Exam 4 - PSY 358

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substance use

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130 Terms

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substance use

taking moderate amounts of a substance in a way that doesn't interfere with functioning

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substance dependence

may be defined by tolerance, withdrawal, and mild drug-seeking behavior

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substance intoxication

physical reaction to a substance

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tolerance

needing more of a substance to get the same effect/reduced effects from the same amount

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withdrawal

physical response when substance is discontinued after regular use

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substance use disorder

use of psychoactive substances in a way that is dangerous or causes substantial impairment; wide-ranging psychological, physiological, and behavioral effect -associated with impairment and significant costs

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mild, moderate, severe

what is the continuum scale of SUD?

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physical dependence, risky use, social problems, and impaired control

what are the 4 primary symptom categories of SUD?

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stimulants

increase alertness and elevate mood (e.g. cocaine, nicotine)

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opiates

produce analgesia and euphoria (e.g. heroin, morphine, codeine)

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hallucinogens

alter sensory perception (e.g. marijuana, LSD)

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other drugs of abuse

induce inhalants, anabolic steroids, medications

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activate the dopaminergic pleasure pathway, inhibit GABA, inhibit other neurotransmitters

what are the 3 neurobiological mechanisms that facilitate substance abuse?

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GABA

what usually turns off the reward-pleasure system?

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dopaminergic pleasure pathway

area that becomes active when we receive a reward

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alcohol

second most used psychoactive substance in the world, second only to caffeine

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barbiturates

can be used for sleep and sedation; induce feelings of euphoria and relaxation

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benzos

treat sleep problems, anxiety, muscle spasms; xanax, valium, ativan

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depressants

"downers", or drugs that depress your CNS

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GABA

increase inhibitory effects by making neural cells bad at "firing"

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GABA

what is the specific target of depressants?

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delirium tremens

hallucinations and tremors brought on by withdrawal from severe alcohol use

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alcohol-related dementia (ARD)

alcohol-induced neurocognitive disorder is sometimes called _______.

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Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome

neurocognitive disorder caused by chronic and excessive alcohol use

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Wernicke's encephalopathy

a degenerative brain disorder caused by vitamin B (thiamine) deficiency which often results from chronic heavy alcohol use

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confusion, abnormal stance/gait, abnormal eye movement

what is Wernicke's encephalopathy characterized by?

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Korsakoff syndrome

type of dementia caused by B1 deficiency often resulting from chronic heavy alcohol use; damages nerve cells in spinal cord and brain

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confabulation

a type of memory error in which a person unconsciously fills gaps in their memory with fabricated, misinterpreted, or distorted information; confusing imagined and real memories

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amnesia, tremor, coma, disorientation, vision problems

what are main symptoms of Korsakoff syndrome?

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problems in acquiring new information or establishing new memories/retrieving previous memories

what are the main features of Korsakoff syndrome?

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people take uppers and downers simultaneously thinking the drugs will cancel each other out; they can help limit but it's what causes addiction to cycle of uppers and downers

what are the misconceptions about the way "downers" and "uppers" affect each other?

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sometimes these drugs are used appropriately in the context of treatment but if one is genetically predisposed, doctors overprescribed or poorly monitor use or don’t provide good patient education on the appropriate ways to take the medication, the risk of addiction and misuse increases

what is the significance of treatment circumstances as a risk factor for the abuse of uppers and downers?

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sedatives

calming drug

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hypnotics

sleep-inducing drug

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anxiolytics

anxiety-reducing drug

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relax or relieve tension

what is the most common reason people report misusing depressant substances?

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cognitive enhancement, recreational use, and appetite/weight related purposes

what are the common reasons college students typically use NPS (non-prescription stimulants)?

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produce elation, enhance vigor, and reduce fatigue and depression

what do amphetamines do?

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the drugs stimulate the CNS by enhancing the release of dopamine and norepinephrine then blocking the reuptake; by blocking the reuptake, the levels continue to rise meaning more of these NTs are circulating in the brain, causes the high feeling

describe the neurobiological mechanism of action for stimulants?

