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"Migration of man and his maladies is the chief cause of epidemics. And when migration takes place, those creatures who have been in isolation longest suffer most, for their genetic material has been least tempered by the variety of world diseases. Among the major subdivisions of the species Homo Sapiens, the American Indian probably had the dangerous privilege of the longest isolation from the rest of mankind."

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1

"Migration of man and his maladies is the chief cause of epidemics. And when migration takes place, those creatures who have been in isolation longest suffer most, for their genetic material has been least tempered by the variety of world diseases. Among the major subdivisions of the species Homo Sapiens, the American Indian probably had the dangerous privilege of the longest isolation from the rest of mankind."

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2

Which of the following best describes Alfred Crosby's argument in the passage above?

Amerindians' long isolation from the rest of the world had placed them at a biological disadvantage

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3

"In the course of the fifth year [1519] the terrible pestilence began. First there was a cough, then blood. The number of deaths at this time was truly terrible.

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4

In 1520 the pestilence spread. Truly, the number of deaths among the people was terrible and the people could not escape from the pestilence.

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5

In 1521 my father, King Hunyg, died. The elders and the priests died alike from the pestilence. Half the people threw themselves into the ravines to escape it. The oldest son of the king died at the same time as well as his young brother. Thus, our people became poor.

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6

In 1524 the Spanish arrived in our country and destroyed our people. The Spanish conquered all the towns.

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7

In 1542 Dominican friars arrived from Mexico, and they taught us the Doctrine of Christ in our language. Until that time we had been ignorant of the word and the commandments of God.

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8

In 1560 the pestilence that had formerly raged among the people returned again. It was truly terrible when this death was sent among us by the great God. Many families disappeared. All here were soon attacked, and I was also attacked with the disease."

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9

All of the following pieces of evidence in the passage directly support the author's claim that the "pestilence" was "terrible" EXCEPT:

The disease led to the arrival of Dominican friars.

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10

"In the course of the fifth year [1519] the terrible pestilence began. First there was a cough, then blood. The number of deaths at this time was truly terrible.

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11

In 1520 the pestilence spread. Truly, the number of deaths among the people was terrible and the people could not escape from the pestilence.

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12

In 1521 my father, King Hunyg, died. The elders and the priests died alike from the pestilence. Half the people threw themselves into the ravines to escape it. The oldest son of the king died at the same time as well as his young brother. Thus, our people became poor.

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13

In 1524 the Spanish arrived in our country and destroyed our people. The Spanish conquered all the towns.

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14

In 1542 Dominican friars arrived from Mexico, and they taught us the Doctrine of Christ in our language. Until that time we had been ignorant of the word and the commandments of God.

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15

In 1560 the pestilence that had formerly raged among the people returned again. It was truly terrible when this death was sent among us by the great God. Many families disappeared. All here were soon attacked, and I was also attacked with the disease."

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16

Which of the following pieces of evidence does the author use to support his claim that the arrival of the Spanish "destroyed our people"?

The Spanish conquered all Maya towns.

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17

"In the course of the fifth year [1519] the terrible pestilence began. First there was a cough, then blood. The number of deaths at this time was truly terrible.

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18

In 1520 the pestilence spread. Truly, the number of deaths among the people was terrible and the people could not escape from the pestilence.

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19

In 1521 my father, King Hunyg, died. The elders and the priests died alike from the pestilence. Half the people threw themselves into the ravines to escape it. The oldest son of the king died at the same time as well as his young brother. Thus, our people became poor.

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20

In 1524 the Spanish arrived in our country and destroyed our people. The Spanish conquered all the towns.

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21

In 1542 Dominican friars arrived from Mexico, and they taught us the Doctrine of Christ in our language. Until that time we had been ignorant of the word and the commandments of God.

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22

In 1560 the pestilence that had formerly raged among the people returned again. It was truly terrible when this death was sent among us by the great God. Many families disappeared. All here were soon attacked, and I was also attacked with the disease."

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23

Which of the following pieces of evidence does the author use to support his implicit argument that Maya society underwent a dramatic cultural change in the sixteenth century?

The Maya were converted to Christianity.

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24

The trend shown on the graph above is best explained by

increased production of cash crops like sugar

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25

The trade illustrated by the map contributed most directly to which of the following?

