Exam 1

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every time you yawn, brain region X is active. brains region x activity is ____ yawning.

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136 Terms

1

every time you yawn, brain region X is active. brains region x activity is ____ yawning.

correlated with

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2

you always yawn when I stimulate region Z. brain region z's activity can be ____ yawning.

sufficient for

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3

T or F people can still yawn after they experience damage to brain region X, therefore, you can conclude that brain region X has no relationship with yawning.

false

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4

T or F when people yawn, brain region X is not active, therefore, you can conclude that stimulating brain region X is not sufficient for yawning.

False

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5

the information processing paradigm describes research in which_______

hypotheses about the human mind were created based on computer software.

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6

people with damage in the brain region Y can't tell the difference between bread and rice. this region is ______ the perception of bread.

necessary for

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7

stimulating brain region Z, makes people start making bread. this region's activity is _______ making bread.

sufficient for

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8

an Alzheimer's drug failed to prevent cognitive decline, what did the U.S. FDA do?

conditionally approve the drug based on its ability to reduce a biomarker of cognitive decline.

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9

T/F most psychiatric medications were theoretically developed based on correlational data comparing people with and without a mental disorder

False

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10

in a study on people with schizophrenias, I observed brain activity X while people were hallucinating. what would be a reverse inference?

when brain activity X is later observed, infer that a person is hallucinating

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11

biofeedback

displaying real-time biological measures to help people consciously control that biology

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12

T or F modern brain stimulation technologies were designed so that they math brain measurement technologies at the cellular level

false

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13

pharmacogenomic: using ____ data to make predictions about who will respond to which ______

genetic, drugs

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14

reverse Inference

using biological measures to make inferences about a person's mental state.

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15

closed loop brain stimulation

using biological measures to determine when to stimulate the brain

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16

neurofeedback

displaying real-time biological measures to help people consciously control that biology

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17

The "replication crisis" refers to which of the following

when scientists do replicate each other's work, they often observe different things.

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18

scientists are less likely to conduct a replication study than original research.

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19

correlation coefficient

describes the consistency in the relationship between two variables

New cards
20

Andre, a wise and powerful man, wants to know if scrolling on social media before bed impacts people's sleep. So, Andre found some people who scroll social media before bed, and some who don't, and asked them how much they sleep. Incidentally, Andre discovered that people who scroll social media before sleep also happen to be depressed (with barren, empty souls). How could Andre improve his research design to rule out the potential confound of depression?

randomly distribute subjects to experimental and control conditions

New cards
21

Lisa, a competent middle-aged housewife, wants to know if scrolling social media activates a brain region called the hippocampus. So, she randomly distributed people into two conditions: A) scroll social media, or B) don't scroll social media. Incidentally, she discovered that the group who scrolled social media was 80% male compared to the group that didn't, which was only 30% male. Now, Lisa is worried that the group differences in brain activity were actually more reflective of gender than whether people scrolled social media. How could she improve her research design to rule out the confound of gender?

collect data on more subjects

New cards
22

t-test

evaluates whether there is a difference in group means

New cards
23

Which of the following arguments is not commonly used to support the validity of animal models of human psychology:

all mammals share >90% of their DNA, therefore, their psychology is likely similar

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24

when comparing group means, P-values are influenced by all of the following except:

replicability of the effect

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25

when comparing group means, confidence intervals are influenced by all of the following except:

replicability of the effect

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26

which of the following characterizes the scientific problems related to the replication crisis?

many studies are never replicated.

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27

many times, the result from a replication study do not agree with the original study.

New cards
28

open science practices include each of the following

preregistering a study before collecting and presenting data

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29

publishing all data in a paper

New cards
30

proteins

carry out many cellular processes including regulating gene expression and producing neurotransmitter

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31

are made of a sting of amino acids

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32

DNA

is made of a string of four nucleic acids: A,C,T,G.

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33

is used to create RNA in a process called transcription

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34

I created a genetic construct that includes 1) a fluorescent gene, next to 2) a promoter that is exclusively active in dopaminergic neurons, which neurons will fluoresce?

dopaminergic neurons

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35

genomics is the study of ______ ______

all DNA

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36

T or F gene expression is influenced by external stimuli like neuronal activity

True

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37

transcriptomics is the study of

all RNA

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38

A genetic construct is made in which a gene for a fluorescent protein is attached to a cell-type specific promoter for neurons that produce the neurotransmitter dopamine. In which neurons will you observe fluorescence?

all neurons producing dopamine.

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39

transcription: a protein called a ______ binds to a DNA sequence called a __________. This triggers the creation of _______

transcription factor: promoter: RNA from s DNA template

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40

the presynaptic terminal is located on the _________

axon

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41

The term _____ describes inputting connections to a brain region, ________ describes outputting connections from a brain region.

afferent: efferent

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42

A genetic construct is made in which a gene for a fluorescent protein is attached to an anterograde virus. That virus is injected into a region called the amygdala, and a camera is positioned in a region called the prefrontal cortex. Which of the following neurons fluorescent?

neurons in the prefrontal cortex that receives azonal projections from the amygdala.

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43

where are ligand-gated Na channels?

postsynaptic terminal

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44

once an action potential begins in the , it continues all the way to the end of the neuron, because_

axon : voltage- gated ion channels

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45

where are voltage-gate Na channels?

Axon

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46

this protein is an ion channel that opens when it's bound to a neurotransmitter.

ionotropic receptor

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47

blocking a post-synaptic chloride (cl-) channel ________

prevents inhibitory post-synaptic potentials.

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48

activating a postsynaptic sodium (Na+) channel has what effect on voltage?

causes EPSPs

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49

what role does sodium play in electrochemical signaling?

with a charge of +1, sodium induces an EPSP on the postsynaptic terminal.

