DCUSH Midterm Vocabulary

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Mound Builders

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222 Terms

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Mound Builders

Around 3500 years ago, the mound builders settled in the Mississippi river valley around a set of semicircular mounds. They had extensive trade throughout the entire continent.

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2

Tenochtitlan

It was the capital city of the Aztec empire and it was built on marshy lands on the western side of lake Tetzcoco, which is now the site of present day mexico.

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3

Aztecs

Mesoamerican people who were conquered by the Spanish under the conquistador Hernan Cortes. This occurred during the years 1519-1528.

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4

Great League of Peace

It consisted of alliances in the iroquois tribes , who lived by hunting/fishing or agriculture/gathering, and engaged in trade and diplomacy with one another. They decided amongst themselves how to pressure Europeans to deal with them in the fur trade, and to how to wage war across north east america.

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5

Coverture

A legal doctrine meaning when a woman became married she surrendered her legal identity, which became "covered" by that of her husband.

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6

Caravel

A fifteenth-century European ship capable of long-distance travel.

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7

Creoles

Persons born in the New World of European ancestry.

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8

Hacienda

Large-scale farm in the Spanish New World empire worked by Indian laborers

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9

Mestizo

Spanish word for persons of mixed Native American and European ancestry.

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10

Ninety-Five Theses

The list of moral grievances against the Catholic Church by Martin Luther, a German priest, in 1517

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11

Batoleme de Las Casas

A Catholic missionary who renounced the Spanish practice of coercively converting Indians and advocated their better treatment. In 1552, he wrote A Brief Relation of the Destruction of the Indies, which described the Spanish Empire's cruel treatment of the Indians

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12

repartiemiento system

Spanish labor system under which Indians were legally free and able to earn wages but were also required to perform a fixed amount of labor yearly. Replaced the encomienda system.

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13

Black Legend

Idea that the Spanish New World empire was more oppressive toward the Indians than other European empires; was used as a justification for English imperial expansion.

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14

Pueblo Revolt

Uprising in 1680 in which Pueblo Indians temporarily drove Spanish colonists out of modern-day New Mexico.

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15

Patroon

a landholder with manorial rights to large tracts of land in the 17th century Dutch colony of New Netherland on the east coast of North America.

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16

Métis

Children of marriages between Indian women and French traders and officials

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17

Virginia Company

A joint-stock enterprise that King James I chartered in 1606. The company was to spread Christianity in the New World as well as find ways to make a profit in it.

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18

Anglican Church

The established state church of England, formed by Henry VIII after the pope refused to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon

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19

Roanoke Colony

English expedition of 117 settlers, including Virginia Dare, the first English child born in the New World. The colony disappeared from Roanoke Island in the Outer Banks sometime between 1587 and 1590.

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20

Enclosure Movement

A legal process that divided large farm fields in England that were previously collectively owned by groups of peasants into smaller, individually owned plots. The enclosure movement took place over several centuries, and resulted in eviction for many peasants

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21

John Smith

A swashbuckling soldier of fortune with rare powers of leadership and self-promotion who was appointed to the resident council to manage Jamestown.

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22

Powhatan

chief of Algonquian people, a tribe near Jamestown. Tried to make allies with ceremonies, peace charters, corn, trade, etc

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23

Pochahontas

A native Indian of America, daughter of Chief Powahatan, who helped the struggling English settlers in Virginia survive in the early 1600s.

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24

Head right System

A land-grant policy that promised fifty acres to any colonist who could afford passage to Virginia, as well as fifty more for any accompanying servants. The headright policy was eventually expanded to include any colonists—and was also adopted in other colonies.

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House of Burgesses

The first elected assembly in colonial America, established in 1619 in Virginia. Only wealthy landowners could vote in its elections

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Uprising of 1622

Unsuccessful uprising of Virginia Native Americans that wiped out one-quarter of the settler population, but ultimately led to the settlers' gaining supremacy

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Cecelia Calvert

Cecilius, the lord of Baltimore, was granted Maryland as a proprietorship and he declared Maryland as a haen of religious tolerance.

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28

Dower Rights

In colonial America, the right of a widowed woman to inherit one-third of her deceased husband's property

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29

Puritans

English religious group that sought to purify the Church of England; founded the Massachusetts Bay Colony under John Winthrop in 1630.

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John Winthrop

Puritan leader and governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony who resolved to use the colony as a refuge for persecuted Puritans and as an instrument of building a "wilderness Zion" in America

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31

John Calvin

He believed in predestination and that all people were decided by God whether they would enter heaven or hell at conception. He also created the religion Calvinism.

