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Model: atoms are electrons floating in a uniform sea of positive charges

Thompson's Model

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Model: atoms are mostly empty space

Rutherford's Model

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Model: "Plum Pudding"

Thompson's Model

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Model: positively charged a-particles

Rutherford's Model

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Definition: groups of similar atoms

elements

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Definition: number of protons in an atom

atomic number

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Periodic Table: found at the top of the element

atomic number

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Z

atomic number

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Definition: gives the atom its identity as an element

atomic number

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A

mass number

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Periodic Table: found at the bottom of the element

mass number

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Definition: total number of nucleons in an atom

mass number

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Definition: weighted average of the nucleons

mass number

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Definition: protons and neutrons combined

nucleons

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Definition: atoms of the same element with different masses

isotope

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Definition: members of an element with different numbers of neutrons

isotope

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Definition: a nucleus with a specific composition

nuclide

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Definition: chemical symbol of element

x

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Definition: the ability of an atom to give off penetrating radiation

radioactivity

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Definition: unstable nuclei turning into stable nuclei as they emit radiation

radioactive decay

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Definition: nuclear radiation

radioactive decay

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Unstable Elements

83+

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Stable Elements

1-82

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Radiation: positive charges that are deflected weakly by a magnetic field

alpha particles

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Radiation: negative charges that are deflected strongly by a magnetic field

beta particles

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Radiation: made of TWO protons and TWO neutrons

alpha particles

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Radiation: made of SINGLE electrons

beta particles

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Radiation: reduces atomic number by TWO, atomic mass is reduced by FOUR

alpha particles

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Radiation: atomic number increases by ONE

beta particles

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Radiation: heavier nuclei

alpha decay

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Radiation: lighter nuclei

beta decay

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Radiation: right side of the periodic table

alpha decay

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Radiation: splits into ONE electron and ONE proton

beta decay

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Radiation: occurs on the LEFT side of the periodic table

beta decay

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Radiation: cannot penetrate skin

alpha

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Radiation: can penetrate skin and superficial organs

beta

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Radiation: can penetrate anything

gamma

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Definition: radiation not affected by magnetic field

gamma

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Types of Radiation

alpha, beta, gamma

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Radiation: pure energy

gamma

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Radiation: rest energy

gamma

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Radiation: no mass and no charge

gamma

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Definition: time needed for half of an initial amount of the nuclide to decay

half-life

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Definition: units of radiation

sieverts

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A person experiences about ____ every year.

3 mSv

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Sv: Dental xray

0.005 mSv

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Sv: Chest xray

0.1 mSv

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Sv: CT scan

2-10 mSv

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A dose over ____ Sv is usually lethal.

4

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Definition: unit for measuring mass

atomic mass unit (amu)

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mass of a hydrogen atom with no neutrons

1.66 x10-27 kg

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Definition: unit for measuring energy

megaelectronvolts (MeV)

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Definition: used to measure radiation at the atomic level

megaelectronvolts

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Definition: amount of energy given to a million electrons by 1 V

megaelectronvolt

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megaelectronvolt

1.60 x 10-13 J

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As subatomic particles bind, they lose mass as ____.

energy

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Definition: the energy equivalent of the missing mass of a nucleus

binding energy

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____ holds the nucleus together.

binding energy

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If you have more energy lost, there will be ___ combined mass.

less

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More energy lost and less combined mass = ____ stable

more

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Less energy lost and more combined mass = ____ stable

less

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What is the most stable element?

iron

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How many nucleons are in iron?

56

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Definition: a heavy nucleus splits to form smaller nuclei that has more binding energy

nuclear fission

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Definition: lighter nuclei join to form a heavier nucleus that has more binding energy emitting radiation

nuclear fusion

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Definition: splitting of a nucleus

nucleur fission

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Definition: combining two nuclei and producing smoe energy

nucleur fusion

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Definition: nuclei that instantly divide if given a neutron

fissionable nuclei

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Nuclear fission releases ___ radiation.

gamma

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Nuclear fission produces ____.

heat

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Reactor Accidents: failed cooling system caused a burst of radioactively contaminated steam and coolant to be released

Three Mile Island

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Reactor Accidents: a test led to a steam explosion contaminated with over 400 tons of radioactive material

Chernobyl

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Reactor Accidents: reactor damaged by tsunami waters and a lack of electricity disrupted the cooling system

Fukushima

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Definition: the combination of light nuclei to make heavier nuclei

nuclear fusion

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Hydrogen bombs use nuclear ____.

fusion

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Definition: cannot be broken down into anything else

elementary particles

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Definition: have the same mass, but opposite charges of protons and electrons

antiparticles

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Definition: antiparticle to electrons

positrons

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Definition: antiparticle to protons

antiprotons

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Definition: the meeting and destruction into pure energy of a particle with its antiparticle

annihilation

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Positrons are ____.

positive

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Antiprotons are ____.

negative

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Definition: the production of a particle and an antiparticle from a gamma ray

pair production

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Fundamental Interactions

strong interaction, electromagnetic interaction, weak interaction, gravitational interaction

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Fundamental Interactions: strongest

strong interaction

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Fundamental Interactions: weakest

gravitational interaction

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Fundamental Interactions: attraction of protons and neutrons in the nucleus

strong interaction

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Fundamental Interactions: measured as binding energy

strong interaction

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Fundamental Interactions: act over short ranges

strong interactions

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Fundamental Interactions: makes fusion difficult

strong interactions

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Fundamental Interactions: all electrical magnetic forces

electromagnetic interaction

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Fundamental Interactions: acts between charged particles

electromagnetic interaction

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Fundamental Interactions: unlimited in range

electromagnetic interaction

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Fundamental Interactions: can function from smallest atoms to largest planets

electromagnetic interaction

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Fundamental Interactions: affects all particles

weak interaction

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Fundamental Interactions: causes beta decay

weak interaction

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Fundamental Interactions: splitting of a nucleus into a proton and an electron

weak interaction

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Fundamental Interactions: short-ranged interaction

weak interaction

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Fundamental Interactions: the attraction of masses

gravitational interaction

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Fundamental Interactions: weakest interaction

gravitational interaction

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