Biology Year 1

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abiotic factors

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369 Terms

1

abiotic factors

non-living conditions in a habitat.

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2

activation energy

the energy required to initiate a reaction.

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3

active site

area of an enzyme with a shape complementary to a specific substrate, allowing the enzyme to bind a substrate with specificity.

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4

active transport

movement of particles across a plasma membrane against a concentration gradient. Energy is required.

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5

adenosine diphosphate (ADP)

a nucleotide composed of a nitrogenous base (adenine), a pentose sugar and two phosphate groups. Formed by the hydrolysis of ATP, releasing a phosphate ion and energy.

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6

adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

a nucleotide composed of a nitrogenous base (adenine), a pentose sugar and three phosphate groups. The universal energy currency for cells.

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7

agglutinins

chemicals (antibodies) that cause pathogens to clump together so they are easier for phagocytes to engulf and digest.

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8

alleles

different versions of the same gene.

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9

amino acids

monomer used to build polypeptides and thus proteins.

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10

anabolism (anabolic)

reactions of metabolism that construct molecules from smaller units. These reactions require energy from the hydrolysis of ATP.

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11

analogous structures

structures that have adapted to perform the same function but have a different origin.

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12

anaphase

third stage of mitosis when chromatids are separated to opposite poles of the cell.

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13

antibiotic-resistant bacteria

bacteria that undergo mutation to become resistant to an antibiotic and then survive to increase in number.

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14

antibiotics

a chemical or compound that kills or inhibits the growth of bacteria.

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15

antibodies

Y-shaped glycoproteins made by B cells of the immune system in response to the presence of an antigen.

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16

antigen

identifying chemical on the surface of a cell that triggers an immune response.

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17

antigen−antibody complex

the complex formed when an antibody binds to an antigen.

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18

antigen-presenting cell (APC)

a cell that displays foreign antigens complexed with major histocompatibility complexes on their surfaces.

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19

antisense strand

the strand of DNA that runs 3' to 5' and is complementary to the sense strand. It acts as a template strand during transcription.

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20

anti-toxins

chemicals (antibodies) that bind to toxins produced by pathogens so they no longer have an effect.

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21

apoplast

the cell walls and intercellular spaces of plant cells.

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22

apoplast route

movement of substances through the cell walls and cell spaces by diffusion and into cytoplasm by active transport.

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23

arrhythmia

an abnormal rhythm of the heart.

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24

artefacts

objects or structures seen through a microscope that have been created during the processing of the specimen.

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25

artificial active immunity

immunity which results from exposure to a safe form of a pathogen, for example, by vaccination.

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26

artificial passive immunity

immunity which results from the administration of antibodies from another animal against a dangerous pathogen.

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27

asexual reproduction

the production of genetically identical offspring from a single parent.

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28

assimilates

the products of photosynthesis that are transported around a plant, e.g., sucrose.

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29

atrial fibrillation

an abnormal rhythm of the heart when the atria beat very fast and incompletely.

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30

atrio-ventricular node (AVN)

stimulates the ventricles to contract after imposing a slight delay to ensure atrial contraction is complete.

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31

autoimmune disease

a condition or illness resulting from an autoimmune response.

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32

autoimmune response

response when the immune system acts against its own cells and destroys healthy tissue in the body.

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33

autotrophic

organisms that acquire nutrients by photosynthesis.

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34

B effector cells

B lymphocytes that divide to form plasma cell clones.

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35

B lymphocytes (B cells)

lymphocytes which mature in the bone marrow and that are involved in the production of antibodies.

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36

B memory cells

B lymphocytes that live a long time and provide immunological memory of the antibody needed against a specific antigen.

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37

belt transect

two parallel lines are marked along the ground and samples are taken of the area at specified points.

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38

Benedict's reagent

an alkaline solution of copper(II)sulfate used in the chemical tests for reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars. A brick-red precipitate indicates a positive result.

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39

beta pleated sheet

sheet-like secondary structure of proteins.

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40

binomial nomenclature

the scientific naming of a species with a Latin name made of two parts − the first indicating the genus and the second the species.

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41

biodiversity

the variety of living organisms present in an area.

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42

biuret test

the chemical test for proteins; peptide bonds form violet coloured complexes with copper ions in alkaline solutions.

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43

Bohr effect

the effect of carbon dioxide concentration on the uptake and release of oxygen by haemoglobin.

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44

bradycardia

a slow heart rhythm of below 60 beats per minute.

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45

breathing rate

the number of breaths (inhalation and exhalation) taken per minute.

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46

bulk transport

a form of active transport where large molecules or whole bacterial cells are moved into or out of a cell by endocytosis or exocytosis.

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47

bundle of his

conducting tissue composed of purkyne fibres that passes through the septum of the heart

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48

callose

a polysaccharide containing β 1-3 linkages and β 1-6 linkages between the glucose monomers that is important in the plant response to infection.

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49

carbaminohaemoglobin

the compound formed when carbon dioxide combines with haemoglobin.

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50

carbohydrates

organic polymers composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio Cx(H2O)y. Also known as saccharides or sugars.

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51

carbonic anhydrase

enzyme which catalyses the reversible reaction between carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid.

