Career and Enterprise: Unit 1 Exam

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Choosing from a set of pre-determined options

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Choosing from a set of pre-determined options

Predetermined options can save time and effort in the decision-making process, provide a standardized approach, reduce risk, increase quality, facilitate collaboration and alignment, and ensure consistency in decision-making across different situations or individuals. Over time, the evaluation of predetermined options can lead to the identification of best practices and refinement of decision-making processes.

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Using a formal decision making process

By adopting a formal decision-making process, organizations can enhance the quality of their decisions, minimize risks, foster collaboration, and create a culture of evidence-based and systematic decision-making.

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What is personal progress in career competencies and what does it involve

Personal progress in career competencies refers to the development, improvement, and growth of the skills, knowledge, and abilities that are relevant to your career. It involves advancing and refining the competencies that are essential for success in your chosen field or profession.

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Making career-enhancing decisions

- seeks advice, feedback and support as required

- Self-reflect, view your options and take action.

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Selection Criteria

- It requires applicants to provide more information than what is contained on the resume. The answers help show the likelihood of an applicant's ability to fulfil the requirement of a specific job.

- You are more likely to encounter selection criteria for higher-level, career-focused positions.

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What are some benefits/advantages of e-networking?

- easy access to a wide range of information

- all information is put in one place and can be easily organised

- can be easily edited and changed

- can be protected and kept confidential by a password, only accessible to those necessary

- convenient to email/contact people at any time

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What is the function of an organisational structure?

- reflects the levels of authority

- reflects the degree of responsibility

- determines how workplace activities are carried out

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What are the steps in planning and organising work load and work/life balance?

1. Determining the amount of work to be completed in a set timeframe.

2. Identifying personal priorities related to work hours and work patterns.

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What are strategies to deal with unexpected events in a workplace?

- having contingency plans in place that anticipate likely events

- outline strategies or protocols to deal with these events

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What is the concept of "e-commerce"?

The general term of business and commercial transactions and activities that use electronic data transmission mechanisms.

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What is the concept of "overseas outsourcing"?

The business practice of hiring a party outside a company to perform services or create goods.

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Define the concept of a career

A career is a sequence and a variety of occupations and roles, which a person has undertaken throughout their life.

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Holland's Theory of Career Choice (RIASEC)

Believes that when choosing a career, people prefer jobs where they can be around others like them and environments where they can express their beliefs, attitudes, values and skills. There are 6 personality types, Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising and Conventional.

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Personal/professional skills link to career development

Your personal and professional skills can help guide you in the direction of the right career path for you, as well as determine the areas in your career that you succeed in and fail in. As you advance these skills new opportunities will arise, leaving room for career development.

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Relationship between individual efficiency and work satisfaction

As your work performance increases so does your level of satisfaction

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Quality Assurance Standards

the policies and procedures an organisation uses to ensure that its products and services meet the quality standards of its customers.

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What is the impact of "a more mobile population" on the workforce?

- social and cultural diversity in the workforce: this diversity can enhance creativity, problem-solving abilities, and the overall richness of perspectives within organizations.

- employers benefit from a more mobile population by having access to a larger and more diverse talent pool, since workers are willing to relocate

- mobile workers bring their experiences, knowledge, and skills to new regions, enriching the local workforce. the mixture of ideas and expertise can create innovation, productivity, and economic development.

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What is the impact of "overseas outsourcing" on the workforce?

- outsourcing certain business processes or services to countries with lower labor costs can significantly reduce expenses for companies.

- companies can become more competitive in the global market (by the lowered costs etc) which can lead to business expansion, increased market share, and potentially more job opportunities domestically as well.

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What is the impact of changing roles of changing work roles of family members on individual career development?

This can lead to an individuals losing or opening up free time to focus on their personal career.

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What is diversity?

All characteristics and experiences that define each of us as individuals

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What is an organisational structure, and list some of the types.

The organisation of responsibilities, employees, assets, and operations with an enterprise.


- hierarchical

- flat

- geographical

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Strategies to give an advantage in the workplace

Taking advantage of work opportunities

Undertaking training

Seeking Learning Opportunities

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Taking advantage of work opportunities

Volunteering for any positions or undertaking any training that is freely offered.

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Undertaking training

Undertaking any necessary or extra training that will make you well equipped and skilled within the workplace, making you a reliable employee that others will turn to for help or believe can handle the extra responsibility.

