AP Psychology All Terms (613 terms)

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

empiricism

1 / 612

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

613 Terms

1

empiricism

the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely and observation and experimentation.

New cards
2

structuralism

an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind

New cards
3

functionalism

a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function-how they enable us to adapt, survive and flourish

New cards
4

experimental psychology

the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method

New cards
5

behaviorism

the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).

New cards
6

humanistic psychology

historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and individual's potential for fostering personal growth

New cards
7

cognitive neuroscience

the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)

New cards
8

psychology

The science of behavior and mental processes

New cards
9

nature-nurture issue

the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture

New cards
10

natural selection

the principle that, among the range of inherited variation, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.

New cards
11

levels of analysis

the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon

New cards
12

biopsychological approach

an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis

New cards
13

biological psychology

a branch of psychology that studies the links between biological (including neuroscience and behavior genetics) and psychological processes

New cards
14

evolutionary psychology

the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection

New cards
15

psychodynamic psychology

a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders.

New cards
16

behavioral psychology

the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning.

New cards
17

cognitive psychology

the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.

New cards
18

social-cultural psychology

the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking.

New cards
19

psychometric

the scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits

New cards
20

basic research

pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.

New cards
21

developmental psychology

the scientific study of physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span

New cards
22

educational psychology

The study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning.

New cards
23

personality psychology

the study of individual's characteristics patter of thinking, feeling, and acting.

New cards
24

social psychology

The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.

New cards
25

applied research

scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.

New cards
26

industrial organization (I/O) psychology

the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces.

New cards
27

human factors psychology

the study of how people and machines interact and the design of safe and easily used machines and environments.

New cards
28

counseling psychology

a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being.

New cards
29

clinical psychology

A branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.

New cards
30

psychiatry

a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy.

New cards
31

SQ3R

a study method incorporating five steps: survey, question, read, rehearse, review.

New cards
32

hindsight bias

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon.)

New cards
33

critical thinking

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.

New cards
34

theory

an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.

New cards
35

hypothesis

a testable prediction, often implied by a theory.

New cards
36

operational definition

a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures.

New cards
37

replication

repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.

New cards
38

case study

an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.

New cards
39

survey

a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group.

New cards
40

population

all the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn. (Note: Except for national studies, this does not refer to a country's whole population.)

New cards
41

random sample

a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.

New cards
42

naturalistic observation

observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.

New cards
43

correlation

a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.

New cards
44

correlation coefficient

a statistical index of the relationship between to things (from -1 to +1).

New cards
45

scatterplot

a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slop of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation).

New cards
46

illusory correlation

the perception of a relationship where none exists.

New cards
47

experiment

a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors.

New cards
48

random assignment

assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups.

New cards
49

double-blind procedure

an experiment procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies.

New cards
50

placebo effect

experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.

New cards
51

experimental group

in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.

New cards
52

control group

in an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.

New cards
53

independent variable

the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.

New cards
54

confounding variable

a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment.

New cards
55

dependent variable

the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.

New cards
56

mode

the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution.

New cards
57

mean

the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores.

New cards
58

median

the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it.

New cards
59

range

the difference between the highest and lower scores in a distribution.

New cards
60

standard deviation

a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.

New cards
61

normal curve

a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean (68% fall within one standard deviation of it) and fewer and fewer near the extremes.

New cards
62

statistical significance

a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.

New cards
63

culture

the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted form one generation to the next.

New cards
64

informed consent

an ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate.

New cards
65

debriefing

the postexperimental explanation for a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants.

New cards
66

biological psychology

a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior.

New cards
67

neuron

a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system.

New cards
68

sensory neurons

neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord.

New cards
69

motor neurons

neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands.

New cards
70

interneurons

neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between sensory inputs and motor outputs.

New cards
71

dendrite

the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body.

New cards
72

axon

the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fivers through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands.

New cards
73

myelin sheath

a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fivers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the pulse hops from one node to the next.

New cards
74

action potential

a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon.

New cards
75

threshold

the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.

New cards
76

synapse

the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at the junction is called the synaptic gap or synaptic cleft.

New cards
77

neurotransmitters

chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to the receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.

New cards
78

reuptake

a neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron.

New cards
79

endorphins

"morphine within" - natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.

New cards
80

nervous system

the body's speedy electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems.

New cards
81

central nervous system (CNS)

the brain and spinal cord.

New cards
82

peripheral nervous system (PNS)

the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body.

New cards
83

nerves

bundled axons that form neural cables connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense of organs.

New cards
84

somatic nervous system

the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body'd skeletal muscles. Also called the skeletal nervous system.

New cards
85

autonomic nervous system

the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.

New cards
86

sympathetic nervous system

the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.

New cards
87

parasympathetic nervous system

the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy.

New cards
88

reflex

a simple automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response.

New cards
89

endocrine system

the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the blood stream.

New cards
90

hormones

chemical messengers that are manufactured buy the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues.

New cards
91

adrenal glands

a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress.

New cards
92

pituitary gland

the endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.

New cards
93

lesion

tissue destruction; a brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue.

New cards
94

electroencephalogram

an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.

New cards
95

CT (computed tomography) scan

a series of X-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body. Also called CAT scan.

New cards
96

PET (positron emission tomography) scan

a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task.

New cards
97

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue. Shows brain anatomy.

New cards
98

fMRI (functional MRI)

a technique for revealing bloodflow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. Shows brain function.

New cards
99

brainstem

the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; is responsible for automatic survival functions.

New cards
100

medulla

the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing.

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 21 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 97 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(4)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6960 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(50)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard190 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard79 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard67 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard60 terms
studied byStudied by 29 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard123 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)