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17th to 19th

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Cell theory,

142 Terms

1

17th to 19th

Notable discoveries of several scientists contributed to the development of the cell theory from the early …… mid century

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Robert Hooke

  • English Philosopher and Architect

  • Examined a thin slice of cork

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  1. Cellula

  2. Small room

“cell” after the latin word 1. ___ , means 2. ___ (Robert Hooke)

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primitive compound microscope

Robert Hooke examined thin slice of cork using his___

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Alive

Robert Hooke did not know that the cells were

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Robert Hooke

who is proponent of “spontaneous generation

theory”?

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Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek

  • Father of microbiology.

  • Invented the simple microscope

  • He observed freshwater protozoans which

    he named “animalcules” and the movement of

    sperm-”spermatozoon”

  • He made a written description of bacteria.

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animalcules

freshwater protozoans named

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spermatozoon

movement of sperm named

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Theodore Schwann and Matthias Schleiden

Founders of the Cell theory

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Theodore Schwann

  • German zoologist

  • reproduced (secret walang clue) observations about

    plants in the tissues of animals and found out that all animal tissues were made of cells

  • “ All living things are made up of cells”

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Matthias Schleiden

  • German botanist

  • Observed tissues of plants

  • noted that all plants are composed of cells in his book

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Francois-Vincent Raspail

First coined the term “Omnis cellula e cellula, “ meaning all cells come from cells

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Omnis cellula e cellula

____ meaning all cells come from cells

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Robert Remak

first German scientist to discover that the origin of cells is by the division of pre-existing cells.

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Rudolf Virchow

theorized that all living cells come from pre-existing living cells. His conclusion arose from observing dividing cells while he was at work.

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  • 1. All living things are composed of one or more cells

  • and cell products.

  • 2. All living cells come from other living cells by the

  • process of cell division.

  • 3. Cell is the basic unit of life

The cell theory states that:

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1590

what year the first microscope is made?

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1665

In what year, Robert Hooke sees first cells in a cork. He describes them as looking like rectangular “rooms”

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1675

In what year, Antonie Van Leeuwonhoek views tiny objects in pond water

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1838

In what year, Matthias Schleiden concludes that all plants are made of cells

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1839

In what year, Theodor Schwann proposes that all animals and therefore all living things are made of cells

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1855

In what year, Rudolf Virchow concludes that all cells are formed from pre existing cells

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prokaryotes or eukaryotes

Cells are classified according to their structure and the presence or absence of a nucleus as either

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  1. Old

  2. Nucleus

In prokaryotic cells

  1. Pro means __

  2. Karyon means__

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3.5 billion

Prokaryotic cells are at least __ years old

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Fermentation

(Prokaryotic cells)

They are still important to us in many aspects they are used in industries for

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  • Glycocalyx

  • Nucleoid

  • Pilus

  • Mesosomes

  • Flagellum

  • Cell wall

  • Fimbriae

  • Inclusion / granutes

  • Ribosomes

  • Cell membrane

  • Endospore

The generalized structure of a Prokaryotic cell consists of the following:

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Glycocalyx

This layer functions as a receptor, the adhesive also provides protection to the cell wall

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Nucleoid

It is the location of the genetic material (DNA), large DNA molecule is condensed into a small packet

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Pilus

Hair-like hollow attachment present on the surface of bacteria, and is used to transfer DNA to other cells during cell-cell adhesion

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Mesosomes

It is the extension of the cell membrane, unfolded into the cytoplasm their role is during cellular respiration

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Flagellum

Helps in movement, attached to the basal body of the cell

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Cell wall

It provides rigidity and support for the cell

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Fimbriae

Helps in attachment to the surface and other bacteria while mating. These are small hair-like structures

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Inclusion / Granules

It helps in the storage of carbohydrates, glycogen, phosphate, and fats in the form of particles which can be used when needed.

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Ribosomes

Tiny particles that help in protein synthesis

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Cell membrane

A thin layer of protein and lipids, surrounds cytoplasm and regulates the flow of materials inside and outside the cells.

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Endospore

It helps cells survive during harsh conditions

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Peptidoglycan

it maintains cell shape, and protects the cell from extreme environmental conditions

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Gram-positive

bacteria with thick cell walls (purple)

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Gram-negative

bacteria with thin cell walls (pink)

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  1. Old

  2. Nucleus

Pro means 1.__

Karyon means 2.__

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  1. New

  2. Nucleus

In eukaryotic cells

  1. Eu means __

  2. Karyon means __

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  • Nucleus

  • Cytoplasm

  • Mitochondria

  • Chloroplast

  • Golgi body

  • Lysosomes

  • Vacuoles

  • Endoplasmic Reticulum

  • Appendages

  • Cell wall

  • Cytoplasmic membrane

  • Ribosomes

  • Cytoskeleton

  • Appandages

  • Mitochondria

The general stuctures of Eukaryotic cells contain:

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Nucleus

Eukaryotic cells have a well-defined ___. where DNA (genetic material) is stored, it helps in the production of protein synthesis and ribosomes. The chromosome is present inside the ___, which is surrounded by the nuclear envelope. It is a bi-lipid layer and controls the passage of ions and molecules.