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Seeking learning opportunities

Actively seeking more responsibility or volunteering for certain tasks/jobs that will give you more experience within the workplace, making you a better candidate for promotions than others.

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Strategies to build and maintain a positive self concept

- Promoting yourself to others

- Targeting job search

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Promoting yourself to others while maintaining a positive self-concept can be done by networking

- Increases self-awareness of your strengths and weaknesses, leading to personal growth.

- Boosts self-confidence - leading to a stronger self-concept.

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What is targeting job search to maintain self-concept

involves selecting a geographic area, industry or organisation size and a position within.

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What does targeting job search to maintain self-concept entail

- Provide focus and clarity - you are able to focus your efforts on job opportunities that align with your skills.

- You are more likely to apply for jobs that you are well suited for - increases your confidence in your skills and abilities.

- You are more likely to achieve your career goals and attain the job you desire - provides a sense of achievement and satisfaction which can build a positive self-concept.

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Strategies to assist in making decisions in a work context

- Choosing from a set of pre-determined options

- Using a formal decision making process

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How to gain career advice

- Mentorship, networking, online resources, professional associations, and industry groups provide access to career advice and guidance.

- Seek advice from trusted colleagues or supervisors.

- Explore career-related books or publications that offer advice on development, industry trends, and strategies for success.

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What are the career competencies

- making career-enhancing decisions

- maintain balanced life and work roles

- Understands the changing nature of life and work roles

- Understand, engage in and manage the career building process

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What does examining personal progress in career competencies ???

- Regularly assessing and improving skills can lead to career success and increase your effectiveness.

- Examining personal progress requires self-awareness, reflection, and commitment.

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How to maintain balanced life and work roles

- develop a personal, school and work timetable to manage all commitments

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Understand the changing nature of life and work roles

- identify changes in personal roles and commitments that will occur in the school to post-school transition

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To understand, engage in and manage the career-building process

- set personal learning challenges using formal and informal learning opportunities

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Location of job oppotunities

- newspapers

- websites

- social and professional networking

- Professional associations

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How to locate a job opportunity through social and professional networking

Expand your network by connecting with professionals in your field, attending industry events, and engaging in conversations. Update your online presence to reflect your skills, experience, and career goals. Communicate your job search intentions and seek referrals. Attend networking events to increase your chances of finding suitable job opportunities. Engage in professional groups and forums, and follow company pages and industry influencers to build a reputation and expand your network.

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What are professional associations

Professional associations are organisations that act as a peak body or umbrella for professionals working in the same or similar fields.

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How to locate a job opportunity through professional associations

Identify relevant professional associations, join and become an active member. Utilize job boards, attend events, participate in online forums and discussions, seek out association publications, attend job fairs, and stay informed about association activities. Attend conferences, workshops, seminars, and networking events.

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What does interpret requirements in a job advertisement mean

By interpreting the requirements in a job advertisement effectively, you can position yourself as a strong candidate who meets the employer's expectations and increases your chances of securing an interview and ultimately the job.

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Job advertisements include

- job description

- job location

- qualifications required

- Selection criteria

- expression of interest requirements

- Application process and deadline

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Expression of interest requirements

Expression of interest in a job requires registration for the position. You need to treat this as formal communication as you will be judged on how your expressed interest

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Application process and deadline

- The process outlines the steps applicants need to follow to apply for the job. It may include: submitting a resume, cover letter and job application, with any additional documents.

- The application deadline specifies the date and time by which applicants must submit their applications.

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Strategies for successfully applying for a job

- writing a job application letter

- Participating in an interview situation

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What are some limits/disadvantages of e-networking?

- key information can get lost/deleted

- tone can be misinterpreted

- harder to discuss and collaborate to create new ideas

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How can social media be used as a career development tool?

Online profiles can be made to show potential employers your skills and achievements, to find job opportunities and also used as a communication tool between employers, employees and potential workers.

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What is the concept of traineeship?

Traineeship gives anyone of a working age the opportunity to complete a workplace training course while being paid, it allows them to gain extra experience, skills and certificates that will benefit their future career and open opportunities for them.

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What are the advantages and disadvantages of a hierarchal organisational structure?


- clear roles and responsibilties

- defined career progression


- slower decision making

- potential bereaucratic inefficiencies

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What is a hierarchal organisational structure?

A type of structure that contains a direct chain of command from the top of the organisation to the bottom. It resembles a pyramid.