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50

what determines whether a neuron will experience an action potential

an action potential is only triggered when a multiple synapses are simultaneously active.

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51

T/F- metabotropic receptors do not impact voltage at all

false, they do, just indirectly

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52

neurotransmitters: neuropeptides: hormones

bind to receptors on the cell membrane: Bind to receptors inside the nucleus: Bind to receptors on the cell membrane

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53

long-term potentiation

increasing the strength of a synapse

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54

trophic factors _________ partly mediated by _____________

promote plasticity: promoting gene expression

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55

detects blood oxygenation as an indication of neuronal activity

FMRI

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56

which of the following imposes less behavioral constraints

EEG

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57

technology X records single neurons, technology Y records an area that contains- 10,000 neurons. technology X has better __________

spatial resolution

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58

is the technology used: invasively record single neurons in the human brain

yes- Depth electrodes

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59

optogenetics: _____ neuronal activity with a _________

stimulating: light-gated ion channels

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60

The protein used in calcium imaging has which two properties:

Sensor - binds calcium & Reporter - emits light.

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61

Channelrhodopsin: _____-gated ________

light: ion channels

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62

this technology places two electrodes on the scalp, and runs a current between them in order to generate an electric field:

transcranial electric stimulation

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63

Which of the following technologies can distinguish between neurons with distinct connectivity profiles?

optogenetics

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64

Which of the following non-invasive human technologies directly measures electrical properties of the brain and has excellent temporal resolution (but poor spatial resolution)?

EEG

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65

does the technology exist: non-invasively record the activity of single neurons in the brain

no

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66

does the technology exist: non-invasively distinguish between neurons with distinct connectivity profiles?

no

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67

Does the technology exist: in humans, invasively record the activity of single neurons?

yes

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68

does the technology exist: invasively, in humans, distinguish between neurons with distinct connectivity profiles?

no

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69

every time you yawn, brain region X is active. brains region x activity is ____ yawning.

correlated with

New cards
70

you always yawn when I stimulate region Z. brain region z's activity can be ____ yawning.

sufficient for

New cards
71

T or F people can still yawn after they experience damage to brain region X, therefore, you can conclude that brain region X has no relationship with yawning.

false

New cards
72

T or F when people yawn, brain region X is not active, therefore, you can conclude that stimulating brain region X is not sufficient for yawning.

False

New cards
73

the information processing paradigm describes research in which_______

hypotheses about the human mind were created based on computer software.

New cards
74

people with damage in the brain region Y can't tell the difference between bread and rice. this region is ______ the perception of bread.

necessary for

New cards
75

stimulating brain region Z, makes people start making bread. this region's activity is _______ making bread.

sufficient for

New cards
76

an Alzheimer's drug failed to prevent cognitive decline, what did the U.S. FDA do?

conditionally approve the drug based on its ability to reduce a biomarker of cognitive decline.

New cards
77

T/F most psychiatric medications were theoretically developed based on correlational data comparing people with and without a mental disorder

False

New cards
78

in a study on people with schizophrenias, I observed brain activity X while people were hallucinating. what would be a reverse inference?

when brain activity X is later observed, infer that a person is hallucinating

New cards
79

biofeedback

displaying real-time biological measures to help people consciously control that biology

New cards
80

T or F modern brain stimulation technologies were designed so that they math brain measurement technologies at the cellular level

false

New cards
81

pharmacogenomic: using ____ data to make predictions about who will respond to which ______

genetic, drugs

New cards
82

reverse Inference

using biological measures to make inferences about a person's mental state.

New cards
83

closed loop brain stimulation

using biological measures to determine when to stimulate the brain

New cards
84

neurofeedback

displaying real-time biological measures to help people consciously control that biology

New cards
85

The "replication crisis" refers to which of the following

when scientists do replicate each other's work, they often observe different things.

New cards
86

scientists are less likely to conduct a replication study than original research.

New cards
87

correlation coefficient

describes the consistency in the relationship between two variables

New cards
88

Andre, a wise and powerful man, wants to know if scrolling on social media before bed impacts people's sleep. So, Andre found some people who scroll social media before bed, and some who don't, and asked them how much they sleep. Incidentally, Andre discovered that people who scroll social media before sleep also happen to be depressed (with barren, empty souls). How could Andre improve his research design to rule out the potential confound of depression?

randomly distribute subjects to experimental and control conditions

New cards
89

Lisa, a competent middle-aged housewife, wants to know if scrolling social media activates a brain region called the hippocampus. So, she randomly distributed people into two conditions: A) scroll social media, or B) don't scroll social media. Incidentally, she discovered that the group who scrolled social media was 80% male compared to the group that didn't, which was only 30% male. Now, Lisa is worried that the group differences in brain activity were actually more reflective of gender than whether people scrolled social media. How could she improve her research design to rule out the confound of gender?

collect data on more subjects

New cards
90

t-test

evaluates whether there is a difference in group means

New cards
91

Which of the following arguments is not commonly used to support the validity of animal models of human psychology:

all mammals share >90% of their DNA, therefore, their psychology is likely similar

New cards
92

when comparing group means, P-values are influenced by all of the following except:

replicability of the effect

New cards
93

when comparing group means, confidence intervals are influenced by all of the following except:

replicability of the effect

New cards
94

which of the following characterizes the scientific problems related to the replication crisis?

many studies are never replicated.

New cards
95

many times, the result from a replication study do not agree with the original study.

New cards
96

open science practices include each of the following

preregistering a study before collecting and presenting data

New cards
97

publishing all data in a paper

New cards
98

proteins

carry out many cellular processes including regulating gene expression and producing neurotransmitter

New cards
99

are made of a sting of amino acids

New cards
100

DNA

is made of a string of four nucleic acids: A,C,T,G.

New cards

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