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more prevalent in males (2.5%) than females (1.3%); females may be more sensitive to the physiological effects of cocaine use than males but also more protected from the negative effects of cocaine use on the brain than males

what are the sex differences in cocaine use?

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adenosine

an inhibitory neurotransmitter that acts as a CNS depressant

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levels of adenosine in the brain rise each hour you're awake; why you get sleepier the longer you're awake

functions of adenosine in the brain:

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dilates blood vessels to improve circulation to the heart and other organs; decreases heart rate

functions of adenosine in heart:

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increases the breakdown of glycogen to form glucose

functions of adenosine in the liver:

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too much caffeine can increase BP and HR

how does caffeine effect adenosine in the heart?

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when caffeine blocks adenosine, it makes your body use your energy reserves more because you're tired but "running on fumes"

how does caffeine affect adenosine in the liver?

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help be alert or stay awake

what is the most common reason people report misusing stimulants?

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enkephalins and endorphins

what are the 2 chemicals in our bodies that are affected by opioids?

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enkephalin

a peptide released by the CNS with potent painkilling effects; it’s the same chemical that causes “runner's high”

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endorphins

“feel good” hormones that activate the body’s opiate receptors and cause analgesic effects

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in the U.S., largely centered on white Americans, age 25-44

what demographic groups most impacted by opioid crisis?

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relieve physical pain

what is the most common reason people report misusing opioids?

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aggressive marketing of pain medications to physicians, extremely limited access to behavioral/public health services, high poverty rates and low rates of educational attainment and literacy

what various factors contributed to high rates of opioid addiction in the Appalachian region?

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non-white minorities are more likely to be undertreated in medical settings; unconscious biases regarding strength or frailty of a patient based on race;

what factors contributed to the racial disparities in the opioid crisis?

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education, monitoring system, penalties/restrictions on prescribing doctors

what mitigation efforts have helped to address the opioid crisis?

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brief, random flashbacks, consistent changes in vision

what are the characteristics of hallucinogen persisting perception disorder?

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MMDA

it is chemically similar to both stimulants and hallucinogens, producing feelings of increased energy, pleasure, emotional warmth, and distorted sensory and time perception; research unclear on whether it’s addictive

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Nexus (BDMPEA)

hallucinogen that produces euphoria and heightened sensual awareness, including vision, hearing, smell, and touch; the drug can produce profound distortions in the way a person perceives reality; people under the influence of 2C-B see images, hear sounds, and feel sensations that are not real; can also produce sudden and intense emotional swings; effects are unpredictable and can be radically violent; works by disrupting the normal functions of the serotonin system

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Ketamine

a dissociative drug that makes people feel out of control or detached from reality; the hallucinogen causes tolerance and cravings, but reports of ketamine dependence and addiction are rare; it’s one of several drugs referred to as “date rape” drugs

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bath salts (synthetic cathinones)

marketed as cheap substitutes for other stimulants such as amphetamines and cocaine; studies show it affects the brain in a manner similar to cocaine but is at least 10 times more powerful synthetic cathinones can produce effects including: paranoia, hallucinations, increased friendliness, increased sex drive, panic attacks, excited delirium

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"designer drugs"

category of drugs originally produced by pharmaceutical companies to target diseases then others began producing them for recreational use; typical effects include drowsiness, pain relief, and dissociative sensations

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media influence, parental drug use, peer drug use, lack of parental monitoring

what is the role of exposure and access to drugs in the etiology of SUD?

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may influence drug-related behavior

what are the effects of cultural expectations of drug-related behaviors on SUD manifestation?

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positive: initially, drug use may be seeking a euphoric high negative: late,r drug will be seeking escape from withdrawal/crash, to cope with negative affect

what are the roles of positive and negative reinforcement in SUD onset and maintenance?

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differing anxious person from ASPD (antisocial personality disorder)

how do base levels of arousal influence predisposition to and course of SUD?