- different levels of management and positions, each with their own responsibilities

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What are the advantages and disadvantages of a flat organisational structure?


- greater flexibility, and faster decision making


- lack of clear career paths

- potential confusion over roles/responsibilities

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What is a flat organisational structure?

A type of structure where there are fewer levels of management or hierarchy, with a more horizontal distribution of power and responsibility.

- more decision making power

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What is the concept of e-networks?

Sharing workplace ideas and concepts through the internet with others involved in the topic, to collaborate, communicate and share ideas.

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What are some strategies to help employees adapt to working in a diverse workplace

- Providing cultural awareness training: making sure all employees learn to understand and appreciate differences

- Promoting awareness of equal opportunity legislation: employees need to be aware of the legal ramifications, and consequences

- Celebrating diversity/cultural events

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Self-management strategies to enhance personal change and growth:


construction of SMART goals

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capacity to evaluate one's personal behaviours, thoughts, attitudes, motivations, and desires. Self-reflection helps you navigate your career path and figure out what you do and don't want for your future.

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SMART Goals Construction

Specific (are your goals clear and specific? )

Measurable ( how will you track and know you've achieved your goal?)

Achievable (can you realistically achieve this goal within your time frame?)

Realistic (is this goal within reach?)

Time-based (do you have a time frame for achieving your goal?)

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Collaborative efforts of people to accomplish common objectives

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The exchange of information and ideas among people with a common profession or special interest, usually in an informal social setting.

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Advantages of Networking

- Diverse range of people taking an interest in your future career.

- Can meet people who are established and respected within the industry you are interested in.

- Can hear of job opportunities before they are published.

- Access to hidden job opportunities that are never advertised.

- Can be given direct contact information that can assist you to 'get a foot in the door' and other benefits.

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SMART Goals Acronym

goals that are specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and time-based

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What is work/life balance?

Describes the relationship between your work and the commitments in the rest of your life, and how they impact on one another.

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What are some ways to build networks that will enhance career opportunities?

- identifying people you feel comfortable talking to, and whose advice you listen to

- increasing the range of people you know

- using technology to help expand networks

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What is the concept of "the ageing workforce"?

The increase in the number of older people in the workforce.

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What is the concept of "a more mobile population/workforce"

A mobile workforce is a a group of people who operate outside of a traditional office setting.

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What is the concept of "changing work roles of family members"?

Refers to shifts in the traditional division of labor and responsibilities within families, particularly regarding employment and household tasks.

e.g historically, traditional gender roles assigned men as the primary breadwinners and women as homemakers.

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How can accepting less pay impact someones personal career?

Accepting less pay is a personal risk because while it is risky as you're sacrificing your current pay, it can open up better positions and opportunities in the future where you will earn more money and move up in a company.

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Influence of global trends on more cultural diversity in a work environment:

Different global trends such as globalisation effect the workforces diversity by allowing businesses to expand their business throughout the world, incorporating different beliefs and cultures and learning more about them.

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What is an individual pathway plan (IPP) and what is it for?

A document consisting of your short and long term goals, personal and professional skills and attributes another career related information. It shows potential future employers your abilities and aims in one place to let them decide if you'd fit the role they're hiring for.

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EXAM Q: Describe 2 reasons why managing your work/life balance is important

1. overworked employees are more likely to suffer health problems - therefore more likely to be absent/sick

2. reduces the likelihood of mental health issues or low motivation

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EXAM Q: Explain two specific examples of the need to accept diversity in the workplace.

Ethnic/cultural links

- english is often the second language

- follow different religions

- different cultural celebrations

Physical disability

- workplaces may need to be modified


- different generations have different skill sets and can learn from eachother

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EXAM Q: Outline 2 opportunities for an individual's career development that can be created by changes in their workplace.

1. New management can provide opportunities for employees e.g the development of new skills through the introduction of new processes.

2. Physical move can lead to new employment opportunities for people in the new location

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What are the advantages of upskilling and undertaking training?

- can help you excel in your career

- expands your knowledge

- gives you more experience to put on resumé

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EXAM Q: Describe two considerations important to managing change in career development when changing jobs.

1. Flexibility

- being prepared for employment status, location and salary changes when changing jobs is important

2. Education

- updating skills to broaden knowledge through training, which will give you a competitive edge when applying

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EXAM Q: Describe how each of the following strategies can be used to manage changes in your personal employment circumstances.