The Haitian Revolution

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26

"Seeing how vile and despicable the idol was, we went outside to ask why they cared about so crude and ungainly a thing. But they, astounded at our daring, defended the honor of their god and said that he was Pachacamac, the Maker of the World, who healed their infirmities. According to what we were able to learn, the devil appeared to their priests in that hut and spoke with them, and they entered there with petitions and offerings from the entire kingdom of Atahualpa, just as Moors and Turks go to the house in Mecca. Seeing the evil of what was there and the blindness of all those people, we gathered together their leaders and enlightened them. And in the presence of all, the hut was opened and torn down and with much solemnity a tall cross was raised over the seat which for so long the devil had claimed as his own."

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27

Miguel de Estete, Spanish mercenary soldier, account of an expedition to

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28

Which of the following long-term changes in the period circa 1550-1700 best demonstrates that the actions described by de Estete in the passage failed to fully achieve their goals?

The emergence of syncretic religious practices in the Americas

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29

In the context of the Ottoman Empire, toleration [ensured] that, as a rule, non-Muslims would not be persecuted. No doubt, as dhimmis,* according to Islam, they were second-class citizens . . . who endured a healthy dose of daily prejudice. [Nevertheless, the Ottomans tolerated religious and ethnic difference] because it had something to contribute. That is, difference added to the empire; it did not detract from it and, therefore, it was commended. Toleration had a [beneficial] quality; maintaining peace and order was good for imperial life, diversity contributed to imperial welfare. . . .

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30

The Ottoman Empire fared better than did its predecessors or contemporaries [in tolerating religious and ethnic difference] until the beginning of the eighteenth century, largely as a result of its understanding of difference and its resourcefulness in [administrative organization]. It maintained relative peace with its various communities and also ensured that interethnic strife would not occur."

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31

*Islamic law defines dhimmis as non-Muslim communities living under Muslim political rule

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32

Karen Barkey, Turkish-American historian and sociologist, Empire of Difference: The Ottomans in Comparative Perspective, published in 2008

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33

All of the following statements about the Ottoman Empire in the period 1450-1750 are factually accurate. Which would most strongly support Barkey's claim regarding the Ottoman state and toleration in the passage?

The Ottoman army increasingly relied on the contributions of the Janissary corps, which was mostly composed of soldiers of non-Turkic origin.

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34

"In the context of the Ottoman Empire, toleration [ensured] that, as a rule, non-Muslims would not be persecuted. No doubt, as dhimmis,* according to Islam, they were second-class citizens . . . who endured a healthy dose of daily prejudice. [Nevertheless, the Ottomans tolerated religious and ethnic difference] because it had something to contribute. That is, difference added to the empire; it did not detract from it and, therefore, it was commended. Toleration had a [beneficial] quality; maintaining peace and order was good for imperial life, diversity contributed to imperial welfare. . . .

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35

The Ottoman Empire fared better than did its predecessors or contemporaries [in tolerating religious and ethnic difference] until the beginning of the eighteenth century, largely as a result of its understanding of difference and its resourcefulness in [administrative organization]. It maintained relative peace with its various communities and also ensured that interethnic strife would not occur."

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36

*Islamic law defines dhimmis as non-Muslim communities living under Muslim political rule

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37

Which of the following developments in the period 1450-1750 would a historian most likely cite to support Barkey's claim regarding the Ottoman Empire and its predecessors and contemporaries in the first sentence of the second paragraph?

The establishment of racial categories of social hierarchy under the casta system in Spanish colonies in the Americas

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38

"In the context of the Ottoman Empire, toleration [ensured] that, as a rule, non-Muslims would not be persecuted. No doubt, as dhimmis,* according to Islam, they were second-class citizens . . . who endured a healthy dose of daily prejudice. [Nevertheless, the Ottomans tolerated religious and ethnic difference] because it had something to contribute. That is, difference added to the empire; it did not detract from it and, therefore, it was commended. Toleration had a [beneficial] quality; maintaining peace and order was good for imperial life, diversity contributed to imperial welfare. . . .