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Cytoplasm

It is the location where other organelles are located and other metabolic activities of the cell also take place here. 

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Mitochondria

It is called ‘the powerhouse of the cell,

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Chloroplast

These are found in algae and plants; it is one of the most important organelles in the plant which helps in converting energy sunlight into chemical energy through photosynthesis. )

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Golgi body

It consists of a stack of many flattened, disc-shaped sacs known as cisternae. The exact nature of Golgi varies, but it helps in the packaging of materials and in secreting them.

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Lysosomes

The most important function of the Endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus is the synthesis of ___ helps in the digestion of intracellular molecules with the help of the enzyme called hydrolase

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Vacuoles

are the membrane-bound cavities containing fluid as well as solid materials, and they engulf materials through endocytosis. 

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Endoplasmic reticulum

It transports lipids, proteins, and other materials through the cell.

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Appendages

Cilia and Flagella are locomotory attachments, which help in the movement of a cell towards positive stimuli.

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Cell wall

provides shapes, rigidity, and support to the cell.

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Cytoplasmic Membrane

this layer is present below the cell wall whereas in the Animal cell it is the outermost layer.

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Ribosomes

help in protein synthesis

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80S

how many Svedberg unit of ribosomes does Eukaryotes have

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40s and 60s

what are the two divided subuinits of 80s ribosomes

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Cytoskeleton

supporting framework of the cells

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  • Microtubules

  • Microfilaments

Two types of Cytoskeleton

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Microtubules

  • diameter of 24 (nm)

  • largest filament

  • made up of protein called tubulin

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Microfilament

  • diameter of 6 (nm)

  • smallest filament

  • made up of protein called actin

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Eukaryotes

term used in describing the organisms containing eukaryotic cells.

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Prokaryotes

organisms containing prokaryotic cells.

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Plant cell

basic unit of all plants.

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Animal cell

smallest biological unit of life found in animals.

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Nucleus

controls and regulates the activity of the cell

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Animal cell vacuole

They are small and help in removing waste products.

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Plant cell vacuole

It stores water and other materials.

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Golgi body

Packaging center of the cell.

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Ribosomes

make protein for the cells

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Lysosomes

helps break down or digest certain materials inside the cells

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Endoplasmic reticulum

The cell's transport network helps in the production and transport of proteins and lipids.

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Rough endoplasmic reticulum

It contains ribosomes and releases newly made proteins from the cell.

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Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Ribosome-free and functions in the detoxification of lipids.

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Plasma membrane

It keeps the organelles inside and provides protection.

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Mitochondria

It produces energy necessary for the cell's survival and functioning.

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Cytoplasm

It provides a platform upon which other organelles can operate within the cell.

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Centrioles

They are paired organelles found only in animal cells. They are essential in building cilia and flagella and also as spindle fiber during cell division.

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Chloroplast

It uses photosynthesis to turn sunlight into food.

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Cell wall

gives shape and structural suport

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  • Cell wall

  • Chloroplast

Cells than can only found in plant cells

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Centrioles

Cells than can only found in animal cells

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Cell cycle

The life cycle of a cell where it undergoes duplication and growth of cellular content, and division into new daughter cells.

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  • Interphase

  • M-phase

Two major phases in cell cycle stage

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Interphase

Is the longest phase of the cell cycle process. It is also known as the resting phase. This is the phase where a cell prepares itself for cell division.

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  • G1 phase

  • S phase

  • G2 phase

3 sub stages of Interphase

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G1 phase

phase where the cell increases in size, protein synthesis also enables the cell to increase the amount of cytosol.

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S-Phase (Synthesis Phase)

  • It is the longest and the most essential stage of interphase.

  • Is the phase of the cell cycle in which DNA is replicated, the cell synthesizes a complete copy of the DNA in its nucleus.

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G2 phase

is the final stage where the cell prepares itself for the cell division process, and also ensures that the DNA replica completes.

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Cell cycle checkpoint

Verify wheter all the cellular activities are accurately completed at each stage of inter phase.

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G0 Phase

If the cell does not comply with the following factors, the cell cycle will stop and enter the g0 phase called the resting state. Some cells stay in g0 phase permanently, while others proceed to divide if the condition of the cell improves.

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Apoptosis

The process of programmed cell death

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Metaphase

  • Also called Spindle Checkpoint

  • It checks wheter all chromosomes

    are properly attached to the spindle

    fibers and its alignment at the

    metaphase plate.

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  • Prophase

  • Metaphase

  • Anaphase

  • Telophase

4 basic phases of mitosis

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Mitosis

type of cell division in which one cell (the mother) divides to produce two new cells (the daughters) that are genetically identical to itself

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Chromosomes

contain protein and single molecule of DNA

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Prophase

Phases where

  • first stage of mitosis

  • chromosomes condensed and become visible

  • sometimes called pro-metaphase

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Metaphase

Phases where

  • all the chromosomes lined up

  • spindle capture all the chromosomes

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