- upskilling

- retraining

- ipp


- if re entering the workforce e.g after being a stay at home mum, you may need to upgrade your skills


- if your industry is in decline, you may need to retrain to start a new job or work in a new industry


- as you get older, you can navigate changes by referring to IPP and target jobs that tie in with goals, values etc.

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How can taking a gap year affect someones career?

Taking a gap year can be good to give you a break between school/education but can impact your career by giving you a later start which could negatively impact your career in future or give you a later start. It could improve your mental health and reduce stress though.

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What is the difference between networking and e networking?

Networking being the process of connecting and interacting with people and exchanging information to open up new professional or social contacts, in person during meetings, functions etc. e networking adds the internet to the concept, expanding opportunities.

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Personal skills and attributes

communication, problem solving, leadership, creativity, decision making

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Professional skills and attributes

Leadership, communication, negotiation, time-management, critical thinking, public speaking

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What are interpersonal skills?

Refers to the ability to communicate and interact well with others. The ability to read signals that others send, interpret them and respond accurately.

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Interpersonal skills examples

Verbal and non-verbal communication, ability to handle conflict, teamwork, empathy, listening and positive attitude.

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Strengths of interpersonal skills

Improves your ability to work well and communicate with others.

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Weakness in your interpersonal skills

Having weak areas in your interpersonal skill set can lead you to have no progress within your career or relationships.

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Realistic Personality Type

'Doers' tend to favour occupations that involve =

Practical tasks

Manual work

Physical activity and

Tangible order

Jobs: construction, environmental, fitness, recreation, trades, security, natural resources, outdoors.

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Investigative Personality Type

'Thinkers' tend to favour occupations that involve =


Research and experimentation

Analysis and

Technical or intellectual inquiry

Jobs: science, medical, information management, engineering, finance, academia.

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Artistic Personality Type

'Creators' tend to favour occupations that involve =



Intuition and originality

Initiative and flexibility

Jobs: creative arts, music, dance, writing, media, design, personal services.

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Social Personality Type

'Helpers' tend to favour occupations that involve =

Helping others

Social interactions

Interpersonal relationships and

Client service

Jobs: education, health, social and community, services, customer service, personal services, hospitality.'Helpers' tend to favour occupations that involve =

Helping others

Social interactions

Interpersonal relationships and

Client service

Jobs: education, health, social and community, services, customer service, personal services, hospitality.

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Enterprising Personality Type

'Persuaders' tend to favour occupations that involve =



Taking responsibility

Initiative and flexibility

Jobs: public service, law, media, education, library, business, hospitality, PR, advertising.

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What are the RIASEC personality types?







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Individual efficiency

Refers to your ability to handle the tasks according to a system without taking stress or having work balance and never be overburdened with the work because of delaying it or being able to accomplish long-term goals, rather than focusing on just day to day objectives.

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Work Satisfaction

Refers to the level of satisfaction employees feel with their job and effort.

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Need for rights and protocols for the workplace

health and safety, equal opportunity, and codes of conduct and standards

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Health and Safety

Managing risks to the health and safety of everyone in your workplace.

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Equal Opportunity

the right to equivalent opportunities for employment regardless of race, colour, sex, sexual orientation or national origin.

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Factors that create effective workplaces

management of human, physical, financial and technological resources, and internal and external communication strategies and processes, including meetings, telephone calls and text messages, emails, memos, letters, newsletters, intranet and internet

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Health and Safety Workplace Legislation

Laws put in place to protect the health, safety and welfare of employees, volunteers and other persons who are at, or come in to contact with, a workplace

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Equal Employment Opportunity Workplace Legislation

Rights and protections that determine it unlawful to discriminate on the basis of a number of protected attributes including age, disability, race, sex, intersex status, gender identity and sexual orientation in certain areas of public life, including education and employment

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What is the impact of "the ageing workforce" on the workforce?

- it can keep younger people out of an industry as workers are retiring at an older age.

- increases the risk of age-based discrimination and unconscious bias towards older workers (e.g when hiring)

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Codes of conduct and standards

Refers to a set of values, rules, standards, and principles outlining what employers expect from staff within an organisation. the practical means by which the rights of work related stakeholders are protected. They lead to the development of work related protocols which are then applied to work practises, systems, processes and other guidelines that must be followed in situations.

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Reasons for an employment contract

Clarifies employment status, stipulates important factors, conditions and entitlements.

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