a

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

crime

1 / 359

Tags and Description

360 Terms

1

crime

a socially constructed concept defining certain behaviours as requiring formal control and social intervention

latin: accusation

defined socially, culturally, and/or legally as wrong or anti-social

normative concept

Canada: federal legislation and codified in the criminal code

New cards
2

Misdemeanor

less serious OFFENCES (public drunkness)

New cards
3

Felony

a serious CRIME (such as murder or arson)

New cards
4

Offence

specific infraction of the law

New cards
5

indictable offence

a serious offence such as assault, theft over $5,000, robbery (with or without a firearm), or murder

New cards
6

summary offence

a less serious offence such as theft under $5,000, impersonating a police officer, or taking a motor vehicle without consent

New cards
7

conventional crimes

illegal activity committed by individuals or small groups, involving some degree of direct or indirect contact (e.g., robbery, motor vehicle theft, and break and enter)

New cards
8

non-conventional crime

crime (e.g., organized crime, political crime, environmental crime, cybercrime) usually defined as illegal activity by international law, but due to its unconventional nature, and because such crime cannot be readily explained by customary references to the personality of the offender, it may be more difficult for the criminal justice system to pursue

New cards
9

deviance

behaviour that violates a social or moral norm but is not necessarily prohibited by law (e.g., butting in line at a supermarket or certain sexual practices)

New cards
10

decriminalization

the reduction or removal of criminal penalties attached to an act without legalizing it

New cards
11

relative

when applied to crime, the idea that what is defined as crime can vary with time and location

New cards
12

evolutive

when applied to crime, the idea that what comprises crime can change, taking different forms and meaning over time

New cards
13

Hagan's Pyramid

How definitions change over time and forces behind such changes

New cards
14

social diversions

minor forms of deviance such as unconventional dress or use of offensive language

New cards
15

social deviations

consists of behaviours considered disreputable in certain social settings and thus regulated: for example, swearing at a police officer or in court

New cards
16

conflict crimes

activities that are not universally considered crimes, although they are legally defined as such (e.g., procuring the services of a sex worker)

New cards
17

consensus crimes

activities generally considered very harmful

New cards
18

therefore, there is strong support for sanctioning and controlling them

New cards
19

criminology

an interdisciplinary science that studies criminal behaviour, crime causation, crime prevention, and the punishment and rehabilitation of offenders

New cards
20

criminologist

a behavioural scientist who specializes in the identification, classification, and description of criminal behaviour

New cards
21

interdisciplinary approach

in criminology, the integration of knowledge from a variety of disciplines to formulate explanations or theories of criminal behaviour

New cards
22

Sir Leon Radzinowicz

early advocate of an interdisciplinary approach to the study of criminology

New cards
23

Paul Topinard and Raffaele Garofalo

1879, used term criminology to refer to the study of punishment and treatment of criminals

New cards
24

Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham

18th century

founders of classical school

argued for penal reform on humanitarian and philosophical principles.

New cards
25

Maurice Parmelee

published the first criminology textbook.

New cards
26

Etiology

The study of the origins or causes of a phenomenon.

New cards
27

penology

the study of how crime is punished

New cards
28

Cesare Lombroso

father of criminology

identified criminal typologies as "the born criminal," "criminals by passion," "criminaloids," and others

New cards
29

crime rate

the number of criminal offences in a category, recorded in a fixed ratio, such as per 100,000 people

New cards
30

Rene Descartes

laid the foundation for rationalism

New cards
31

rationalism

the principle that some kinds of knowledge are innate, and others can be acquired through reasoning, independent of experience

New cards
32

John Locke and David Hume

We learn by association

empiricism

New cards
33

empiricism

the principle that knowledge is acquired only through experience

New cards
34

Immanuel Kant

we have no knowledge of reality, rather our mind forms appearances of reality

New cards
35

paradigm shift

a fundamental change in the prevailing model or theoretical orientation

Thomas Kuhn

New cards
36

Factors that shape public perceptions of crime

personal knowledge, mass media, official state knowledge, theoretical knowledge

New cards
37

net-widening

the process by which the state expands its control over behaviour through changes to sentencing laws and administrative policies

