The average child grows ______ and gains ______ per year during early childhood.
2.5 inches, 5-7 ibs
As you get older weight starts to ______; boys and girls ______ but their bodies gets ______.
decrease, slim down, longer
One of the most important physical development during early childhood is the ______.
The process by which axons are covered and insulted with a layer of fat cells which increases the speed by which information travels through the nervous system
______ habits are important during early childhood. What a child ______ affects their skeletal growth, body shape, and also allows them to avoid diseases.
______ and ______ are important during childhood.
Exercise, physical activity
Guidelines recommend that children should be active ______ or more minutes over a ______ hour period, equivalent to ______ hours per day.
15, 2, 3
Most children who suffer from malnutrition don't attain the needed ______.
nutrients like iron or vitamins
Poor nutrition affects children mainly from ______ families.
Women Infants and Children Program (WICP)
Assist women in the first 5 years after child birth (over 7,500,000 participants in the US)
______% of children are exposed to tobacco.
Many children in ______ die before reaching the age of ______ from ______, (diarrhea).
impoverished countries, 5, dehydration and malnutrition,
There are a total of ______ deaths daily in the country of India.
In the country of India, ______% of children are underweight.
In the last decade, there has been a dramatic ______ in the number of children who have died from HIV or AIDS that had been transmitted to them from their parents.
Toddlers move rather quickly from producing ______ utterances to ______ phrases together.
2-word, 5 and more
As young children learn the ______ of their own language, there are ______ in how they acquire their particular language.
special features, extensive regularities
The sound system of a language including the sounds used and how they may be combined
Nuance of meaning involved in word formation; children begin using the plural and possessive form of nouns; dogs and dog's
The way words are combine to form a susceptible phrases and sentences
Meaning of words and sentences
Children use speech not only for social communication but also to ______. Young children use language to ______.
help them solve tasks/plan, guide, and monitor their behavior.
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
Term for a range of tasks that are too difficult to master alone but can master with guidance.
Teaching Strategies based on Vygotskys
Access the child's ZPD
Use the child's ZPD in teaching; teaching should be given near the zone upper limit so that the child can reach the goal with help and move to a higher level of skill and knowledge
Use more skilled peers as teacher; not just adults that can help children learn, they could benefit from more skilled children
Monitor and encourage children to use private speech; be aware of the developmental change from talking to oneself externally when solving a problem during the preschool year to talking to one-self privately in early elementary school-years
Place instruction in a meaningful context; educators today are moving away from the abstract presentation of material and instead are providing students with the opportunity to experience learning in real-world settings.
Pay attention to what you want to pay attention to
Planning actions, allocating to goals, and detecting and compensating for errors, monitoring progress on tasks, dealing with novel or difficult circumstances
A vigilance, involves focus and extended engagement with an object, task, event, or another aspect of their environment
______ are the most susceptible age group, most susceptible to believing ______.
Preschoolers, misleading or incorrect information
Some ______ are highly resistant to interviewer suggestions whereas others immediately succumb to the slightest suggestions.
Interviewing techniques can produce ______.
substantial distortion and children's reports about highly salient events
In contemporary psychology, assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions
Initiative VS Guilt
According to Arison the psychosocial state associated with early childhood is initiative vs Guilt, at this point in development children are now convinced that they are their on person, they also discover the type of person they will
Self representation, the substance, and context of self conceptions
Amongst the most important stages of child development is understanding emotions
Between the ages of ______ and ______, children increase the amount of terms they use to describe their emotions
2 and 4
Between the ages of ______ and ______, children show increased ability to reflect on their emotions
4 and 5
Researchers consider the growth of emotion regulation in children as fundamental to social competence
Involves the development of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding rules and conventions
The feelings of anxiety and guilt are central to the account of moral development provided by Sigman Freud's psychoanalytic theory
According to Sigman Freud, children tend to ______.
reduce anxiety, avoid punishment, and maintain parental affection and identify with their parents by identifying with parents on what is right and wrong
Who are the godfathers of psychology?
William James, Sigman Freud, William Wnte, Skinner
Refers to the characteristics of people as male or female
The sense of being a male or female which most children acquire by 3 years old
Sets of expectations that prescribe how females or males should think, act, or feel
Social Role Theory
Theory that gender differences result from the contrast in roles of women and men
Stems from Freud's view that the preschool child develops sexual attachment to the opposite parent by the age of 5 or 6, the attraction comes from anxious feelings
Social Cognitive Theory
Children's gender development occurs through observation or imitation of what others say and do
Mother's Physical Strategies
In many cultures mothers socialize their daughters to be more obedient and responsible than sons, they also place more restrictions on the daughters anatomy
Father's Physical Strategies
Fathers show more attention to sons than daughters, they engage in more physical activity with sons, more effort to promote son intellectual development