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32

Pilgrims

Puritan separatists who broke completely with the Church of England and sailed to the New World aboard the Mayflower, founding Plymouth Colony on Cape Cod in 1620

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33

Mayflower Compact

Document signed in 1620 aboard the Mayflower before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth; the document committed the group to majority-rule government

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34

Great Migration

Large-scale migration of southern blacks during and after World War I to the North, where jobs had become available during the labor shortage of the war years.

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35

Dissenters

Protestants who belonged to denominations outside of the established Anglican Church.

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36

Captivity Narratives

Accounts written by colonists after their time in Indian captivity, often stressing the captive's religious convictions

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37

Pequot War

An armed conflict in 1637 that led to the destruction of one of New England's most powerful Indian groups

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38

Half-Way Covenant

A 1662 religious compromise that allowed baptism and partial church membership to colonial New Englanders whose parents were not among the Puritan elect

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39

Levelers

A political movement during the English civil war committed to popular sovereignty, extending voting rights, and religious tolerance.

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40

Diggers

Believed in common ownership of land.

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41

Quakers

Quakers found religious refuge in the colonies from the authoritarian rule of the Anglican Church; but the rise in Quakerism's popularity in New England was not met kindly by Puritans.

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Act Concerning Religion

1649 law that granted free exercise of religion to all Christian denominations in colonial Maryland

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43

Republic

Representative political system in which citizens govern themselves by electing representatives, or legislators, to make key decisions on the citizens' behalf.

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44

wall of separation

It protected politics from religious control, and it protected religion from corrupt governments.

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45

Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom

A Virginia law, drafted by Thomas Jefferson in 1777 and enacted in 1786, that guarantees freedom of, and from, religion.

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46

Christian Republicanism

secular and religious language combined during the fight for independence.

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47

Free Labor

When people voluntarily worked for their wages as opposed to slave labor

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48

Inflation

An economic condition in which prices rise continuously.

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49

Free Trade

The belief that economic development arises from the exchange of goods between different countries without governmental interference.

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50

The Wealth of Nations

The 1776 work by economist Adam Smith that argued that the "invisible hand" of the free market directed economic life more effectively and fairly than governmental intervention.

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51

Loyalists

Colonists who remained loyal to Great Britain during the War of Independence.

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52

New Brunswick

A new province in Canada that emerged as the result of the borderland's conflicts, and the fact that people were moving there in large quantities.

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53

Joseph Brant

The Mohawk leader who led the Iroquois against the Americans in the Revolutionary War.

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54

Lemuel Haynes

A black member of the Massachusetts militia and celebrated minister who urged that Americans extend their conception of freedom to enslaved Africans during the Revolutionary era.

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55

Ladies' Associations

Raised fund to support the continental army and also sewed and hand made clothes.

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56

Metacom

The chief of the Wampanoags, whom the colonists called King Philip. He resented English efforts to convert Indians to Christianity and waged a war against the English colonists, and was consequently killed

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57

King Philip's War

A multiyear conflict that began in 1675 with an Indian uprising against white colonists. Its end result was broadened freedoms for white New Englanders and the dispossession of the region's Indians.

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58

Mercantilism

Policy of Great Britain and other imperial powers of regulating the economies of colonies to benefit the mother country.

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59

First Navigation Acts

Law passed by the English Parliament to control colonial trade and bolster the mercantile system, 1650-1775; enforcement of the act led to growing resentment by colonists

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60

Royal African Company

A trading company that was funded by the English government in 1672 to conduct its merchants' trade on the Atlantic coast of Africa.

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61

Covenant Chain

Alliance formed in the 1670s between the English and the Iroquois nations.

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62

Charter of Liberties

a charter that dictated the, English, rights of the New York inhabitants and how the political structure was structured: things such as voting was held every three years, only male landowners could vote, etc.

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63

Yamasee Uprising

Revolt of Yamasee and Creek Indians, aggravated by rising debts and slave traders' raids, against Carolina settlers. Resulted in the expulsion of many Indians to Florida

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64

Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina

wanted to establish a society based on feudalism with a hereditary nobility, (with titles such as caciques and landgraves) slaves and serfs.

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65

Society of Friends (Quakers)

Religious group in England and America whose members believed all persons possessed the "inner light" or spirit of God; they were early proponents of abolition of slavery and equal rights for women.

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66

Virginia House Of Burgess 1667 Decree

Even if a slave had converted to christianity, it would not free them from bondage.