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52

cardiac cycle

the events of a single heartbeat, composed of diastole and systole.

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53

carrier proteins

membrane proteins that play a part in the transport of substances through a membrane.

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54

cartilage

strong, flexible connective tissue found in many areas of the bodies of humans and other animals.

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55

catabolism (catabolic)

reactions of metabolism that break molecules down into smaller units. These reactions release energy.

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56

catalase

an enzyme that catalyses the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide.

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57

cell cycle

the highly ordered sequence of events that takes place in a cell, resulting in division of the nucleus and the formation of two genetically identical daughter cells.

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58

cell signalling

a complex system of intercellular communication.

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59

cellulose

a polysacchardie formed from beta glucose molecules where alternate beta glucose molecules are turned upside down. It is unable to coil or form branches but makes hydrogen bonds with other cellulose molecules to produce strong and insoluble fibres. Major component of plant cell walls.

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60

cell wall

a strong but flexible layer that surrounds some cell-types.

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61

centrioles

component of the cytoskeleton of most eukaryotic cells, composed of microtubules.

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62

centromere

region at which two chromatids are held together.

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63

channel proteins

membrane proteins that provide a hydrophilic channel through a membrane.

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64

checkpoints

control mechanisms of the cell cycle.

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65

chiasmata

sections of DNA, which became entangled during crossing over, break and rejoin during anaphase 1 of meiosis sometimes resulting in an exchange of DNA between bivalent chromosomes, forming recombinant chromatids and providing genetic variation.

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66

chloride shift

the movement of chloride ions into the red blood cells as hydrogen ions move out to maintain the electrochemical equilibrium.

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67

chloroplasts

organelles that are responsible for photosynthesis in plant cells. Contain chlorophyll pigments, which are the site of the light reactions of photosynthesis.

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68

chromatids

two identical copies of DNA (a chromosome) held together at a centromere.

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69

chromatin

uncondensed DNA in a complex with histones.

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70

chromosomes

structures of condensed and coiled DNA in the form of chromatin. Chromosomes become visible under the light microscope when cells are preparing to divide.

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71

circulatory system

the transport system of an animal.

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72

clonal expansion

the mass proliferation of antibody-producing cells by clonal selection.

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73

clonal selection

the theory that exposure to a specific antigen selectively stimulates the proliferation of the cell with the appropriate antibody to form numerous clones of these specific antibody-forming cells (clonal expansion).

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74

closed circulatory system

a circulatory system where the blood is enclosed in blood vessels and does not come into direct contact with the cells of the body beyond the blood vessels.

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75

Clostridium difficile (C. difficile)

a species of Gram positive bacteria that is resistant to most antibiotics.

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76

codon

a three-base sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for an amino acid.

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77

cofactors

non-protein components necessary for the effective functioning of an enzyme.

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78

cohesion-tension theory

the best current model explaining the movement of water through a plant during transpiration.

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79

communicable diseases

diseases that can be passed from one organism to another, of the same or different species.

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80

community

all the populations of living organisms in a particular habitat.

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81

companion cells

the active cells found next to sieve tube elements that supply the phloem vessels with all of their metabolic needs.

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82

competitive inhibitor

an inhibitor that competes with substrate to bind to active site on an enzyme.

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83

complementary base pairing

specific hydrogen bonding between nucleic acid bases. Adenine (A) binds to thymine (T) or uracil (U) and cytosine (C) binds to guanine (G).

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84

compound light microscope

a light microscope which uses two lenses to magnify an object; the objective lens, which is placed near to the specimen and an eyepiece lens, through which the specimen is viewed.

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85

condensation reaction

a reaction between two molecules resulting in the formation of a larger molecule and the release of a water molecule. The opposite reaction to a hydrolysis reaction.

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86

continuous variation

a characteristic that can take any value within a range, e.g. height.

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87

contrast

staining or treating specific cell components so they are visible compared to untreated components.

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88

convergent evolution

organisms evolve similarities because the organisms adapt to similar environments or other selection pressures.

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89

correlation coefficient

statistical test used to consider the relationship between two sets of data.

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90

countercurrent exchange system

a system for exchanging materials or heat when the two different components flow in opposite directions past each other.

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91

counterstain

application of second stain with a contrasting colour to sample for microscopy.

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92

crossing over

the exchange of genetic material between non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes during meiosis, which results in new allelic combinations in the daughter cells.

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93

cytokines

cell-signalling molecules produced by mast cells in damaged tissues that attract phagocytes to the site of infection or inflammation.

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94

cytokinesis

cell division stage in the mitotic phase of the cell cycle that results in the production of two identical daughter cells.

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95

cytolysis

the bursting of an animal cell caused by increasing hydrostatic pressure as water enters by osmosis.

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96

cytoplasm

internal fluid of cells, composed of cytosol (water, salts and organic molecules), organelles and cytoskeleton.

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97

cytoskeleton

a network of fibres in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell.

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98

denatured (denaturation)

change in tertiary structure of a protein or enzyme, resulting in loss of normal function.

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99

deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

the molecule responsible for the storage of genetic information.

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100

diastole

the stage of the cardiac cycle in which the heart relaxes and the atria and then the ventricles fill with blood.

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