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social interaction, social communications, and repetitive behaviors

what are the 3 areas of limitations that characterize ASD?

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communication and social interaction

Persistent deficits in social interaction and social communication across multiple contexts, as manifested by all three of the following, currently or by history:​ -Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity​ -Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction ​ -Deficits in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships

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restricted and repetitive behaviors

Restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviors, interests, or activities, as manifested by at least two of the following, currently or by history​: -Stereotyped or repetitive behaviors​ -Insistence on sameness​ -Restricted interests​ -Hyper- or hyposensitivity to sensory stimuli

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social cognition

knowing what to do in certain social situations; understanding social situationss

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social motivation

wanting to make and keep friends; build and maintain social relationships

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social awareness

picking up on social cues

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eye contact, directed facial expressions, gestures, body language, tone of voice

examples of types of nonverbal communication that people with ASD tend to lack.

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scripted speech, idiosyncratic language, echolalia, pronoun reversal, abnormal prosody, difficulty with pragmatics

examples of verbal communication traits in people with autism.

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stereotypical behaviors

complex and repetitive motor mannerisms or movements, such as hand-flapping, toe-walking, posturing, etc. r

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restricted interests

patterns of interest that are unusual in topic and or intensity; preoccupation with parts of objects

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insistence on sameness

difficulties with transitions and changes in routine; insistence that things be a certain way

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sensory integration issues

hyper- or hypo- sensitive to certain sensory stimuli; sensory overload

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trains, numbers, geography, dates, weddings, babies

examples of restricted interests.

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behavioral rigidity, verbal rituals (Can look like OCD but it is compulsive behaviors without the obsessions)

examples of insistence on sameness.

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sensory integration issues

tend to be over-emphasized as a core symptom of autism and include sensory sensitivities and interest

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low- and high-functioning labels do not capture the unique patterns of strengths, weakness, needs, and experiences of people with ASD

what are the benefits of using levels instead of terms like high- and low- functioning?

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repetitive behaviors and social communication deficits

what are the core features of ASD?

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increased access to services, increased awareness, broadening of the spectrum, and political diagnoses

what are reasons for increased prevalence of autism?

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genetics

_____ account for 80% of ASD risk.

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environment

______ accounts for about 20% of ASD risk.

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maternal factos

_______ (health and choices) account for about 1% of ASD risk.

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broader autism phenotype (BAP)

clinical and genetic phenomenon that describes the presence of clinical and subclinical levels of autism traits in first degree family members of individuals with ASD

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parental age of mom and dad, extremely premature birth, infection during pregnancy, closely spaced pregnancies

what are the 4 environmental risk facts for ASD?

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lower levels in individuals with ASD

what is the role of oxytocin in ASD?

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elevated cortisol

what is the role of the amygdala in ASD?

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may "normalize' the functioning of the developing brain

why is early intervention of ASD important?

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antecedent based interventions

what is ABI?

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ABI

intervention used to modify the interfering behaviors and maintain appropriate behaviors by altering the setting or condition that occurs before or during the behavior

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arrange the environment, change schedule or routine, incorporate highly preferred items, offer choices, enrich environment, give pre=activity interventions

what are examples of common ABI strategies?

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visual supports

one of the most commonly used and effective ABIs; they are pictures or other visual items used to communicate with individuals who have difficulty understanding or using spoken language

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those with ASD often comprehend information better when presented visually rather than auditory

why are visual supports are thought to be effective for people with ASD?

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thoughts create feelings --> feelings create behaviors --> behaviors influence thought

what are the tenants of CBT?

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CBT

_____ is not used to treat Autism itself. Rather, it is typically used to treat secondary issues that are related to the experience of those with Autism.

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concrete examples, inclusion of visual supports, incorporation of child specific interests

what are the considerations for adapting CBT for people with autism?

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predominantly inattentive presentation, hyperactive/impulsive presentation, combined presentation

what are the subtypes of ADHD?

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