unit 2 life in colonies

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farming, commerce, handcrafts

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1

farming, commerce, handcrafts

The colonists developed an economy based on _______, _______ (buying and selling goods), and _________

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2

9

_____ out of ten people lived on small family farms

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3

needed

Most farm families raised or made nearly everything they _______.

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4

clear trees

The first and hardest task facing farm families was to ________

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5

basic

The colonists had only ____ tools.

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6

sunrise

Your day on the farm starts before ________

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7

share

Everyone wakes up early to _____ the work

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8

dangerous

Cooking is one of the most _________ jobs on your farm

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9

1

In 1750, ____ colonist out of 20 lived in a city.

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10

heart

The ____ of the city was the waterfront

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11

england

ships brought news from _______ as well as eagerly awaited items such as paint, carpets, furniture, and books

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12

marketplace

Just beyond the docks, a _______ bustled with fishers selling their catch and farmers selling fresh eggs, milk, and cheese.

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13

taverns

close to the marketplace were ________ where food and drink were served

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14

gossip, news

People gathered at taverns to exchange _______ and ____ from other colonies

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15

shops

The nearby streets were lined with _____

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16

jobs

blacksmith’s, shoemakers, clockmakers, silversmiths, tailors, and other craftspeople, barbers, wigmakers

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17

noisy, smelly

Cities were ______, ______ places

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18

church bells

_________ ______ rang out several times a day

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19

cobblestones

Carts clattered loudly over streets paved with round ________________

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20

garbage, sewers

The air was filled with the stench of ________ and open _________, but the colonists were used to it.

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21

animals

__________ ran loose in the street

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22

flies, mosquitoes

During hot weather, clouds of _____ and ____________ swarmed about

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23

close together

City homes were _____ _________ on winding streets.

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24

costly

windows were small, because glass was ______

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25

wood

Most were built of ____ with thatched roofs, like the houses the colonists had left behind in Europe.

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26

torches

For lighting, colonists used ______ made of pine that burned brightly when they were wedged between hearthstones in the fireplace.

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27

betty lamps

Colonists also burned grease in metal containers called _____ _____

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28

candles

made _______ scented with bayberries

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29

english citizens

Colonists in America saw themselves as _______ _________ and expected the same rights that citizens enjoyed in England

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30

voice

The most important of these was the right to have a ______ in their government

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31

magna carta

This agreement established the idea that the power of the monarch, or ruler, was limited. Not even the king was above the law. AKA the "Great Charter"

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32

1215

year of magna carta

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33

parliament

The next major victory was the founding of __________ in 1265.

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34

representatives

Parliament was made up of _____________ from across England.

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35

king, queen

Over time, it became a lawmaking body with the power to approve laws and taxes proposed by the ____ or ______

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36

1685

In _____, James, the Duke of York, became King James II.

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37

share

The king did not want to _____ power with an elected assembly in New York

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38

elected

Nor did he want to share power with an _______ Parliament in England

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39

throne

When he tried to rule without Parliament, James was forced off his ______

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40

glorious revolution

This change in power, which took place without bloodshed, is known as the ______ _________

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41

1689

In _____, Parliament offered the crown to Prince William of Orange and his wife, Mary

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42

english bill of rights

In exchange, they had to agree to an act, or law, known as the ______ ____ __ ______

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43

people

this act said that the power to make laws and impose taxes belonged to the people’s elected representatives in Parliament and to no one else. It also included a bill, or list, of rights that belonged to the _______

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44

petition, trial

Among these were the right to _______ the king (request him to change something) and the right to _____ by jury

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45

choose

The English colonists saw the Glorious Revolution as a victory not only for Parliament, but for their colonial assemblies as well. They wanted to _______ the people who made their laws and set their taxes

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46

similarly

Each colonial assembly passed its own laws defining crimes and punishments. However, most crimes were treated ________ in all the colonies

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47

death

Certain very serious crimes could be punished by _____. These included murder, treason (acts of disloyalty toward the government), and piracy (robbery at sea

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48

bible

The Puritans in New England added other crimes to this list based on their understanding of God’s law in the ______

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49

harsh

Crimes such as theft, forgery, and highway robbery carried _____ punishments in every colony. For these crimes, people might be jailed, whipped, or branded with hot irons.

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50

humiliation

Lesser crimes, such as drunkenness and breaking the Sabbath (working or traveling on Sunday), were punished with fines, short jail terms, or public ___________

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51

holes

The stocks were a heavy wooden frame with _____ for a person’s neck, wrists, and ankles. Lawbreakers were locked for hours in this device in a public place where others could ridicule them

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52

religion

_______ was an important part of colonial life

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53

faith

Most colonists tried to lead good lives based on their _____

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54

several

Children grew up reading the Bible from cover to cover ______ times over.

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55

town meetinghouse

Church services were held in the ______ _____________. This was the most important building in the community and was used for all public meetings

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56

blue

The Puritans wrote their Sunday laws in books with ____ paper bindings. For this reason, these rules came to be known as blue laws. Some blue laws persist to this day. In Connecticut, for example, it is still illegal for stores to sell alcohol on Sundays

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57

satan

The Puritans were constantly on the watch for signs of ______ (believed to be an evil angel who rebelled against God)

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58

witches

Satan was thought to work through ______

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59

Salem

In 1692, fear of witchcraft overtook residents of _____, Massachusetts, when several girls were seen acting strangely in church

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60

24

The girls accused their neighbors of being witches and putting spells on them. _________ accused witches died, 19 were hanged, one was pressed to death, and four died in prison.

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61

untrue

the girls’ accusations were ______.

