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108 Terms

1

sensation

process by we receive information from the environment (5 senses)

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perception

way as brain organizes and interprets sensory input

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3

What are the 2 ways of processing?

1. bottom up

1. top down

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bottom up

(data driven) starts to sensory receptors and works up to higher levels of processing

-how it works: enables our sensory systems to detect lines, angles, and colors that forms waves and forms

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top down

(conceptually driven) constructs perceptions from our own experiences and expectations

-how it works: interprets what our senses detect

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6

selective attention

def: your awareness focus

-5 senses take in 11 million bits of info per second

-we process 40

-mind unconsciously deals with the rest of the info

-"lose track of time"

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cocktail party effect

hear your name being called in a group setting while talking to others

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8

inattentional blindness

"blind" to visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere

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change blindness

failing to notice changes in the environment

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choice blindness

experiment: taste 2 jams, told 2 different ones but in reality you fail to notice that both are the same jam

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11

sensory receptors

all sensations is a result of the stimulation of specialized cells found within each sense organ

ex: eating an apple

-crunch: sound waves

-taste: chemicals in mouth

-smell: airborne chemical molecules

-touch: pressure of the apple in hand

-sight: color (light waves)

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What are the 3 steps to all our sensory systems?

1. receive sensory stimulation

2. transform that stimulation into neural impulses

3. deliver the neural info to our brain

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13

transduction

convert different forms of physical energy (5 senses) into electrical impulses that are transmitted to the brain

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psychophysics

relationship between physical experiences and physical energy

ex: how we perceive different light waves (color)

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threshold

minimum energy required to evoke the sensation

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16

absolute threshold

weakest amount of a stimulus that can be sensed half the time

-why half the time? minimal levels vary from person to person (hearing test)

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signal detection theory

detection of a stimulus depends on both the intensity of the stimulus and the physical and psychological state of the individual

ex: parents can hear whimpers of baby but not other loud sounds in the house

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subliminal perception

stimuli you cannot detect 50% of the time (logos)

-images, odors, sounds

-brain still responds

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19

priming

the activation, usually unconscious of certain associations

-predisposes one's perception, memory, or response

-unnoticed image/word can reach your visual cortex

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difference threshold

the minimal difference that an individual can detect between 2 stimuli

-called JND "just noticeable difference"

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21

weber's law

for an average person to perceive a difference, 2 stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage

-all depends on the initial stimulus

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22

sensory adaptation

a decline in receptor activity when stimuli are unchanging

-ex: bad smells, darkened movie theater, cold water, noise

-What happens without sensory adaptation? stimuli would seem to be bombarding all your senses at the same time

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23

What percent of accidents are due to cell phone use?

28%

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24

Truck drivers are how many times more likely to crash while texting?

23x

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25

The brain decreases how much percent when the driver is talking (cell phone) and not paying attention to driving how many times more of risk for accident?

37% and 4x

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26

How many times more distracted is the driver when there is a passenger?

1.6x

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27

lens

focuses incoming rays into an image, changes shape behind the pupil

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vitreous humor

a clear, colorless fluid that fills the space between the lens and the retina of the eye

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fovea

the central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cone cluster

-helps us detect fine detail

-hotline to the brain (through bipolar cells)

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optic nerve

the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain

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blind spot

the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a " " spot because no receptor cells are located there

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retina

multilayered tissue on the eyeballs sensitive inner surface

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sclera

the white part of the eye, protects layer of eye from containing collagen and elastic fiber

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iris

a colored muscle that dilates/constricts in response to light intensity and even to inner emotions

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cornea

the transparent covering over the eye, barrier between inner eye and outside world

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pupil

a small adjustable opening in the center of the eye thru which light enters

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What is the order of the Light Rays in the eye?

1. cornea

2. pupil (block opening)

3. iris

4. lens (accommodation)

5. Retina (rods/cones)

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38

What do our eyes receive?

light energy and transduce it into neural messages that our brain processes

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39

How many different color variations do we see?

1 million

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40

white

reflects all wave lengths

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black

absorbs all wavelengths and reflects none

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42

What are the 2 physical characteristics of light?

1. wavelength

2. intensity

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wavelength

distance from 1 wave peak to the next determines its HUE (color we experience)

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intensity

amount of energy in light waves (determines by amplitude (height) of light waves)

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the eye

-light enters through cornea (protects eye and bends light)

-passes to pupil, iris, lens (focuses incoming light rays), and retina (area receptor rods and cones)

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rods

detects black, white, and gray, necessary for peripheral vision (120 million)

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cones

color function in day light (6 million)

-both found in retina

-20 minutes to adapt to darkness

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the retina

as light enters retina, goes to the layers of receptor cells (rods and cones)

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49

What are triggers of the eye?

-chemical changes that activates bipolar cells and ganglion cells (form the optic nerve)

-optic nerve carries info brain

-brain distributes the info (thalamus)

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50

What is the order of the visual information processing?

1. retina

2. rods/cones

3. bipolar cells

4. ganglion cells

5. optic nerve

6. brain (occipital lobe)

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51

feature detection

-hubel and wiesel

-specialized neurons in occipital lobe that receive info from individual ganglion cells

-respond to specific features (edges, lines, angles, and movements)

-pass the info to other cortical areas (super cell clusters)

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parallel processing

-doing many things at once

-to analyze a visual scene (divide, motion, form, depth, color)

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53

What are the 2 theories on color?