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39

The Ottoman Empire fared better than did its predecessors or contemporaries [in tolerating religious and ethnic difference] until the beginning of the eighteenth century, largely as a result of its understanding of difference and its resourcefulness in [administrative organization]. It maintained relative peace with its various communities and also ensured that interethnic strife would not occur."

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40

*Islamic law defines dhimmis as non-Muslim communities living under Muslim political rule

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41

Which of the following claims that Barkey makes in the passage appears to contradict most directly her assertion in the first sentence of the first paragraph?

Non-Muslims were second-class citizens who endured prejudice.

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42

Which of the following best explains why the painting was seen as a challenge to social conventions when it was painted?

Caribbean society was built on racial hierarchies that generally reserved elite status for people of European ancestry.

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43

Which of the following most directly led to the arrival of substantial numbers of Africans in the Americas at the time of the painting?

The expansion of the plantation system for growing sugarcane and other crops

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44

The world economic system that developed after 1500 featured unequal relationships between western Europe and dependent economies in other regions. Strong governments and large armies fed European dominance of world trade. Dependent economies used slave or serf labor to produce cheap foods and minerals for Europe, and they imported more expensive European items in turn. Dependent regions had weak governments, which made European conquest and slave systems possible.

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45

Which of the following statements would challenge the arguments made in the passage?

Strong governments in the slave-exporting regions of West Africa

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46

"The Muslims are not the greatest traders in Asia, though they are dispersed in almost every part of it. In Ottoman Turkey, the Christians and Jews carry on the main foreign trade, and in Persia the Armenian Christians and Indians. As to the Persians, they trade with their own countrymen, one province with another, and most of them trade with the Indians. The Armenian Christians manage alone the whole European trade [with Persia].

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47

The abundance of the Persian silk that is exported is very well known. The Dutch import it into Europe via the Indian Ocean to the value of near six hundred thousand livres* yearly. All the Europeans who trade in Ottoman Turkey import nothing more valuable than the Persian silks, which they buy from the Armenians. The Russians import it as well.

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48

Persia exports to the Indies [an] abundance of tobacco, all sorts of fruit, marmalade, wines, horses, ceramics, feathers, and Turkish leather of all colors, of which a great amount is exported to Russia and other European countries. The exportation of steel and iron is forbidden in the kingdom, but it is exported notwithstanding.

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49

There are some Persian traders who have deputies in all parts of the world, as far as Sweden on the one side and China on the other side."

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50

*French currency unit

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51

Jean Chardin, French jeweler and merchant, on his travels to Safavid Persia, 1686

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52

Which of the following most directly contributed to the geographic expansion of Safavid trade during the period from 1450 to 1750, as indicated in the passage?

Safavid exchanges with European trading-post empires in Asia

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53

The production of the plaque in Goa is best understood in the immediate context of which of the following?

The development of trading-post empires

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54

A likely purpose for including the religious figure in the plaque was to show that

Portuguese naval activities in the Indian Ocean region were favored by divine forces

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55

The material used to create the plaque best reflects which of the following historical situations in the Indian Ocean region in the period 1450-1750 ?

Trade networks continued to flourish and gave Europeans direct access to precious luxury goods.

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56

The implicit claim made by the image about a connection between religious devotion and maritime exploration best demonstrates which of the following in the period circa 1450-1750 ?

Increasing global connections expanded the reach of existing religions.

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57

[Testimony by the creole (European-ancestry) members of a lay religious brotherhood in the town of San Juan Peribán.]

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58

"Cristobál Bernal was elected chair of our brotherhood by a margin of only two votes. Most votes in Bernal's favor came from mulatto and mestizo brothers. However, we, the creole brothers, elected Don Carvajal, a resident of the town and owner of the hacienda and sugar mill there. We urge you to command that only creoles should vote for the positions of chair and deputy chairs and that neither mulattoes nor mestizos can serve in those positions, and that a new election must be held for these positions."

