Unit 3 Vocabulary Flashcards

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Gerneralist

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109 Terms

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Gerneralist

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Species that does not rely on a single source of prey

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Specialist

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consumer that eats only one type of organism

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K-selected species

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Species that produce a few, often fairly large offspring but invest a great deal of time and energy to ensure that most of those offspring reach reproductive age. a species with a low intrinsic growth rate that causes the population to increase slowly until it reaches carrying capacity

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7

r-selected species

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Species that reproduce early in their life span and produce large numbers of usually small and short-lived offspring in a short period. a species that has a high intrinsic growth rate, which often leads to population overshoots and die-offs

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biotic potential

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10

The maximum rate at which a population could increase under ideal conditions

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Survivorship curve

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12

Graph showing the number of survivors in different age groups for a particular species.

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Type I survivorship curve

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14

a pattern of survival over time in which there is high survival throughout most of the life span, but then individuals start to die in large numbers as they approach old age

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Type II survivorship curve

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a pattern of survival over time in which there is a relatively constant decline in survivorship throughout most of the life span

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Type III survivorship curve

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a pattern of survival over time in which there is low survivorship early in life with few individuals reaching adulthood

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19

Carrying capacit

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Largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support

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Overshoot

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when a population becomes larger than the environment's carrying capacity, results in a die off

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Die-off

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population crash usually experienced after the overshoot of the carrying capacity

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population oscillations

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some populations experience recurring cycles of overshoots and die-offs that lead to a pattern of oscillations around the carrying capacity of their environment.

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When predator and prey populations fluctuate at the same rates

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Population

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A group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area

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Community

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All the different populations that live together in an area

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Population ecology

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the study of factors that cause populations to increase or decrease

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Population size

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the number of individuals in a population

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Population density

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Number of individuals per unit area

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Population distribution

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a description of how individuals are distributed with respect to one another

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Random distribution

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organisms arranged in no particular pattern

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Uniform distribution

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Distribution where populations are spaced evenly

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Clumped distribution

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individuals are found in groups or patches within the habitat

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Management zones

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divisions of populations by natural or human-defined boundaries based on population density

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Population sex ratio

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the ratio of males to females

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Population age structure

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how many individuals fit into age categories. Shown by age structure diagrams

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Density dependent factors

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limiting factor that depends on population size

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Limiting resource

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a resource that a population cannot live without and that occurs in quantities lower than the population would require to increase in size

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Carrying capacity

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Largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support

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Density independent factors

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limiting factor that affects all populations in similar ways, regardless of population size

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Growth rate

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Rate of increase or decrease of a population

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Intrinsic growth rate

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the maximum potential for growth of a population under ideal conditions with unlimited resources

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Exponential growth model (J-shaped curve)

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a mathematical description of idealized, unregulated population growth

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Logistic growth model (S-shaped curve)

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a growth model that describes a population whose growth is initially exponential, but slows as the population approaches the carrying capacity of the environment

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Environmental resistance

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All the limiting factors that act together to limit the growth of a population.

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Age structure diagram

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graph of the numbers of males and females within different age groups of a population

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Population pyramid

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A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.

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Population momentum

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continued population growth that does not slow in response to growth reduction measures

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Family planning

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the practice of regulating the number or spacing of offspring through the use of birth control

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Developed country

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a modern, industrialized country in which people are generally better educated and healthier and live longer than people in developing countries do

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Developing country

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A country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic development. A country that has low industrial production and little modern technology

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Demography

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The scientific study of population characteristics.

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Immigration

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Migration to a new location

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Emmigration

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movement of individuals out of a population

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Crude birth rate

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The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.

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Crude death rate

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The number of deaths per year per 1,000 people.

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Doubling time

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The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.

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Total fertility rate

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The average number of children born to a woman during her childbearing years.

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Replacement level fertility

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the total fertility rate required to offset the average number of deaths in a population in order to maintain the current population size

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Pre-reproductive mortality

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death before a person has children

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Life expectancy

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