Physical Science: Ch. 8

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Model: atoms are electrons floating in a uniform sea of positive charges

1 / 99

Tags and Description

100 Terms

1

Model: atoms are electrons floating in a uniform sea of positive charges

Thompson's Model

New cards
2

Model: atoms are mostly empty space

Rutherford's Model

New cards
3

Model: "Plum Pudding"

Thompson's Model

New cards
4

Model: positively charged a-particles

Rutherford's Model

New cards
5

Definition: groups of similar atoms

elements

New cards
6

Definition: number of protons in an atom

atomic number

New cards
7

Periodic Table: found at the top of the element

atomic number

New cards
8

Z

atomic number

New cards
9

Definition: gives the atom its identity as an element

atomic number

New cards
10

A

mass number

New cards
11

Periodic Table: found at the bottom of the element

mass number

New cards
12

Definition: total number of nucleons in an atom

mass number

New cards
13

Definition: weighted average of the nucleons

mass number

New cards
14

Definition: protons and neutrons combined

nucleons

New cards
15

Definition: atoms of the same element with different masses

isotope

New cards
16

Definition: members of an element with different numbers of neutrons

isotope

New cards
17

Definition: a nucleus with a specific composition

nuclide

New cards
18

Definition: chemical symbol of element

x

New cards
19

Definition: the ability of an atom to give off penetrating radiation

radioactivity

New cards
20

Definition: unstable nuclei turning into stable nuclei as they emit radiation

radioactive decay

New cards
21

Definition: nuclear radiation

radioactive decay

New cards
22

Unstable Elements

83+

New cards
23

Stable Elements

1-82

New cards
24

Radiation: positive charges that are deflected weakly by a magnetic field

alpha particles

New cards
25

Radiation: negative charges that are deflected strongly by a magnetic field

beta particles

New cards
26

Radiation: made of TWO protons and TWO neutrons

alpha particles

New cards
27

Radiation: made of SINGLE electrons

beta particles

New cards
28

Radiation: reduces atomic number by TWO, atomic mass is reduced by FOUR

alpha particles

New cards
29

Radiation: atomic number increases by ONE

beta particles

New cards
30

Radiation: heavier nuclei

alpha decay

New cards
31

Radiation: lighter nuclei

beta decay

New cards
32

Radiation: right side of the periodic table

alpha decay

New cards
33

Radiation: splits into ONE electron and ONE proton

beta decay

New cards
34

Radiation: occurs on the LEFT side of the periodic table

beta decay

New cards
35

Radiation: cannot penetrate skin

alpha

New cards
36

Radiation: can penetrate skin and superficial organs

beta

New cards
37

Radiation: can penetrate anything

gamma

New cards
38

Definition: radiation not affected by magnetic field

gamma

New cards
39

Types of Radiation

alpha, beta, gamma

New cards
40

Radiation: pure energy

gamma

New cards
41

Radiation: rest energy

gamma

New cards
42

Radiation: no mass and no charge

gamma

New cards
43

Definition: time needed for half of an initial amount of the nuclide to decay

half-life

New cards
44

Definition: units of radiation

sieverts

New cards
45

A person experiences about ____ every year.

3 mSv

New cards
46

Sv: Dental xray

0.005 mSv

New cards
47

Sv: Chest xray

0.1 mSv

New cards
48

Sv: CT scan

2-10 mSv

New cards
49

A dose over ____ Sv is usually lethal.