Brian MacLean

New cards
38

vicarious reinforcement

learning through observing someone else being reinforced for that behaviour

New cards
39

moral panic

widespread exaggerated public concern over issues associated with morality (e.g., prostitution, pornography)

New cards
40

conflict theory

a theoretical perspective that views crime as a natural product of a society that promotes competition and, hence, social and economic disparity

New cards
41

left-realism

a theoretical perspective that aims to better understand the implication of crime control policies rather than the causes of crime

Jock Young

New cards
42

juristat

a regular publication of the canadian centre for justice statistics, considered the most authoritative source of criminal justice statistics in canda

New cards
43

reliability

the likelihood that an observed relationship between two or more variables can or will be observed in a consistent manner

New cards
44

validity

the likelihood that the relationships observed and measured are real

New cards
45

sampling

the process of selecting a group of research subjects who are representative of the entire population under investigation

New cards
46

random error

and error in data collection that occurs because of an intervening variable that could not have been forseen

New cards
47

systematic error

an error in data collection that the researcher has been able to anticipate and account for

New cards
48

crime funnel

a metaphor referring to the decreasing number of crimes processed at successive levels of the justice system, from law enforcement, through the courts, to corrections

New cards
49

descriptive

statistics gathered by official sources are primarily (descriptive or explanatory)

New cards
50

net widening

process in which new sentencing options increase instead of reduce control over offenders' lives

New cards
51

operationalization

defining criminological concepts or phenomena in such a way that they can be observed and measured scientifically

New cards
52

crime data

the information collected to measure the frequency and severity of criminal events

New cards
53

5 Key Purposes of Crime Data

description, explanation, evaluation, risk assessment, prediction

New cards
54

Kim Rossmo

developed a computer-mapping technique known as geographic profiling, which is used to predict where various categories of offenders live or work, based on crime-site information

focuses on spatial behaviour (where)

New cards
55

false positive

an incorrect test result, showing the presence of a condition that does not exist

John Monahan

New cards
56

dark figure of crime

crime that goes undetected, unreported, or unrecorded, and is not included in official sources

New cards
57

uniform crime reporting (UCR)

a system providing a continuous historical record of crime and traffic statistics reported by every police agency in Canada since 1962

New cards
58

canadian centre for justice statistics (CCJS)

the agency responsible for collecting and compiling crime data on a wide range of criminological and criminal justice topics. opened in 1981

New cards
59

3 Categories of Police Crime Statistics

summary offences, indictable offences, and hybrid offences

New cards
60

summary offence

carry a maximum penalty of six months in jail and/or a fine not exceeding $5,000 (unless a different penalty is specified).

New cards
61

indictable offence

carry a maximum penalty of life imprisonment and no maximum fine

New cards
62

Hybrid offence

consist of crimes such as impaired driving and theft under $5,000, which the Crown may choose to prosecute as either summary or indictable.

New cards
63

correctional statistics

data on people being held in federal and provincial corrections facilities, including age, sex, offence and prior convictions

New cards
64

factors affecting crime data

media coverage, the dark figure of crime, changes in recording procedures

New cards
65

Ezzat Fattah

noted the dark figure of crime

New cards
66

4 changes in recording procedures

changes in the number of police enforcers, police/court administrators, legal definition of crime, population base, and public reporting patterns (CUVS & GSS)

New cards
67

Crime Rate Formula

(number of reported crimes / total population) x 100

New cards
68

canadian urban victimization survey (CUVS)

the first major attempt to survey canadians who had been victims of crime, conducted in the 1980s

New cards
69

general social suvery (GSS)

a statics canada survey used to regularly gather data on social trends and to provide information on specific policy issues of current or emerging interest (e.g., social support, health and well-being, victimization)

New cards
70

victimization survey

a data collection technique used to gather unofficial information from victims of crime on incidents that have usually occured within a predefined period of time