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62

Great Awakening

Beginning in the 1730s, a religious movement known as the ____ __________ swept through the colonies

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63

spirit

To revive people’s religious ______, preachers traveled from town to town holding outdoor “revival” meetings. There, they delivered fiery sermons to huge crowds. Their words touched the hearts and souls of many colonists

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64

equal

It helped spread the idea that all people are _____ in the eyes of God

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65

ordinary

_______ people could understand God’s will if they had an open heart and a desire to know God’s truth.

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66

american revolution

By encouraging ideas of liberty, equality, and self-reliance, the Great Awakening helped pave the way for the ________ __________

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67

virginia

Slavery in the colonies began in _______, with tobacco planters

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68

every

From there, it spread both north and south. By the early 1700s, enslaved Africans were living in ____ colony

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69

new england, middle

But like most people in the ___ _______ and _______ Colonies, Franklin found that hiring workers when he needed them cost less than owning slaves.

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70

rapidly

In the Southern Colonies, however, slavery expanded ______.

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71

cash crops

From Virginia to Georgia, slaves helped raise tobacco, rice, indigo, and other ____ ______

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72

west africa

Most of the slaves who were brought to the colonies came from ____ ______

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73

atlantic slave trade

Year after year, slave ships filled with cloth, guns, and rum sailed from the colonies to the coast of West Africa. There, these goods were traded for Africans. The ships then returned to the Americas carrying their human cargo

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74

nightmare, profitable

For the Africans packed onto slave ships, the ocean crossing—known as the Middle Passage—was a _________. many Africans died of sickness or despair. Even so, the Atlantic slave trade was very ________.

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75

hard

The slaves’ masters in America demanded that the Africans work ____.

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76

fields

Most enslaved Africans were put to work in the _____ raising crops. Others worked as nurses, carpenters, blacksmiths, drivers, servants, gardeners, and midwives (people who assist women giving birth)

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77

hope, bottom

Unlike other colonists, slaves had little ____ of making a better life. Their position was fixed at the ______ of colonial society.

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78

running away

Some slaves rebelled by refusing to work or _______ ______. But most adapted to their unhappy condition as best they could

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79

education

Except in New England, most children in the colonies received little formal ________

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80

rivers

In the Southern Colonies, most families were spread out along _____. A few neighbors might get together to hire a teacher for their children. Wealthy planters often hired tutors to educate younger children at home. Older children were sent to schools in distant cities, or even England, to complete their education

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81

slowed

In the Middle Colonies, religious differences among Quakers, Catholics, Jews, Baptists, and other religious groups ______ the growth of public education. Each religious group or family had to decide for itself how to educate its children. Some groups built church schools. Others were content to have parents teach their children at home.

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82

required

Only in New England were towns ________ to provide public schools. The Puritans’ support for education was inspired by their religious faith. They wanted their children to be able to read the Bible.To encourage education, Massachusetts passed a law in 1647 that required every town with 50 families or more to hire an instructor to teach their children to read and write. Towns with more than 100 families were required to build a school. Similar laws were passed in other New England colonies.

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83

one room, new england primer

schools were ___ ____ buildings. There was usually one book, the ___ ________ _______, which was used to teach the alphabet, syllables, and prayers.

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84

extended family

In colonial times, however, families might ____________ ________.

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85

married, freedom

Colonial men and women generally _______ in their early to mid-20s. Those who arrived in America as indentured servants were not allowed to marry until they had gained their _______

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86

outnumbered

men ___________ women throughout the colonies

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87

harder

For a young woman, though, life as a wife and mother often proved to be even _______ than life as an indentured servant

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88

large

Colonial families were very _____. Farm families, in particular, needed all the hands they could get to help with chores

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89

died

Married women gave birth many times, but nearly half of all children ____ before they reached adulthood.Adults often died young as well

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90

malaria

Childhood deaths were especially high in the Middle and Southern Colonies, where the deadly disease of ______ raged.

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91

quickly

After the death of a wife or husband, men and women usually remarried ______. Thus, households often swelled with stepchildren as well as adopted orphans (children whose parents had died)

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92

bees and frolics

colonists combined work and play by organizing _____ ___ ________, when people gathered in a big group to build or make something big. There were also many games that children could play and a few games that adults could play

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93

toys, sleds

Colonial children had a few simple ___, such as dolls, marbles, and tops. They played tag, blindman’s bluff, and stoolball, which was related to the English game of cricket (a game like baseball). Children in New England also enjoyed coasting down snowy hills on ____.

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94

navigation acts

Passed in 1650 to regulate trade between England and its colonies, specifically the Triangular Trade.The purpose was to make sure that only England benefited from trade with its colonies (not other European nations, not to the colonies of other European nations) The English colonies could mostly trade with themselves, too

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95

england NA benefits

Specifically cotton and tobacco could ONLY be shipped to England Created jobs for English people who cut and rolled tobacco or spun cotton into cloth Increased the country’s wealth because it sold more goods to other countries than it bought from them. Great American-built ships = STRONG NAVY

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96

colonies NA benefits

Encouraged colonists to build ships for their own use and for sale to England Became excellent shipbuilders Didn’t have to compete with foreign merchants because their goods had a market in England

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97

england NA dis

Difficult to enforce, so many traders did not follow the law Demand for molasses was so high that smuggling became common Customs officials could be bribed into looking the other way

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98

colonies NA dis

Forced them to be dependent on England for any trade Increased prices of goods Fewer opportunities to make the kind of money they were making before the Acts were passed

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99

common

Although each colony developed its own government, they had a lot in ________

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100

rhode island, connecticut

A governor directed the colony’s affairs and enforced laws Usually appointed by the king or the colony’s prepreitor (a company who sponsored the colony) _____ ________ & ___________ elected theirs

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