4

New cards
50

Definition: unit for measuring mass

atomic mass unit (amu)

New cards
51

mass of a hydrogen atom with no neutrons

1.66 x10-27 kg

New cards
52

Definition: unit for measuring energy

megaelectronvolts (MeV)

New cards
53

Definition: used to measure radiation at the atomic level

megaelectronvolts

New cards
54

Definition: amount of energy given to a million electrons by 1 V

megaelectronvolt

New cards
55

megaelectronvolt

1.60 x 10-13 J

New cards
56

As subatomic particles bind, they lose mass as ____.

energy

New cards
57

Definition: the energy equivalent of the missing mass of a nucleus

binding energy

New cards
58

____ holds the nucleus together.

binding energy

New cards
59

If you have more energy lost, there will be ___ combined mass.

less

New cards
60

More energy lost and less combined mass = ____ stable

more

New cards
61

Less energy lost and more combined mass = ____ stable

less

New cards
62

What is the most stable element?

iron

New cards
63

How many nucleons are in iron?

56

New cards
64

Definition: a heavy nucleus splits to form smaller nuclei that has more binding energy

nuclear fission

New cards
65

Definition: lighter nuclei join to form a heavier nucleus that has more binding energy emitting radiation

nuclear fusion

New cards
66

Definition: splitting of a nucleus

nucleur fission

New cards
67

Definition: combining two nuclei and producing smoe energy

nucleur fusion

New cards
68

Definition: nuclei that instantly divide if given a neutron

fissionable nuclei

New cards
69

Nuclear fission releases ___ radiation.

gamma

New cards
70

Nuclear fission produces ____.

heat

New cards
71

Reactor Accidents: failed cooling system caused a burst of radioactively contaminated steam and coolant to be released

Three Mile Island

New cards
72

Reactor Accidents: a test led to a steam explosion contaminated with over 400 tons of radioactive material

Chernobyl

New cards
73

Reactor Accidents: reactor damaged by tsunami waters and a lack of electricity disrupted the cooling system

Fukushima

New cards
74

Definition: the combination of light nuclei to make heavier nuclei

nuclear fusion

New cards
75

Hydrogen bombs use nuclear ____.

fusion

New cards
76

Definition: cannot be broken down into anything else

elementary particles

New cards
77

Definition: have the same mass, but opposite charges of protons and electrons

antiparticles

New cards
78

Definition: antiparticle to electrons

positrons

New cards
79

Definition: antiparticle to protons

antiprotons

New cards
80

Definition: the meeting and destruction into pure energy of a particle with its antiparticle

annihilation

New cards
81

Positrons are ____.

positive

New cards
82

Antiprotons are ____.

negative

New cards
83

Definition: the production of a particle and an antiparticle from a gamma ray

pair production

New cards
84

Fundamental Interactions

strong interaction, electromagnetic interaction, weak interaction, gravitational interaction

New cards
85

Fundamental Interactions: strongest

strong interaction

New cards
86

Fundamental Interactions: weakest

gravitational interaction

New cards
87

Fundamental Interactions: attraction of protons and neutrons in the nucleus

strong interaction

New cards
88

Fundamental Interactions: measured as binding energy

strong interaction

New cards
89

Fundamental Interactions: act over short ranges

strong interactions

New cards
90

Fundamental Interactions: makes fusion difficult

strong interactions

New cards
91

Fundamental Interactions: all electrical magnetic forces

electromagnetic interaction

New cards
92

Fundamental Interactions: acts between charged particles

electromagnetic interaction

New cards
93

Fundamental Interactions: unlimited in range

electromagnetic interaction

New cards
94

Fundamental Interactions: can function from smallest atoms to largest planets

electromagnetic interaction

New cards
95

Fundamental Interactions: affects all particles

weak interaction

New cards
96

Fundamental Interactions: causes beta decay

weak interaction

New cards
97

Fundamental Interactions: splitting of a nucleus into a proton and an electron

weak interaction

New cards
98

Fundamental Interactions: short-ranged interaction

weak interaction

New cards
99

Fundamental Interactions: the attraction of masses

gravitational interaction

New cards
100

Fundamental Interactions: weakest interaction

gravitational interaction

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 96 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 43979 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(380)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard65 terms
studied byStudied by 92 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard60 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard165 terms
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard44 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard48 terms
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard447 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard249 terms
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)