

Brute facts vs Institutional Facts

-Part of WEAK social constructionism -Brute facts are physical realities that exist outside of human input -Institutional facts only exist as a function of society's structures and beliefs

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Symbolic interactionism

Micro social perspective. Focuses on the smaller scale interactions between individuals in small groups. Through social interactions

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Symbols

Terms

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9

Functionalism

Founder: Emile Durkheim Macrosocial perspective -Factions of society work together to maintain stability. Society is a system that consists of different components working together

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10

Conflict Theory

Founder: Karl Marx Macrosocial perspective Views society in terms of competing groups that act according to their own self-interests

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11

Culture

All of the beliefs

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12

Culture shock

The discomfort and ensuring reevaluation of personal cultural assumptions when an individual experiences a culture different from her own

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13

Material culture

Objects involved in a certain way of life

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14

Nonmaterial culture

Encompasses the elements of cultures that are not physical. Includes shared ideas

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15

Social norms

Expectations that govern what behavior is acceptable within a group. Social interactions help define a culture by establishing these

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16

Social group

A subset of a population that maintains social interactions. Alternatively

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17

Symbolic culture

Non-material culture that consists of the elements of culture that only have meaning in the mind. Based on a shared system of collective beliefs in the form of symbols. Includes the meanings ascribed to rituals

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18

Language

The use of symbols to represent ideas

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19

Society

Two or more individuals living together in a definable area and/or sharing elements of a culture. A society can encompass multiple cultures.

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20

Social institutions

Stable hierarchical systems that bring order to interpersonal interactions

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21

Government/economy as a social institution

Provides order to a society through the services it provides and the making and enforcement of law

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22

Education as a social institution

Provides a formal structure during childhood and the transition to adulthood

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23

Religion as a social institution

Acts as an organized structure of behaviors and social interactions that addresses the spiritual needs of society. From a functionalist standpoint

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24

Religion

A system of beliefs that affects how people make sense of their experiences and provides a framework for questions about life

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25

Family as a social institution

Creates a social group in which to procreate

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26

The nuclear family

The concept of family in which one man and one woman live together with their children

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27

most common concept of family in the US. Consists of DIRECT blood relations.

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28

Polygamy

An individual married to more than one individual

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29

Polyandry

More than one man married to one woman

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30

Health/medicine as a social institution

Fulfills the need for healthcare in an organized manner

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31

Demographics

Statistics used to examine the nature of a specific population by quantifying subsets of that population. They are a statistical snapshot in time

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32

Quantified demographic parameters include:

Age

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33

Demographic transition

A demographic change that takes place over time

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34

Fertility

The production of offspring within a population

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35

Cohort study

Following a subset of a population over a lifetime

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36

Period study

Examining the number of offspring produced during a specific time period

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37

Mortality

The death rate within a population.

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38

Migration

The relocation of people from one place to another

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39

influences population size

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40

Immigration

The influx of new people to a specific area

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41

increases population size

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42

Emigration

The outflow of people to other areas

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43

reduces population size

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44

Social movement

Group of people who share an ideology and work together toward a specific set of goals

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45

Urbanization

Increase in the proportion of people living in specified urban areas

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46

Globalization

Increasing amount of interaction and integration on the international scale through exchange of products

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47

Social inequality

The unequal distribution of opportunities or treatment of individuals within a society based on various demographic categories

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48

Spatial inequality

Unequal access to resources and variable quantity of life within a population or geographical distribution. Can be affected by income

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49

Environmental justice

The equal treatment of all people regardless of race

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50

Residential segregation

Instance of social inequality on the local scale

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51

Food deserts

Areas where it is difficult to find affordable

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52

Social class

System of stratification that groups members of society according to similarities in social standing. Multifaceted

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53

Power

Influence over a community

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54

People in higher social class tend to have more:

Power

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55

Socioeconomic status (SES)

Defines the economic and social position of a person in terms of income

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56

Income vs wealth

Income is assets EARNED while wealth is assets already OWNED.

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57

Prestige

the relative value assigned to something within a particular society

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58

White-collar work

Jobs that are professional

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59

defines the middle class

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60

Blue-collar work

Occupations that require skilled or unskilled manual labor

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61

Caste system

Hierarchy of society is strictly defined

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62

Upward mobility

The movement of an individual up the class hierarchy. Achieved through education

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Downward mobility

The movement of an individual down the class hierarchy. Due to unemployment

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64

Intragenerational mobility

Movement of a young person from a lower social class to a higher social class through merit (achieving the "American dream")

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Intergenerational mobility

Movement through the class system between generations (old generation is poor/rich

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66

Meritocracy

Society in which advancement is based solely on the abilities and achievements of the individual

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67

Cultural capital

The set of non-monetary social factors that contribute to social mobility. Examples include dress

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68

Social capital

An individual's social networks and connects that may confer economic or personal benefits

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69

Social reproduction

Transmission of social inequality from one generation to the next

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70

Poverty

an insufficiency of material goods

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71

Isolation

Also known as social exclusion. Describes how impoverished people are often excluded from opportunities available to others.

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72

Absolute poverty

Lack of essential resources (food

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73

Relative poverty

Social inequality in which people are relatively poor compared to other members of society in which they live

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74

Health disparity

Aka health inequity. Differences in health and healthcare that occur between groups of people

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75

Sociology

The study of how individuals interact with

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76

Emile Durkheim

-Father of sociology

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77

Dynamic equilibrium

Aspect of functionalism. Complex societies contain many different but interdependent parts working together to maintain stability. Unhealthy cites are unable to maintain this.

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78

Social facts

The elements that serve some function in society

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79

Manifest functions

Intended and obvious consequences of a social structure

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80

Latent functions

Unintended or less recognizable consequence of a social structure. Can be considered beneficial

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81

Social dysfunction

Social process that has undesirable consequences

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82

Karl Marx

Father of sociology. Associated with Conflict Theory. Looked at the economic conflict between different social classes

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83

Ludwig Gumplowicz

Proposed that society is shaped by war and conquest

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84

Max Weber

Father of sociology. Argued that in a capitalist society inequalities would lead to conflict

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85

Dramaturgical approach

Assumes that people are theatrical performers and that everyday life is a stage

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86

Social construct

A concept or practice that is construct of a group. Everybody in society agrees to treat a certain aspect a certain way regardless of its inherent value in nature.

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87

Family

A set of people related by blood

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88

Socialization

The process by which people learn customs and values of their culture. It is the way that children learn the culture into which they have been born

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89

Polygyny

A man married to more than one woman

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90

Endogamy

The practice of marrying within a particular group

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91

Exogamy

A requirement to marry outside a particular group

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92

Assisted marriage

Parents provide children with possible mates

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93

Kinship/kin

How we think about who we are related to. Considered a cultural group rather than biological

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94

Bilateral descent

Kin groups that involve both maternal and paternal relations

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95

Patrilineal descent

Preference for paternal relations in the kin group

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96

Matrilineal descent

Preference for maternal relations in the kin group

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97

Egalitarian family

Spouses are treated as equals and may be involved in negotiation when making decisions

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98

Social class in America is largely determined by ________.

Financial wealth

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99

Upper vs lower class families

Upper class families have concerns related to continuing a larger family tradition and properly training children

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100

Divorce rate in America

Has generally increased due to social and religious acceptance

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