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59

[Response by the mulatto and mestizo brothers]

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60

"Since the brotherhood was founded, it has had the ancient custom of voting for and electing mulattoes and mestizos as deputies. And mestizos and mulattoes make up most of the membership and help the brotherhood grow. And mestizo and mulatto brothers had donated land, which earns 25 pesos rent per year for the brotherhood. And mulatto and mestizo brothers also collect alms for the brotherhood. If this brotherhood were actually two—one for creoles only and the other for mulattoes and mestizos—then the petitioners might have a case. But there is only one brotherhood in which creoles, mestizos, and mulattoes are mixed and, being members of it, they must enjoy the rights and advantages of the said brotherhood. Without question these rights should include voting and electing their own chair and deputies."

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61

[Judge's decision]

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62

"The election is declared valid, and Bernal is confirmed as chair."

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63

The dispute described in the court case is most directly an effect of which of the following processes in colonial American societies?

The formation of new identities as part of the restructuring of social hierarchies

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64

[Testimony by the creole (European-ancestry) members of a lay religious brotherhood in the town of San Juan Peribán.]

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65

"Cristobál Bernal was elected chair of our brotherhood by a margin of only two votes. Most votes in Bernal's favor came from mulatto and mestizo brothers. However, we, the creole brothers, elected Don Carvajal, a resident of the town and owner of the hacienda and sugar mill there. We urge you to command that only creoles should vote for the positions of chair and deputy chairs and that neither mulattoes nor mestizos can serve in those positions, and that a new election must be held for these positions."

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66

[Response by the mulatto and mestizo brothers]

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67

"Since the brotherhood was founded, it has had the ancient custom of voting for and electing mulattoes and mestizos as deputies. And mestizos and mulattoes make up most of the membership and help the brotherhood grow. And mestizo and mulatto brothers had donated land, which earns 25 pesos rent per year for the brotherhood. And mulatto and mestizo brothers also collect alms for the brotherhood. If this brotherhood were actually two—one for creoles only and the other for mulattoes and mestizos—then the petitioners might have a case. But there is only one brotherhood in which creoles, mestizos, and mulattoes are mixed and, being members of it, they must enjoy the rights and advantages of the said brotherhood. Without question these rights should include voting and electing their own chair and deputies."

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68

[Judge's decision]

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69

"The election is declared valid, and Bernal is confirmed as chair."

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70

The judge's decision in the case is best understood in the context of colonial authorities' policy of

ensuring that intercommunal conflicts were brought under control before they could disrupt public order

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71

[Testimony by the creole (European-ancestry) members of a lay religious brotherhood in the town of San Juan Peribán.]

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72

"Cristobál Bernal was elected chair of our brotherhood by a margin of only two votes. Most votes in Bernal's favor came from mulatto and mestizo brothers. However, we, the creole brothers, elected Don Carvajal, a resident of the town and owner of the hacienda and sugar mill there. We urge you to command that only creoles should vote for the positions of chair and deputy chairs and that neither mulattoes nor mestizos can serve in those positions, and that a new election must be held for these positions."

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73

[Response by the mulatto and mestizo brothers]

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74

"Since the brotherhood was founded, it has had the ancient custom of voting for and electing mulattoes and mestizos as deputies. And mestizos and mulattoes make up most of the membership and help the brotherhood grow. And mestizo and mulatto brothers had donated land, which earns 25 pesos rent per year for the brotherhood. And mulatto and mestizo brothers also collect alms for the brotherhood. If this brotherhood were actually two—one for creoles only and the other for mulattoes and mestizos—then the petitioners might have a case. But there is only one brotherhood in which creoles, mestizos, and mulattoes are mixed and, being members of it, they must enjoy the rights and advantages of the said brotherhood. Without question these rights should include voting and electing their own chair and deputies."

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75

[Judge's decision]

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76

"The election is declared valid, and Bernal is confirmed as chair."

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77

Based on the passage and your knowledge of world history, which of the following can be inferred about the economic hierarchy in San Juan Peribán?

Mulatto and mestizo communities had some economic resources, but creoles were still economically dominant.

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78

"Let the blessings of Allah be upon Muhammad and his companions universally. In the year 1640 C.E. I wanted to behold the mystics of every sect, to hear the lofty expressions of monotheism, and to cast my eyes upon many books of mysticism. I, therefore, examined the Book of Moses, the Gospels, and the Psalms.