1. trichromatic theory (Hermann Von Helmholtz)

2. Opponent process theory

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54

Trichromatic Theory

-mid-1800s

-3 types of cones in the retina that are sensitive to red, green, and blue

-color blindness

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55

What are the wave lengths of red, green, and blue?

red= long wavelengths

green= medium wavelengths

blue= short wavelengths

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color blindness

explanation for trichromatic theory

-actually us the red-green color blindness

-lack functioning red green over

-make spotlights same because of this

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opponent process theory

-4 colors

-members of each pair oppose each other

-ex: red stimulated, green inhibited: cannot be stimulated simultaneously

-after image

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4 colors

divided into 2 pairs: red/green, blue/yellow, and black/white

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after image

visual experience that occurs after the original source of stimulation is no longer present

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60

outer ear

-includes the pinna, the auditory canal, and the tympanic membrane, or eardrum

-sound collector

-external auditory canal

-channels the sound waves to the eardrum

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61

middle ear

-the chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing 3 tiny bones that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea's oval window

-separates outer ear from inner ear

-vibrates with the reception of sound

-resembles the skin on a drum

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inner ear

-the inner most part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibular sacs

-sends neural impulses to auditory nerve

-16,000 hair cells

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pinna

-external part of the ear

-collects sound waves and channels them into the ear canal, where the sound is amplified

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ear canal

the narrow, tubelike passage through which sound enters the ear

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cochlea

a coiled, boney, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear; sound waves traveling through the cochlear fluid trigger nerve impulses

-containing fluid and receptors (snail)

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ossicles

-bones of the middle ear

-includes the hammer, anvil, and stirrup

-transmit sounds vibrations to the cochlea (vibrate in response to ear drum)

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ear drum

vibrates from the incoming sound waves and sends these vibrations to 3 tiny bones in the middle ear

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semicircular canal

-inner ear

-regulates balance and sense head position

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Hammer (malleus)

small shaped bone/ossicle of the middle ear

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anvil (incus)

the middle of 3 small bones in the middle ear

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71

stirrup (stapes)

"stapes bone", is one of the 3 bones located in the middle ear, which together makes up the ossicles

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72

What is another name for hearing?

Audition

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Amplitude

determines the loudness in the ear

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length (frequency)

determines the pitch (highness/lowerness)

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75

1st notice loudness

determined by intensity (amplitude)

-measure in decibels

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external auditory canal

leads to tympanic membrane (part that gets waxy)

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77

tympanic membrane

ear drum

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78

What are the 2 ways the hair cells are damaged?

1. sensorineural hearing loss

2. conduction hearing loss

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79

sensorineural hearing loss

nerve deafness

-caused by heredity, aging, and prolonged exposure to ear splitting music

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conduction hearing loss

caused by damage to mechanical system that conducts sound waves to cochlea

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81

What is the cure for nerve deafness?

cochlear implant

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82

cochlear implant

device that converts sounds into electrical signals and stimulates auditory nerve through electrodes

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83

auditory nerve

-allows pressure in the middle ear to be equalized with the atmospheric pressure

-leads to the throat as well

-being on an airplane

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84

vestibule

contains receptors for sense of equilibrium

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85

semicircular canals

fluid-filled, are shaped tubes

-deals with head movement

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86

distinguishing pitch/ basilar membrane

helps us discriminate pitch

-found in the cochlea

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timbre

-complexity of sound determines its timbre

-tonal quality

-voices of different people, instruments, etc

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88

What is the 2 theory?

1. place theory

2. frequency theory

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89

place theory

-different pitches b/c different sound waves trigger activity along basilar membrane

-high frequency

-low frequency

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high frequency

beginning of cochlea

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low frequency

near end of cochlea

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frequency theory

brain reads pitch by monitoring frequency of neural impulses traveling up the auditory nerve

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93

touch

-To come into bodily contact with something​

-Essential to our development​

- a mix of distinct skin senses for pressure, warmth, cold, and pain​

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94

What is pain?

-Your body's way of telling you something has gone wrong​

-Drawing your attention to pain orders you to change your behavior​

-Without the discomfort of pain, effects of unchecked infection and injuries accumulate​

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95

What are the 3 influences of pain?

1. biological

2. social cultural

3. psychological

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96

biological influences of pain

-nociceptors

-Patrick Wall's gate-control theory ​

- spinal cord contains neurological "gate"- blocks or allows pain signals to the brain​

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nociceptors

sensory receptors that detect hurtful temperatures, pressure, or chemicals​

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gate control theory

a mechanism, in the spinal cord, in which pain signals can be sent up to the brain to be processed to accentuate the possible perceived pain, or attenuate it at the spinal cord itself

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social cultural influence pain

-Perception of pain varies with our social situation​

-Tend to experience more pain when others are as well​

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100

psychological influence pain

-playing through the pain"​

-Being distracted of one's pain​

-Seem to edit the pain making them differ from what was experienced​

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