AP Psych: Test 1

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hindsight bias, overconfidence, and seeing patterns in random events

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Psychology

MODS 1-18

209 Terms

1

hindsight bias, overconfidence, and seeing patterns in random events

what are the roadblocks to critical thinking

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2

hindsight bias

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it

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3

descriptive method

to observe and record behavior

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correlational method

associate different variables + see if there is a relationship

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5

experimental method

manipulate variables and form population groups

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6

case studies

studies that involve extensive, in-depth interviews with a particular individual or small group of individuals

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7

naturalistic observations

observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation

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8

surveys and interviews

having other people report on their own attitudes and behavior

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9

no control of variables; single cases may be misleading

weakness of descriptive research

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10

cannot specify cause and effect

weakness of correlational research

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11

sometimes it is not practical/ethical to manipulate certain variables

weakness of experimental research

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12

informed consent

an ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate

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13

debriefing

the post-experimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants

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14

statistical measure/correlation coefficient

helps us figure how closely two things vary together, and thus how well either one predicts the other

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15

scatter plots

a graph with points plotted to show a possible relationship between two sets of data.

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16

illusory correlation

perceiving a relationship where none exists, or perceiving a stronger-than-actual relationship

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17

illusory control

the idea/illusion that uncontrollable events correlate with our actions (based on luck+superstitions)

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18

causation

correlation does not mean ___________

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19

experimental group

in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment

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20

control group

In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment

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21

random sampling

a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

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22

random assignment

assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups

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23

placebo effect

experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.

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24

double-blind procedure

an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. commonly used in drug-evaluation studies.

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25

confounding variable

a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment

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26

independent variable

the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.

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27

dependent variable

the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.

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28

likert scale

a numerical scale used to assess attitudes; includes a set of possible answers with labeled anchors on each extreme

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29

histogram

a graph of vertical bars representing the frequency distribution of a set of data

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30

measure of central tendencies

mean, median, mode

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31

inferential statistics

numerical data that allow one to generalize- to infer from sample data the probability of something being true of a population

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32

statistical signifigance

a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
- p value less than 5% proves causation

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33

measures of variability

range and standard deviation

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34

descriptive statistics

numerical data used to measure and describe characteristics of groups. Includes measures of central tendency and measures of variation.

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35

confederate

a person who seems like they are participating in the study but they are actually apart of the research team (actors)

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36

corpus callosum

the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them

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37

left hemisphere of the brain

controls right side of the body and is logical, contains mathematics, language, & speech

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38

left hemisphere of the brain

controls right side of the body and is logical, contains mathamatics, lauguage, & speech
-orchestrates our self awarness

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39

consciousness

our awareness of ourselves and our environment

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40

cognitive neuroscience

a field that attempts to understand the links between cognitive processes and brain activity

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41

dual processing

principle that info is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks

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42

blind sight

the ability to respond to visual stimuli without consciously perceiving them

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43

visual perception track

enables us "to think about the world"—to recognize things and to plan future actions

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44

visual action track

guides our moment-to-moment movements

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45

parallel processing

the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision

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46

sequential processing

the processing of one aspect of a problem at a time; used when we focus attention on new or complex tasks

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47

fraternal twins

twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs. they are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment.

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48

heritability

the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes

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49

molecular genetics

the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes

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50

epigenetics

the study of environmental influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change

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51

epigenetic marks

chemical modifications to DNA that can turn genes on or off

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52

sexual overperception bias

strongest among men who require little emotional closeness before intercourse

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53

mating preferences

males look for youthful appearing females in order to pass their genes into the future. females, on the other, hand look for maturity, dominance, affluence and boldness in males.

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54

social script

a commonly understood pattern of interaction that serves as a model of behavior in familiar situations

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55

psychoactive drug

a chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods

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56

tolerance

the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses to experience the drug's effect

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57

addiction

compulsive drug craving and use, despite adverse consequences

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58

withdrawal

the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug

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59

depressants

drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions

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60

disinhibitor

slows brain activity that controls judgement and inhibitions

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61

effects of alcohol

slowed reactions, memory disruption, reduced self awareness

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62

barbiturates

drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment

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63

barbiturates

drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment
-combined with alcohol can be very lethal

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64

opiates

they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety

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65

opiates

they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety
-examples: heroin and morphine

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66

stimulants

drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.

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67

reasons people use stimulants

to feel alert, lose weight, or boost performance

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68

nicotine

a stimulating and highly addictive psychoactive drug in tobacco

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69

cocaine

a powerful and addictive stimulant, derived from the coca plant, producing temporarily increased alertness and euphoria

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70

cocaine

a powerful and addictive stimulant, derived from the coca plant, producing temporarily increased alertness and euphoria
-depletes the brains supply of dopamine, serotonin and norephedrine

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71

methamphetamine

a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels

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72

amphetamine

drugs (like meth) that stimulate neural activity

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73

ecstasy

a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition.

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74

hallucinogens

drugs, like LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input

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75

marijuana

a drug, often smoked, whose effects include euphoria, impairment of judgment and concentration and occasionally hallucinations; rarely reported as addictive

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76

occipital lobe

in the rear most area of the brain, area where visual information is interpreted

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77

cerebral cortex

the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center

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78

cerebral cortex

the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center
-the more wrinkly, the more higher functions

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79

parietal lobe

portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch, pressure, temperature, and pain

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80

temporal lobe

an area on each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex near the temples that is the primary receiving area for auditory information

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81

aphasia

impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to broca's area (impairing speaking) or to wernicke's area (impairing understanding).

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82

wernicke's area

controls language reception - a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe

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83

frontal lobe

a region of the cerebral cortex that has specialized areas for higher functions, executive orders, creativity, and problem solving

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84

Broca's area

controls language expression - an area, in the left frontal lobe, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech (tongue+jaw movement)
-damage here leads to stuttering and inability to form words

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85

brocas area

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86

prefrontal cortex

the frontmost portion of the frontal lobes, especially prominent in humans; important for attention, working memory, decision making, appropriate social behavior, and personality

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87

motor cortex

an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary, muscle movements

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88

REM

rapid eye movement sleep

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89

-brain is active, body is paralyzed

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90

sleep paralysis

a temporary condition in which a person is unable to move upon awakening in the morning or during the night due to messages from the brain not going at full speed

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91

-triggered by stress, often happens when laying on your back

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92

sleep deprivation

a sufficient lack of restorative sleep over a cumulative period so as to cause physical or psychiatric symptoms and affect routine performance or tasks

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93

acute

undiagnosable

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94

microsleep

a very short period of involuntary sleep that occurs while a person appears to be awake

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95

insomnia

inability to sleep

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96

sleep apnea

sleep without breathing, stop breathing for 30-45 sec 25-50 times per hour, this raises blood level, obesity, heart disease

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97

-biological, treated by cpat/sleep masks

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98

sleepwalking (somnambulism)

occurring during deep sleep, an episode of moving around or walking around in one's sleep

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99

-motor cortex is awake

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100

nightmares

bad dreams occurring during REM sleep

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