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79

Among the Hindus, the best of their heavenly books, which contain all the secrets of pure monotheism, are called the Upanishads. Because I do not know Sanskrit, I wanted to make an exact and literal translation of the Upanishads into Persian*. For the Upanishads are a treasure of monotheism and there are few thoroughly conversant with them even among the Indians. Thereby I also wanted to make the texts accessible to Muslims.

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80

I assembled Hindu scholars and ascetics to help with the translation. Every sublime topic that I had desired or thought and had looked for and not found, I obtained from these most ancient books, the source and the fountainhead of the ocean of religious unity, in conformity with the holy Qur'an."

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81

*Persian was the primary language used at the Mughal court.

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82

Dara Shikoh, son of the Mughal ruler Shah Jahan, account of the translation of the Upanishads into Persian, 1657 C.E.

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83

Dara Shikoh's intellectual collaborations as described in the passage are most consistent with which of the following policies of imperial states such as the Mughal Empire in the period 1450 to 1750 C.E.?

Attempting to build support for imperial rule by accommodating religious and ethnic diversity

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84

For the period circa 1650-1790, the differences between clove prices in Southeast Asia and those in Amsterdam best support which of the following conclusions?

Imperialism economically benefited European merchants and governments while leading to the economic decline or stagnation of Asian producers.

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85

Muslim maritime activities in the Indian Ocean would be most disrupted by which of the following sixteenth-century developments?

The arrival of Portuguese and other Europeans

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86

The domestic labor of the enslaved woman in the sketch is most similar to the predominant form of slavery in which of the following regions?

Africa

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87

The images above best provide evidence of which of the following consequences of colonial expansion in the period 1450 to 1750 ?

The transfer of wealth to new elites and the development of new gender roles

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88

In the context of the period 1450-1750, which of the following most likely explains why the Qing government employed the scholars shown in the image?

States sought to centralize their rule by including foreigners whose positions were dependent on the state to serve in the bureaucracy.

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89

"The Mexican city of Zacatecas is renowned for the enormous quantity of silver that has been extracted from it and continues to be extracted today. At the time of the discovery of the silver, there were many forests and woodlands in this rocky land, all of which have since vanished so that now except for some little wild palms, no other trees remain. Firewood is very expensive in the city because it is brought in carts from a distance of eighteen hours away.

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90

The silver was discovered in the year 1540, in the following way: after the fall of the Aztec Empire, Spanish soldiers remained, spread over the entire country. Since no more towns remained to conquer and since they had so many Indian slaves, they devoted themselves to seeking riches from silver mines. One of these soldiers was Juan de Tolosa, who happened to have an Aztec among his Indian slaves. The Aztec, it is said, seeing his master so anxious to discover mines and to claim silver, told him: 'If you so desire this substance, I will take you where you can fill your hands and satisfy your greed with it.'

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91

The city houses at least 600 White residents, and most of them are Spaniards. There are about 800 Black slaves and mulattoes*. There are about 1,500 Indians in the work gangs who labor in all types of occupations in the mines."

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92

Alonso de la Mota y Escobar, Bishop of Guadalajara, Mexico, geographical treatise, 1605

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93

*a person of mixed European and African ancestry

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94

The economic activities described in the passage contributed most directly to which of the following?

The emergence of the first truly global exchange networks

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95

The object shown in the image is best understood in the context of which of the following developments between 1450 and 1750 ?

The influence of European merchants and missionaries along Asian maritime trade routes

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96

The use of objects such as the one shown in the image best illustrates which of the following historical processes from 1450 to 1750 ?

Some Asian states sought to limit foreign encroachment in their internal affairs.

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97

In which of the following regions between 1450 and 1750 was Christian missionary activity met with the LEAST amount of resistance by non-European states?

The Americas

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98

Based on the location of the painting, it can be inferred that its primary purpose was to

bolster the legitimacy of the Golkonda dynasty by celebrating its past

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99

Source 1:

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100

"[In the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries] Europeans derived more profit from their participation in trade within Asia than they did from their Asian imports into Europe. They were able to do so ultimately only thanks to their American silver. . . . Only their American money, and not any 'exceptional' European 'qualities' permitted the Europeans [to access Asian markets]. . . . However, even with that resource and advantage, the Europeans were no more than a minor player at the Asian, indeed world, economic table [until the nineteenth century]."

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