DEP 5/6

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The average child grows ______ and gains ______ per year during early childhood.


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Social Science


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The average child grows ______ and gains ______ per year during early childhood.

2.5 inches, 5-7 ibs

As you get older weight starts to ______; boys and girls ______ but their bodies gets ______.

decrease, slim down, longer

One of the most important physical development during early childhood is the ______.



The process by which axons are covered and insulted with a layer of fat cells which increases the speed by which information travels through the nervous system

______ habits are important during early childhood. What a child ______ affects their skeletal growth, body shape, and also allows them to avoid diseases.

Eating, eats

______ and ______ are important during childhood.

Exercise, physical activity

Guidelines recommend that children should be active ______ or more minutes over a ______ hour period, equivalent to ______ hours per day.

15, 2, 3

Most children who suffer from malnutrition don't attain the needed ______.

nutrients like iron or vitamins

Poor nutrition affects children mainly from ______ families.


Women Infants and Children Program (WICP)

Assist women in the first 5 years after child birth (over 7,500,000 participants in the US)

______% of children are exposed to tobacco.


Many children in ______ die before reaching the age of ______ from ______, (diarrhea).

impoverished countries, 5, dehydration and malnutrition,

There are a total of ______ deaths daily in the country of India.


In the country of India, ______% of children are underweight.


In the last decade, there has been a dramatic ______ in the number of children who have died from HIV or AIDS that had been transmitted to them from their parents.


Toddlers move rather quickly from producing ______ utterances to ______ phrases together.

2-word, 5 and more

As young children learn the ______ of their own language, there are ______ in how they acquire their particular language.

special features, extensive regularities


The sound system of a language including the sounds used and how they may be combined


Nuance of meaning involved in word formation; children begin using the plural and possessive form of nouns; dogs and dog's


The way words are combine to form a susceptible phrases and sentences


Meaning of words and sentences

Children use speech not only for social communication but also to ______. Young children use language to ______.

help them solve tasks/plan, guide, and monitor their behavior.

Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)

Term for a range of tasks that are too difficult to master alone but can master with guidance.

Teaching Strategies based on Vygotskys

  1. Access the child's ZPD

  2. Use the child's ZPD in teaching; teaching should be given near the zone upper limit so that the child can reach the goal with help and move to a higher level of skill and knowledge

  3. Use more skilled peers as teacher; not just adults that can help children learn, they could benefit from more skilled children

  4. Monitor and encourage children to use private speech; be aware of the developmental change from talking to oneself externally when solving a problem during the preschool year to talking to one-self privately in early elementary school-years

  5. Place instruction in a meaningful context; educators today are moving away from the abstract presentation of material and instead are providing students with the opportunity to experience learning in real-world settings.

Selective Attention

Pay attention to what you want to pay attention to

Executive Attention

Planning actions, allocating to goals, and detecting and compensating for errors, monitoring progress on tasks, dealing with novel or difficult circumstances

Sustained Attention

A vigilance, involves focus and extended engagement with an object, task, event, or another aspect of their environment

______ are the most susceptible age group, most susceptible to believing ______.

Preschoolers, misleading or incorrect information

Some ______ are highly resistant to interviewer suggestions whereas others immediately succumb to the slightest suggestions.


Interviewing techniques can produce ______.

substantial distortion and children's reports about highly salient events

The Self

In contemporary psychology, assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions

Initiative VS Guilt

According to Arison the psychosocial state associated with early childhood is initiative vs Guilt, at this point in development children are now convinced that they are their on person, they also discover the type of person they will

Self Understanding

Self representation, the substance, and context of self conceptions

Understanding Emotions

Amongst the most important stages of child development is understanding emotions

Between the ages of ______ and ______, children increase the amount of terms they use to describe their emotions

2 and 4

Between the ages of ______ and ______, children show increased ability to reflect on their emotions

4 and 5

Regulating Emotions

Researchers consider the growth of emotion regulation in children as fundamental to social competence

Motor Development

Involves the development of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding rules and conventions

Motor Feelings

The feelings of anxiety and guilt are central to the account of moral development provided by Sigman Freud's psychoanalytic theory

According to Sigman Freud, children tend to ______.

reduce anxiety, avoid punishment, and maintain parental affection and identify with their parents by identifying with parents on what is right and wrong

Who are the godfathers of psychology?

William James, Sigman Freud, William Wnte, Skinner


Refers to the characteristics of people as male or female

Gender Identity

The sense of being a male or female which most children acquire by 3 years old

Gender Roles

Sets of expectations that prescribe how females or males should think, act, or feel

Social Role Theory

Theory that gender differences result from the contrast in roles of women and men

Psychoanalytical Theory

Stems from Freud's view that the preschool child develops sexual attachment to the opposite parent by the age of 5 or 6, the attraction comes from anxious feelings

Social Cognitive Theory

Children's gender development occurs through observation or imitation of what others say and do

Mother's Physical Strategies

In many cultures mothers socialize their daughters to be more obedient and responsible than sons, they also place more restrictions on the daughters anatomy

Father's Physical Strategies

Fathers show more attention to sons than daughters, they engage in more physical activity with sons, more effort to promote son intellectual development