Psych Exam 1

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Belief Systems

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227 Terms

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Belief Systems

Authority, intuition, personal experience, logic and science

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Are belief systems ever wrong?

All can be wrong

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Are belief systems ever inherently self correcting?

All no, but science yes, because scientists constantly challenge things and what people think they already know(scientific method)

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Naturalistic Observation

Simply observe, no intervention and tests(see what really happens)

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Lowest in reactivity

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Problem: no conclusions about cause and effect.

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-Ex: Jane Goodall and chimpanzees. Early language acquisition

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Case Study

Study an individual in depth. Look for patterns in that individual and look for same patterns in other individuals.

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Useful if phenomenon can't be studied another way

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Problem: no conclusions about cause and effects

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-Ex: Frueds studies and Studies of the brain

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Survey

ask people questions and tally up different responses. Larger the sample the better it is.

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Problem: no conclusions about cause and effect

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questionnaire

less reactive because you don't actually have to see the person- may be more reliable for that reason

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interview

more reactive because you may care what they think, you can take note of the behavior at how they react to certain questions

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Sampling

subset of the population .

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-Representative sample, biased sample, and random sample

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Representative sample

a sample that has the same characteristics as the population that it came from

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Biased sample

a sample that has characteristics that are different from the rest of the population

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Random sample

a sample in which every member of the population had an equal probability of being selected for the sample. (but could be too small of a sample)

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Correlation

relation between 2 variables. Dependent variable- if you have a relationship between these different measures, you can see if they are correlated

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-Ex: Violent acts and violence on video games. GPA and alcohol consumed. IQ and shoe size(no correlation)

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Problem: does not prove causation! You can't make conclusions with this method. you can't tell why these things are correlated.

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-X could cause Y, Y could cause X.

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Types of Correlation

Positive (0 to +1): As A increases, B increases-- strongest correlation you can have

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Negative (0 to -1): As A increases, B decreases-- strongest correlation you can have.

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No Correlation (0 to 0): A and B are unrelated.

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Strength of correlation

Strong: A is a very good predictor of B

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Weak: A is NOT a good predictor of B

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Experiment

manipulate independent variables. Control all other variables. Observe effects on dependent variable.

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-Different from correlation because you determine how much of each variables someone gets instead of just plotting 2 measurements against each other.

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  • CAN make conclusions about cause and effect! (doesn't always mean its the right answer)

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Validity

Internal and External Validity

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-it depends on the situation which research method to use

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Internal Validity

cause and effect

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  • Does the variable cause the phenomenon? - Experiment is the highest in the validity

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External Validity

Generalizing to other studies and generalizing to the real world

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Ecological Validity

Naturalistic observation is the highest in ecological validity and the experiment is the lowest amount in this validity because you are controlling everything.

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Neuropsychology

The study of the brain and the nervous system

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Psychophysiology

Trying to link whats going on in your body with psychological experiences

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Genetics

Biological, determining personality

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Comparative/Evolutionary

Researchers try to connect things people do with how they behave to some evolutionary inheritance.

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The Neuron

one nerve cell or a bundle of neurons.

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-Axon, myelin sheath, axon terminal, dendrites, cell body, neural impulse, and synaptic gap

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Axon

Passes messages away from cell body to other neurons, muscles or glands

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Myelin Sheath

covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed neural impulse

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Axon terminal

form junctions with other cells

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Dendrites

receive messages from other cells

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Cell Body

The cells life support center

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Neural impulse

electrical signal traveling down the axon

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Synaptic gap

tiny opening between neurons for sending cells and receiving dendrite of the next neuron

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Glial Cell

Gray fatty brain cells

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-support for the neurons to grow on

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-deliver nutrients to neurons

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  • produce myelin to coat axons (helping speed up transition between neurons)

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Neural Communication

-Bigger the diameter of axon and the more myelin = faster the neuron signal

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  • Action potential/neuro transmission is propagated = a near signal is moving along the neural

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-Neurotransmitter

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-Synapse

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-Receptor

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Neurotransmitter

specific type of hormones that transmits a signal chemically

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-Cross synaptic gaps

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  • released by the sending neurons synaptic vesicles

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  • bind to receptor sites on receiving neuron

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  • influence whether the receiving neuron generates an impulse

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Inhibitory

impulse may be inhibitory

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  • Serotonin

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  • Dopamine

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  • Endorphins

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Serotonin

affects mood, hunger, sleep, arousal, and pleasure

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Dopamine

influences movement, learning attention, and emotion

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Endorphins

involved in pain relief

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Nervous system

Central Nervous system and Peripheral nervous system

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Central nervous system

brain and spinal cord

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Peripheral Nervous system

Automatic and somatic

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Somatic part

voluntary movement of your skeletal muscles

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Automatic

Controls self regulated action of internal organ and glands

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  • Sympathetic

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  • Parasympathetic

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Sympathetic

any kind of emotion is expressed here, activating system--

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-dilates pupil, inhibits flow of saliva, accelerates heartbeat, dilates bronchi, inhibits peristalsis and secretion, inhibits bladder contraction

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  • When your body feels like its being threatened

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Parasympathetic nervous system

this calms you down and makes you relaxed--

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-stimulates flow of saliva, slows heartbeat, construct bronchi, stimulates release of bile, contracts bladder--

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  • brings you back down to resting state

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Spinal cord- 3 functions

  1. Spinal chord mediates the spinal reflex(when doctor tests your reflex and hits your knee and it moves)-- sensory neuron brings the signal into the spinal chord and triggers 2 different reactions.

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  1. Sends the signal up to the brain (ascending)

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  1. Mediates the descending signal from the brain and tells the muscles what to do

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Brain

Hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain

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  • cerebrum

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  • Cerebral cortex

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  • development repeats evolution

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  • Cerebellum "The little brain"

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Hindbrain

first part of the brain to come along

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  • Reticular formation, medulla, pons and cerebellum

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Reticular formation

part of the brain that has to do with activation and arousal

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  • when you wake up and when you are going to sleep

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Medulla

Keeping your breathing going, keeping your heart going

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Pons

Serves as a message station between several areas of the brain. Relays messages from the cortex and cerebellum

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Cerebellum

movement and balance is the main function of it

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