totalitarianism; rise of hitler; road to ww2

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Totalitarianism

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117 Terms

1

Totalitarianism

government has control of politics, laws, economy, and social conditions.

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2

USSR

communism; lenin and stalin

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3

Turkey

nationalist/ Attaturk+ Mustafa Kumal

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4

Germany

fascist/ hitler

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5

Italy

fascist/ Mussolini

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6

Japan

fascist with military in control/ Emperor Hirohito Tojo

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7

Ideologies: Totalitarianism

dictatorship, authoritarian govt, communism, and fascism

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8

if one's economic condition is good, they're likely to feel --- and -- the government.

happy/support

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9

if one's economic condition is bad, they're likely to feel --- in general and -- the government.

wronged/rebel against

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10

good economic state = what kind of support for government

support for stability and slow change

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11

bad economic state = what kind of support for government

support for change and quick change, thru reforms, revolution, SUPPORT OF A DICTATOR

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12

State Control of Individuals (Totalitarianism)

demands loyalty, denies basic liberties, expects personal sacrifice for the good of the state

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13

Methods of Enforcement

police terror, indoctrination, censorship, persecution

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14

Modern Technology

mass communication to spread propaganda, advanced military weapons

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15

state control of society

business, religion, labor, the arts, housing, personal life, education, youth groups

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16

Dictatorship

excercises absolute authority, dominates the government, uses scapegoats

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17

Dynamic Leader

unites people, symbolizes government, encourages popular support through force of will

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18

Propoganda

information, especially of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote or publicize a particular political cause or point of view.

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19

1-party rule

when there is only one party and the person who becomes head of that party listens to whatever the party wants him to do.

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20

coporate economy

branch off of command economy; used by fascist govt

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21

command economy

communism

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22

Great Purge

1934; A campaign of terror directed at eliminating anyone who threatened Stalin's power

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23

Gulag

USSR prison camp for political prisoners

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24

Checka

Secret Police set up by Lenin to help the Bolshevik revolution

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25

5-year plans

The Five-Year Plans set impossibly high quotas, or numerical goals, to increase the output of steel, coal, oil, and electricity. To reach these targets, the government limited production of consumer goods. As a result, people faced severe shortages of housing, food, clothing, and other necessary goods.

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26

collective farms

Government owned farms and they take the high quotas, starving farmers

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27

kulaks

Rich peasants in the Russian Empire who owned larger farms and used hired labour. They were their own class. Stalin caused their class to become scapegoats

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28

holomodor

Stalin's man-made famine that punished Ukraine for showing nationalism killing 2-7 million people.

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29

cult of personality

Promotion of the image of an authoritarian leader not merely as a political figure but as someone who embodies the spirit of the nation and possesses endowments of wisdom and strength far beyond those of the average individual.

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30

3 characteristics of fascism

extreme nationalism, cult of personality, popular mobilization

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31

5 stages of fascism

emerging out of disillusionment, establishing legitimacy as a political party, gaining power via right wing partnerships, using power to dominate institutions, implementing radical reforms

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32

economic policy in fascism

Supported private property and business owners (as long as owners followed government's directives)

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33

economic policy in communism

no private property and against business owners and profits

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34

foreign policy in communism

Internationalist because workers of the world should unite

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35

foreign policy in fascism

Nationalist; desired colonies

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36

social class system in communism

no social class

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37

social class system in fascism

different social classes

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38

supporters in communism

workers

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39

supporters in fascism

business and land owners (they were scared of communism)

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40

fascism and communism political participation by citizens --

none

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41

fascism and communism economic philosophy

command/ corporate economy

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42

fascism and communism reasons leaders claim they are ruling

to benefit society (usually only ruling group benefits)

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43

fascism and communism control society using -

terror; denial of human rights; censorship; secret police

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44

fascism and communism attract followers using -

propaganda; control arts and religion; civic groups

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45

fascism and communism control are popular because

leaders promised to fix broken country

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46

terror against Russian Orthodox leaders

due to Russia wanting to keep the cult of personality and in order to idolize the leader, the USSR wiped out the leaders of the Russian Orthodox church

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47

1920's fighting

  1. russian civil war

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48
  1. german anarchy, fighting for control over germany

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49
  1. Central Powers increased poverty due to blockades = increased crime and violence

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50
  1. Arabs and Jews fighting over Palestinian land

