aqa gcse chemistry paper 1 (triple)

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What is the mass of an electron?

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252 Terms

1

What is the mass of an electron?

0

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2

what charge does an atom have?

no charge

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3

What is an element?

a Substance that contains only ONE type of atom.

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4

What are isotopes?

atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons

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5

How is a compound formed?

when two or more elements combine chemically

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6

what does a compound that is formed from a metal and non-metal consist of?

ions

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7

what do metal atoms lose to form positive ions?

electrons

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8

what do non-metals gain to form negative ions?

electrons

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9

what does a compound formed from non-metals consist of?

molecules

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10

examples of alkalines

potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide

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11

examples of acids

sulfur acid, hydraulic acid

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12

OH=

alkaline

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13

H=

acid

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14

Tiration

A process of controlled acid-base neutralization, carried out in burets.

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15

what happens to a strong acid in an aqueous solution?

it completely dissociates

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16

what happens to a weak acid in an aqueous solution?

it partially ionizes

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17

examples of weak acids

ethanoic, citric, carbonic

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18

what is the nucleus surrounded by?

electrons

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19

what are never created or destroyed during a chemical reaction?

atoms

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20

the total mass of reactants =

total mass of products

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21

how can mixtures be separated?

by physical means, such as filtration, crystallization and simple distillation

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22

who created the key ideas successively about atoms?

dalton thomson, rutherford and bohr

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23

what experiment did Rutherford do?

gold foil

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24

what is the gold foil experiment?

directed narrow beam of alpha particles at a thin sheet of gold foil

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25

what did Neils Bohr discover?

electrons can reside only on energy levels called orbitals or shells

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26

what did dalton do?

created the atomic theory

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27

how many electrons can the first shell hold?

2 electrons

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28

how many electrons can the second shell hold?

8 electrons

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29

what does the number of electrons in the outermost shell determine?

the way in which that element reacts

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30

what does the group number tell you?

how many electrons are in the outer shell

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31

what do the atoms of metals tend to lose

electrons

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32

what do atoms of non-metals tend to gain

electrons

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33

why are the nobel gases in group 0 unreactive?

because they have a very stable electron arrangement

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34

what is the pattern in group 1's melting and boiling point?

they decrease going down the group

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35

what is the pattern in group 1's reactivity?

it increases going down the group

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36

what do all group 1 metals react with water to produce?

hydrogen

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37

what ions do group 1 metals form?

+1 ions

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38

what is the pattern of reactivity in group 1 atoms?

the reactivity increase going down the group

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39

what do all the group 7 elements form?

ions with a single negative charge

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40

what type of bonds do group 7 elements form?

covalent bonds

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41

what can more reactive halogens do?

displace a less reactive halogen

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42

what is the pattern in terms of reactivity in group 7?

it decrease going down the group

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43

what is the pattern in terms of melting and boiling point in group 7?

it increases as you go down the group

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44

what group do the elements in group 1 react with?

group 7

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45

what are the three type of chemical bonds?

ionic, covalent, metallic

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46

what type of particles are used in ionic bonding?

particles that have oppositely charged ions

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47

what type of particles are used in covalent bonding?

atoms which share pairs of electrons

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48

what type of particles are used in metallic bonding?

atoms which share delocalized electrons

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49

what are delocalised electrons?

electrons that are shared between more than two atoms

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50

what type of compound does ionic bonding occur in?

compounds formed from metals combined with non-metals

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51

what type of elements and compound does covalent bonding occur in?

in most non-metallic elements and in compounds of non-metals

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52

what type of elements and alloys does metallic bonding occur in?

metallic elements and alloys

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53

in ionic bonding what happens to the metal atoms electrons?

they are lost to become positively charged ions

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54

in ionic bonding what happens to the non-metal atoms in terms of electrons?

they gain electrons to become negatively charged ions

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55

what type of electronic structure do ions produced in groups 1,2,6 + 7 have?

the same electronic structure of noble gases

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56

what is an ionic compound?

a giant structure of ions

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57

what are ionic compounds held together by?

strong electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions

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58

what is a lattice?

regular structure of particles

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59

what kind of melting + boiling points do ionic compounds have?

high

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60

why do ionic compounds have a high melting and boiling points?

because of the large amounts of energy needed to break the many strong bonds

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61

what happens when ionic compounds are melted or dissolved in water?

they conduct electricity because the ions are free to move and so charge can flow

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62

when are covalent bonds formed?

when atoms share pairs electrons

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63

what type of bonds does covalent bonding make?

strong bonds

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64

what do metals consist of?

giant structures of atoms arranged in a regular pattern

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65

are electrons in the outer shell of metal atoms localized or delocalised?

delocalised

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66

because electrons in the outer shell of metal atoms are delocalised what are they free to do?

move through the whole structure

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67

what are the substances that usually consist of small molecules?

gases or liquids with relatively low melting and boiling points

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68

what type of intermolecular forces do substances that consist of small molecules have?

weak

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69

what do intermolecular forces increase with?

the size of the molecules

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70

can small molecule substances conduct electricity?

no as the molecules do not have an overall electric charge

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71

what type of molecules do polymers have?

large molecules

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72

what are the atoms in polymer molecules linked by?

strong covalent bonds

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73

what type of melting point do substances that consist of giant covalent structures have?

very high melting points

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74

how are atoms in pure metals arranged?

in layers which allows metals to be bendy and shaped

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75

why are metals good conductors of electricity?

they have delocalised electrons that carry electrical charge through the metal

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76

why are metals good conductors or thermal energy?

because energy is transferred by the delocalised electrons

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77

what charge do simple molecules have?

no charge,so they cannot carry electrical charge

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78

what are the forces between simple molecules like?

weak

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79

what do substances made up of simple molecules have in terms of melting and boiling points?

low melting and boiling points

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80

what can graphite do?

they can slide over eachother making graphite soft and slippery

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81

what do carbon atoms in a diamond have?

a rigid giant covalent structure

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82

what does each carbon atom in a diamond form?

four covalent bonds

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83

what are the features of diamond?

very hard, very high melting point and doesn't conduct electricity

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84

what does each carbon atom in graphite form?

three covalent bonds with other carbon atoms

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85

what do the covalent bonds with other carbon atoms in graphite form?

layers of hexagonal rings which have have no covalent bonds between the layers

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86

what can graphite not conduct and why?

electricity and thermal energy because of the delocalised electrons

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87

what is fullerenes?

molecules of carbon shaped as hollow balls

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88

what is graphene?

a single layer of graphite

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89

what are carbon nanotubes?

cylindrical fullerenes with very high length to diameter ratios

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90

what is the mass of one mole of a substance equal to?

its relative formula mass

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91

what are alloys?

mixtures of metals

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92

what gas is given off if metals react with water or dilute acids?

hydrogen

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93

what will a more reactive metal do to a less reactive one?

displaces it from its aqueous solution

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94

what is oxidation?

loss of electrons

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95

what is reduction?

gain of electrons

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96

what is a salt?

an ionic compound

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97

how can salts be made?

by reacting a suitable metal with an acid. The metal must be above hydrogen in the reactivity series, but not dangerously reactive

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98

what is the reaction between a metal and an acid an example of?

a redox reaction

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99

what is a redox reaction?

the movement of electrons from one molecule to another

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100

what happens when an acid reacts with a base?

neutralization occurs

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