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67

Bacon's Rebellion

Unsuccessful 1676 revolt led by planter Nathaniel Bacon against Virginia governor William Berkeley's administration because of governmental corruption and because Berkeley had failed to protect settlers from Indian raids and did not allow them to occupy Indian lands.

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68

Virginia House of Burgess 1705 Slave Code

Codified slave status and declared that all non-Christian servants who entered the colony would be slaves.

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69

Lords if Trade

An English regulatory board established to oversee colonial affairs in 1675.

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70

English Toleration Act

A 1690 act of Parliament that allowed all English Protestants to worship freely.

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71

Redemptioners

Indentured families or persons who received passage to the New World in exchange for a promise to work off their debt in America.

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72

Walking Purchase

An infamous 1737 purchase of Indian land in which Pennsylvanian colonists tricked the Lenni Lanape Indians. The Lanape agreed to cede land equivalent to the distance a man could walk in thirty-six hours, but the colonists marked out an area using a team of runners.

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73

Backcountry

In colonial America, the area stretching from central Pennsylvania southward through the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia and into upland North and South Carolina

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74

Anglicization

Making people more english-like in character or culture.

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75

Middle Passage

The hellish and often deadly middle leg of the transatlantic "Triangular Trade" in which European ships carried manufactured goods to Africa, then transported enslaved Africans to the Americas and the Caribbean, and finally conveyed American agricultural products back to Europe; from the late sixteenth to the early nineteenth century, some 12 million Africans were transported via the Middle Passage, unknown millions more dying en route.

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76

Yeoman Farmers

Small landowners (the majority of white families in the Old South) who farmed their own land and usually did not own slaves.

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77

Task System

A system for slave labor where slaves had to complete an assignment each day.

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78

Stono Rebellion

A slave uprising in 1739 in South Carolina that led to a severe tightening of the slave code and the temporary imposition of a prohibitive tax on imported slaves.

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79

Republicanism

Political theory in eighteenth-century England and America that celebrated active participation in public life by economically independent citizens as central to freedom.

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80

Liberalism

Originally, political philosophy that emphasized the protection of liberty by limiting the power of government to interfere with the natural rights of citizens; in the twentieth century, belief in an activist government promoting greater social and economic equality.

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.

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82

Country Party

The country party wanted to distance themselves from political leaders who followed the politicl ideals of the british

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Deference

To common citizens, it was the idea that wealth and education gained you political power..

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84

Salutary Negelct

Informal British policy during the first half of the eighteenth century that allowed the American colonies considerable freedom to pursue their economic and political interests in exchange for colonial obedience

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85

Public Sphere

Where politics were discussed independently from the government by ordinary citizens, not public officials.

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86

Trial of Zenger

A libel case against John Zenger that shaped thinking towards free speech because it established that truthful statements towards public officials couldn't be libelous.

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87

Arminianism

All humans could reach salvation and had the free will to make the decisions to lead them to salvation. (opposite of Calvinism)

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88

Deism

Enlightenment thought applied to religion; emphasized reason, morality, and natural law.

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89

Old Light

Orthodox clergy members who thought that the new ways of emotional preaching were wrong and unnecessary.

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New light

Modern thinking clergy members who believed in the Great Awakening.

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91

Father Junipero Serra

Missionary who began and directed the California mission system in the 1770s and 1780s. Serra presided over the conversion of many Indians to Christianity, but also engaged them in forced labor

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Middle ground

A borderland between European empires and Indian sovereignty where various native peoples and Europeans lived side by side in relative harmony

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93

Ohio Company

Founded by many rich Virginians, they established many trading posts and outposts to control the Ohio region.

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94

Seven Years' War

Also known as the French and Indian War, the last—and most important—of four colonial wars fought between England and France for control of North America east of the Mississippi River.

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95

,

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96

William Pit

the "organizer of victory", was a british leader who brought in the second wave of the french and indian war, winning a war against Quebec.

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97

Peace of Paris

It marked the end of the war when it was signed in 1763. The French gave up much of their land (Canada, India) and gave Louisiana to spain. Spain gave Florida to Britain.

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98

Pontiac Rebellion

An Indian attack on British forts and settlements after France ceded to the British its territory east of the Mississippi River, as part of the Treaty of Paris in 1763, without consulting France's Indian allies.

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99

Neolin

A Native American religious prophet who, by preaching pan-Indian unity and rejection of European technology and commerce, helped inspire Pontiac's Rebellion.

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100

Proclamation of 1763

Royal directive issued after the French and Indian War prohibiting settlement, surveys, and land grants west of the Appalachian Mountains; caused considerable resentment among colonists hoping to move west.

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