New cards
71

sources of unofficial crime data

victimization data (from recipient of offence), self reported data (from the offender), and observational methods

New cards
72

unofficial crime data

crime data. not collected by official criminal justice agencies, including self-report studies, victimization surveys, and field observation data, usually used to elucidate existing official data and verify the validity of official sources

New cards
73

3 Stages to Describing a Criminal Event

precursors, transactions, and aftermath

New cards
74

self-report studies

survey in which individuals are asked to voluntarily disclose whether they have ever committed an offence. such unofficial crime data can shed light on undetected and under-reported types of crime (e.g., youth crime, fentanyl use, sexual assault, and robbery)

New cards
75

test-retest reliability

a method for determining the reliability of a test by comparing a test taker's scores on the same test taken on separate occasions

New cards
76

field research

research done in natural, real-life settings outside the laboratory

New cards
77

qualitative research

research designed to study characteristics that cannot be measured or counted

New cards
78

Max Weber

german sociologist who said that individuals interpret their own actions and the actions and reactions of others

New cards
79

verstehen

sociologist max weber's term for the effort to understand an event by placing oneself in the participant's situation and trying to see it through his or her eyes

german for understanding

New cards
80

3 Levels where observation enables data collection

activity, dynamics of participants and their interrelationships, and setting

New cards
81

Tearoom Trade

Study by sociologist Laud Humphreys of men who engage in homosexual behavior in public facilities, including subsequent later interviews in their homes after recording their license plate numbers

New cards
82

widely cited in discussions of the need for informed consent to research.

New cards
83

Basic Guidelines to Minimize Potential Negative Impacts on Subjects

never harm participants, ensure that participation is voluntary, maintain anonymity and confidentiality, be honest

New cards
84

triangulation

the use of multiple data sources or research methods to investigate a topic, with the goal of producing more reliable findings. it enables criminologists to illuminate the dark figure of crime

New cards
85

correlation (direct correlation)

a statistical relationship between two or more variables

New cards
86

positive correlation

a direct correlation in which an increase in one variable is associated with an increase in the other variable

New cards
87

negative correlation

a direct correlation in which an increase in one variable is associated with a decrease in the other variable

New cards
88

causal

the existence of a direct correlation does not imply a _____________ relationship

New cards
89

causality

the idea that one event is the result of one or more other events

New cards
90

hypothesis

an idea or assertion about a phenomenon, a situation, or a relationship between variables that a researcher sets out to prove or disprove

New cards
91

four basic aims of researchers

discovery, demonstration, refutation, and replication

New cards
92

restorative justice

a sentencing model that emphasizes restitution and community participation, aimed at reintegrating offenders back into their communities

New cards
93

utilitarianism

the concept that any law should be of the greatest benefit to the greatest number of people

New cards
94

deterrence theory

the belief that the treat of punishment can prevent people from committing a crime

New cards
95

positivist school of criminology

a school of criminological thought whose adherents use the scientific method to measure behaviour, and advocate rehabilitation over punishment

New cards
96

determinism

a doctrine that denies free will while maintaining that our decisions are decided by predictable and/or inherited causes that act on our character

New cards
97

atavism

a biological condition supposedly rendering an individual incapable of living within the norms of a society

New cards
98

deterministic

based on or involving the belief that events and behaviour are caused by prior events and conditions existing outside the realm of free will

New cards
99

neoclassical school of criminology

a school of criminology thought positing that some accused offenders should be exonerated or treated leniently in light of circumstances that make it impossible to exercise free will. pioneered by luigi rossi, rene garraud, and henri joly in france. they rejected the rigidity of classical system of punishment and called for a degree of subjectivity when assessing criminal responsibility

New cards
100

discretion

the power of an authority to exercise his or her judgement in a particular case instead of having to follow specific rules

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 61 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard66 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard129 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard36 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard67 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard99 terms
studied byStudied by 40 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard97 terms
studied byStudied by 29 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard88 terms
studied byStudied by 426 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)