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51
  1. New countries cut from Austria-Hungary with no idea how to run a democracy

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52
  1. Greeks fighting Turks for independence

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53
  1. Irish fighting British and then each other

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54

1920

League of Nations

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55

League of Nations

an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations

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56

1922

Nine Power Treaty

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57

Nine-Power Treaty

Avoid fighting between members, dividing China into spheres of influence for trade rather than colonizing it (leading to the opium wars)

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58

1922

Anglo-Irish treaty

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59

Anglo-Irish Treaty

created an independent state of Ireland in the south and a separate region known as Northern Ireland in the north controlled by britain

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60

1923

Treaty of Lausanne

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61

Treaty of Lausanne

Greeks became independent, bigger, with more power

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62

1924

Dawes Plan

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63

Dawes Plan

A plan to revive the German economy, the United States loans Germany money which then can pay reparations to England and France, who can then pay back their loans from the U.S. This circular flow of money was a success.

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64

1925

Locarno Treaty

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65

Locarno Treaty

Countries promised to use negotiations instead of war to get what they want in Western Europe

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66

1928

Kellogg-Briand Pact

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67

Kellogg-Briand Pact

agreement in which many nations agreed to outlaw war - never enforced, and failed

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68

1929

Young Plan

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69

Young Plan 1929

Scaled down the German reparations bill when it became clear that the Dawes Plan was not sustainable.

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70

1930

French Ruhr and Rhineland (industrialized areas in germany) Occupation Ended, money back to Germany

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71

1930

London Naval Conference

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72

London Naval Conference

Limited number of big warships each country could have, never enforced

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73

1932

Lausanne Conference

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74

Lausanne Conference

Ended German reparations

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75

1933

Montevideo Convention

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76

Montevideo Convention

created and defined the terms for statehood, protected Latin America from US intervention, but didn't last very long bc US invaded soon again

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77

2 major goals of all of those treaties

  1. restarting the world economy through cancelled German debt

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78
  1. promoting diplomacy over war and trying to prevent another war

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79

Hyperinflation in Germany

Weimar govt printed more money to pay debts, ended up w the value of money going down - by 1923 $1 = 4 billion marks

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80

How did Dawes & Young Plan help world econ?

Reduced reparations & working Ger factories helped West Europe rebuild factories, increasing world trade, benefiting US businesses, who could then re-invest in Europe and keep the cycle going

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81

Great Depression

(1929-1939) The dramatic decline in the world's economy due to the United State's stock market crash of 1929, killing the world

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82

Keynes

Critic of the ToV, predicted that Ger collapse would kill world econ. He believed:

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83
  • govt spending increases demand, maintains employment

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84
  • defecit spending good when econ is bad

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85
  • overdoing his policies causes inflation

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86

Hayek

He believed:

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87
  • govt intervention increases debt and inflation

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88
  • econ control = political control (if govt builds roads, its choosing cars > subways)

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89
  • freedom = prosperity, monopolies and price caps are bad

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90
  • interference with prices = govt interference in peoples lives

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91

Economic Consequences of the Peace

Written by Keynes, this work illustrated the overall British opinion that Germany should be resuscitated economically for the British economy to flourish. It was against France's harsh reparations

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92

Weimar Republic

German republic founded after the WWI and the downfall of the German Empire's monarchy.

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93

Mein Kampf

"My Struggle"-a book written by Adolf Hitler during his imprisonment in 1923-1924, in which he set forth his beliefs and his goals for Germany

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94

Pan-Germanism

all German speakers united under one government, a nationalist belief used by hitler to increase german pride

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95

Why democracy and communism are dangerous

Communism promotes internationalism - a international union of workers, and democracy weakens social unity

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96

Why capitalism is dangerous

Capitalism allows for a free market, you might want to sell gay pride flags, but Nazi's don't want that!

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97

Hitlers view on violence & propaganda

Violence = strength, conquering and intimidation are good, chaos = easier to get support, propaganda good for creating scapegoats

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98

Lebensraum

Hitler's expansionist theory based on a drive to acquire "living space" by invading eastern europe for the German people

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99

Nazi Party

the political party founded in Germany in 1919 and brought to power by Hitler in 1933

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100

Beer Hall Putsch

In 1923 the Nazis attempted to overthrow the government in Munich. It was a total failure, and Hitler received a brief prison sentence during which time he wrote Mein Kampf.

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